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InnteJ by Nichols, Son, and Bentuey, 
lied Ldon Passagi*, Fleet Street, Loiuloii. 


















,.'./< ■ 


XjANGUET (Hubert), a native of France, and minister 
of state to Augustas elector of Saxony, was born at Vi- 
teaux io 1518 ; and, having passed through his studies at 
home, went to Italy in 1347, to complete his knowledge 
in the civil law, of which he commenced doctor at Padua. 
Thence going to Bologna, he met with one of Mekncthon's 
works, which raised in hi [uainted with 

that eminent reformer; B' : a tour into 

Germany, on purpose to vi 'g in Saxony, 

where he arrived in 1 54^, tmbraced the 

protestant religion. Fron: ommenced a 

strict friendabip between tion, so that 

they became inseparable , Melancthon> 

finding Languet well acquainted with the political interest 
of princes, and with the history of illustrious men, was 
wonderfully delighted with his conversation, and his ex- 
tensive fund of information, in all which he Was not only 
minutely correct as to facts, but intelligent and judicious 
in his remarks and conjectures. 

This connexion with Melanctbon did not, however, ex- 
tinguish the incliuation which Languet bad to travel. la 
1551, betook up a resolution to visit some part of Europe 
every year, for which he set apart the autumn season, re- 
turning to pass the winter at Wittenberg. In the course 
of these travels, he. made the tour of Rome in 1555, and 
thatpf Livonia and Laponia in 1558. During this last tour, 
he became known to Gustavus king of .Sweden, who con- 
ceived a great affection for him, and engaged him to go 
into France, in order to bring him thence some of the best 
scholars and artists: for which purpose his oaajeaty gava:^ 

Vol. XX. B 

2 L A N G U E T. 

him a letter of credit, dated Sept 1, 1557. Two years 
after, Languet attended Adolphus count of Nassau and 
prince of Orange, into Italy; and at his return passed 
through Paris, to visit the celebrated Turnebus ; but it was 
a great deductt()n from the pheasnre of this interview, thi^t 
he heard at this time of the death of his friend Melancthon. 

In 1565, Augustus elector of Saxony invited him to his^ 
cou¥\ ^d apppkited him envdy to that of France the same 
year, after which he sent him as his deputy to the diet of 
the empire, which was called by the emperor Maxiiiiilian 
in 1568, at Augsburg. Thence .the same master dispatched 
him to Heidelberg, to negotiate some business with the 
elector palatine ; and from Heidelberg he went to Cologfne, 
where he acquired the esteem and confidence of Charlotte 
Ae Bourbon, princess of Orange. The elector of Saxony 
feeiit him also to th6 diet of Spires ; and in 1570 to Stetin, 
in quality of plenipotentiary, for mediating a peace be- 
tween the Swedes and the Muscovites, who had chosen 
this elector for their mediator. This prince the same year 
sent Languet a second time into France, to Charles. IX. 
and the queen-mother Catharine of Medicis, in the exe- 
cution of which commission he made a remarkably bold 
speech to the French monarch, in the name of the pro* 
testant princes in Germany. He was at Paris upon the 
memorable bloody feast of St. Bartholomew, in 1572, when 
he saved the life of Andrew Wechelius, the famous printer, 
in whose bouse he lodged ; and he was also very instru^- 
mental in procuring the escape of Philip de Momay count 
de Plessis ; but, trusting too much to the respect due to 
his character of envoy, was obliged for his own safety to 
the gopd offices of John de Morvillier, who had been 
keeper of the seals. Upon his recal from Paris, he re- 
ceived orders to go to Vienna, where he was in 1574 ; and 
ia 15^75 he was appointed one the principal arbitrators 
for determinipg of the disputes, which had lasted for tiiirty 
years, betiveen the houses of Longueville and Badenj^ con«> 
cpning the succession of Rt)thelin* 

At length, in the controversy which arose in Saxony 
between the Lutherans and Zuinglians, respecting the 
tacharist, Languet was suspected to favour the latter^^ and 
in consequence wai$ obliged to beg leave of the elector, 
being then one of his chief ministers, to retire ; which was 
granted, with a liberty to go where be pleased. He chose 
Prague for 4he place „ of hia residence, where he wa» in 

L A N G U E T. t 

1577 ; and in this situaftion applied himself to John Ca»i«' 

mir, cpant Paiatkie, and attended hinfr to- Ghent, in* Flan« 

ders) the inhabitants of i^hich city had chosen the count' 

jbr their govei^ior. On his quitting' the gorernmenty Lafn« 

guet accepted an invitation from WiHtaaa' prince of Omnge» 

sad reosained with him until the bad state of hi9 heakh^ 

obliged him to go in 1 579 to the wells of Baden ; and theirtf 

he became acquainted with Thuamas, who was niuth strnek^ 

with his con«reiMtion) probity, and judginent, net only iii' 

the sciences, but in public aliairB. Tbuantts i^ls uir thcrti 

Languet was so well acquainted with the afiairs of Oer* 

Btany, that he could' instruct the' Germans themselves im 

the affairs of their own country. After Thuanus had left 

■ that place, they appear to haire corresponded, andTh^anui 

sjpeaks of sdme meuibin( then in his possession, which Lau- 

.guetgent tb him, coiitaining an account of the presenll 

state of GernAany, of the right of the diets> of the niimbe^ 

of the eircles, i^ud of the order or rtmk of the difielrent 

councils of that country. 

Languet returned' to Antwerp in 1580'; and in ISB\ the'' 
prince of Orange sent him to France to negoclate a recon<- 
45ilUtioA between Charlotte of Bourbon, his consort; andt 
htft b«x>tber Louis, duke of Montpensier ; which he ef- 
ibeted. He died at Antwerp^ Sept. 20^ 1561', and waa 
interred with great funeral solemnity, theprin<$e of Orange 
going at the bead of the train. During bii^ illness he wa^ 
fmtwl by madam Dii Piessis, who, though' sick hefself^ 
attended him to his last moment. His dying words weie^ 
that ** the only thing which grieved' him was, that he bad 
not been able to see mens. Du Plessia ag^in before ba^ 
died, to whom he would have lefl: bis veryheatt, bad it 
been in his po^er : that'he badn^ished to live to see the 
worid reformed^ but^ since it'became daily worse, he haedno 
longer any business in it : that the princes of 'these timed were? 
strange men : that virtue had much to suffer^} and little to 
get : that' he pitied mens. Du Piessis very much, to whose 
share 8 great part of the misfbrturies of the time wootd'fid}^ 
and' who would see^ many unhlippy dayd ; but that he must 
take courage^ for God would assist him. For the rest, he 
begged one thing of him in his last farewell, • namely, that 
he would mention something of their friendship in the first 
book heshohld publish.*' This request was performed by 
Du Piessis, soon after, in a short preface to his treatise 
*' Of the Truth of the Christian religion j*' where he nsakea 



the following eloge of this friend in a few eomprehen^ve 
words : ^^ Is fuit qualis muUi videri.vQlunt: is vixit qual|ter 
optioii mori cupiunt.** * 

Of this eminent statesman we have some works not 
wholly unknown in this country. The first mentioned is a 
history in Latin of the siege of Gotha, which Schardius 
has inserted in his History of Germany during the reign of 
Ferdinand L but without mentioiung Languet^s name. 2. 
<' Epistolfls ad principem suum Augustum Saxoni^ duceit),^* 
Halle, 1699, 4t6. 3. ^* £pistolae Politicae et hIstoricsB ad Phi- 
lippum Sydnaeum/' 12mo. Of this collection of letters to 
Qur sir Philip Sydney, the late lord Hailes published a correct 
edition in 1775, 8vo. They are 97 in number, dated from 
1573 to 1580,. and are remarkable for purity of language 
and excellenjL^e of sentiment. 4. '^ Epistolse ad Joachim 
Camerarium, &c.^' and other learned men, 12mo. Carp- 
zovius published a new edition of these at Leipsic, with 
additions. 5. ^' Hist, descriptio susceptss a Caesarea ma- 
jestate executionis Augusto SaxoniaB duce contra S. Ro-. 
mani imperii rebeUes,"v&c. 1563, 4to. 6. ** Vindiciae contra 
TyrannoS) sive de principis in popuium, populique in prin- 
cipem legitima potestate,*' 1579, 12mo. This bears the 
name of Stephanus Junius Brutus, and the place Edin- 
burgh, but the place was Basil, and it never was doubted 
that Languet was the author of this spirited^attack on ty- 
ranny. It was often reprinted and translated into French. 
There are are a few other tracts attributed to Languet, 
but upon more questionable authority.^ 

LANGUET (John Baptist Joseph), great grand ne- 
phew of the preceding, doctor of the Sorbonne, the ce- 
lebrated yicar of St.^ Sulpice, at Paris, and a man of 
extraordinary benevolence, - was born at Dijon, June 6, 
1675. His father was Denis Languet, procurator-general 
of that city. After having made some progress in his 
studies at JQijpn, he continued them at Paris, and resided 
in the seminary of St. Sulpice. He was received in the 
ISofbonne, Dec. 31,, 1698, and^ took his degree with ap- 
plause. He was ordained priest at Vienna, in Dauphiny ; 
aftei" which he returned to Paris, and took the degree of 
doctor Jan. 15, 1703. He attached himself from that 
time to the community of St. Sulpice ; and la Chetardie, 
who was vicar there, chose him for his curate. Langtiet 

1 GeD, Pi<^— NiceroDy vol. f It— Moreri.<*Saxii Onomast. 

L A N G U E T. ^• 

continued in that office neur ten years, and sold bis patri-* 
ikiony to relieve the poor. Daring this period, St. Valier, 
bishop of Quebec, being prisoner in England, requested 
of the king that Languet might be his assistant in North 
America. Languet was about to accept of the place^ 
prompted to it by his ;ceal for the conversion^ of infidels ; 
but his patrons and friends advised him to decline the 
voyage, as hir constitution was by no means strong. He 
succeeded la Chetardie, as vicar of St. Sulpice, in June 

His parish-church being out of repair, and scarce fit to 
hold 1200 or 1500 persons out of a parish which contained 
125,000 inhabitants, he conceived a design to build a 
church iQ some degree proportionable to them ; and un- 
dertook this great work without any greater fund to begin 
with than the sum of one hundred crowns, which had been 
left him for this design by a pious and benevolent lady* 
He laid out this money in stores, which he caused to be 
carried through all the streets, to shew his design to the 
public. He soon obtained considerable donations from all 
parts ; and die duke of Orleans, regent of the kingdom^ 
granted him a lottery. That prince likewise laid the first 
6t6ne of the porch in 1718 ; and Languet spared neither 
labour nor expence during his life, to make the church 
one of the finest in the kingdom, both for architecture and 
ornaments. It was consecrated in 1745, with so much 
splendour, that Frederic XL of Prussia wrote the vicar a 
congratulatory letter, in which he not only praises the 
building, but even the piety of the founder, a quality 
which Frederic knew how to notice when it served to 
point a compliment. 

Another work, which does no less honour to Languet, 

is the house de Venfans J^sus. The nature of this estah* 

lishmenty as originally constituted, will best evince his 

piety and talents. It consisted of two parts ; the first com- 

• posed of tbtrty'i-five poor ladies, descended from families 

illustrious from 1535 to the present time; the second, of 

/ more than four hundred poor women and children of town 

and. country* Those young ladies whose ancestors had 

been in the king's service, were preferred to all others, 

and an education given them suited to the dignity of their 

birth. They were employed, by turns, in inspecting the 

bake-house, the poultry-yard, the dairies, the laundries, 

the^ gardensi the lahojeatoryi the linen- warehottses, the 


spinning-roomSj Itad oduer places bek>nging <to the bouse* 
By these means th^y became good housewives^ und able 
to relieve their poor relations in the country; and it was 
alsp part of the duty to succour by a thousaitid ViUtle kind 
offices^ the poor wocaeu and girls who worked there, and 
tp acquire those habits of condescension aiid bei^voleuee 
which are of gre&t service to society. 

Languet used besides to grant great sums of money to 
9.uch ladies as were examples of oeconomy, virtue^ and 
piety, in those religious houses which he superintendecL 
The poor women and children who formed the second part, 
were provided with food every day, and work u the spin* 
Ifing-wheel. They made a great quantity of linen and 
cotton. Different rooms were assigned to them, and they 
fvere arranged under different classes. In each rOom were 
iwo ladies of the society of St. Thomas, of Vili^e Neqve^ 
pf .which Languet was superior* general. These ladies 
pera placed there to oversee the work, and to give such 
instructions as they thought proper* The women ajnd the 
girls who found employment in this house, had in a former 
period of their . lites been licentious and dissolute, but 
ivere generally reformed by the example of virtue before 
ihieir eyes, and by the salutary advice given to tbem^ and 
had the amount of their work paid them i|i money when 
they left the house. By these means they became indus- 
frious and exemplary, and were restored to the community. 
There were in the house de Venfms Jems, iii 1741, more 
than 1400 women and girls of this sort ; and the vicar of 
St. Sulpice employed all the means in his power to make 
their situation agreeable. Although the land to the house 
measured only 17 arpens (about 100 perches square, each 
^perch 18 feet), it had a large dairy^ which gave milk to 
2000 children belonging to the parish, a meiiagery, poultry 
erf all sorts, a bake-house, spiuning-rooms, a ?ery neat 
axid well cultivated garden, aud a magnificent laboratory, 
where all sorts of medicines were made. The order and 
peconomy observed in this house in the education, instruo* 
tioii, and employment of so many people, were so admi* 
rable, and ^ve so great an idea of the vicar of 8t. Sul- 
pice, that cardinal Fleury proposed to ipake him superin- 
Irendant^generai of all the hospitals iq the kingdom ; but 
Xai^et used to answer him with f smile, ^* i have always 
tud, my lord, that it was the bounty of ycmr highness Idd 
me to the hospital^'' ^he ^i^eoee of tius esldbUahiiieiit 

L A N Q U E T. 1 

%as immease. ' He spent bis revenue on it ; an iDberitance 
which came to him by the death of the baron of Montigni, 
his brother, and the estate of the abb£ de Bamay, granted 
him by the king. 

Languet was not less to be esteemed for bis beneficence 
and his zeal in aiding the poor of every sort Never piaii 
took more pains than he did in procuring donations and 
legacies, which he distributed fvitb admirable prudence 
and discretion. He inquired with care if the legacies whic^ 
were left him were to the disadvantage of the poor relat 
tions of the testator ; if he foand that to be the case, he 
restored to them not only the legacy, but gave them, wheo 
wanting, a large sum of his own. Madame de Camois, as 
illustrious for the benevolence of her disposition as for hef 
rank in life, having left him by her last will a legacy of 
more than 600,000 hvres, he only took 30,000 livre9 for 
the poor, and returned the remaining sum to her relations. 
Jt is said frotn good authority, that he disbursed near a 
million of livres in charities ev^y year. He always chose 
noble families reduced to poverty, before all odiers ; and 
there were ^me families . of distinction in his pari^» to 
each of whom be dialaribuled 30,000 livres pet aanum. 
Alwiiys willing to serve mankuid, Ik^ gave liberally, and 
often before^: any application was made to him. Whea 
there was a general dearth in 1 72S, be sold, in order to 
relieve the poor, his .h^sebald goods^ his pictures, and 
some scarce and curious pieces q[ furniture, which he had 
procured with difficulty. From that time he had taljr 
three pieces of pktie« no tapestiy, and but a mean serge 
bed, which madaaoe de Camois had lent him, having be^ 
fore sold all the presents she had made him at different 
periods. His charity, was 9ot confined to his own paiish. 
At the time that the plague raged at Marseillels, he aenft 
large 8iums into Provenoe to assist tlie distressed. He itif- 
tereited himself with great zeal in the promotion of arts 
,and conimerqe, and in whatever concerned the glory of 
tfa^ natiop, In timesi of public calamity^ lis conflagrations, 
Sec. his prudence, and assiduity have been much admired. 
H^. understood well the diifereat dispositions of men. ' He 
knesir ho^ to employ every one aocording ito his talent or 
{Capacity. In the most intricate and perplexed aflhini he 
decided with a sagacity and judgment that surprieed every 
.one, Languet refused the bishopric of Couserans and 
that of J^xctiers, and several others which were offered 

ii LANG U E T. 


him by Lotils XIV. and Louis XV. under the ministry of 
the dule of Orleans and cardinal Fleury. He resigned his 
vicarage to Mons. TAbb^ du Lau, in 1748, but continued 
to preach every Sunday, according to his custom, in his 
own parish church*; and continued also to support the house 
de Venfans JBsus till his death, which happened Oct. 1 \ , 
1750i in his seventy-fifth year, at the abbey de Bernay,! 
to which place he went to make some charitable establish-^ 
ments. His piety and continued application to work^ of 
beneficence did not hinder hito from being lively and 
chearfui ; i^nd he delighted hi^ friends, by the agreeable 
repartees and sensible remarks he made in conversation J 
' LANGUET (John Joseph), brother of the preceding, 
' a doctor of the Sorbpnne, and bishop of Soisson, to which 
see he was promoted in 1715, and afterwards • archbishop 
of 8ens, was distinguished for his polemical wriftings, and 
published numerous pieces in defence of the bull Unige^ 
nitus, in which he vva^ much assKted by M. Tournely, 
professor at the $>brbonne; and this celebrated doctor 
dying 1729, the appellants then said that Pere de Tour- 
tiemine directed bis pen. M. Langoet was appointed 
; ^rchbishop of Sens, 17^1. He was v^ zealous against 
^the miracles attributed by the appellants to M. Paris, 
and against the famous convulsions. He died May 3; 
1753, at Sens, in the midst of his curates, whom he thell 
kept in retirement. M. Lianguet was a member of the 
French academy, superior of the royal society of Navarre^ 
apd counsellor of state. His works are, three " Adyerr 
tisements^' to the appellants ; several '^ Pastoral Letters, 
Instructipns, Mandates, Letters,'- to different persons, and 
other writings in favour of the bull Unigenttus, and against 
•the Aoti^Constitutionarians, the miracles ascribed to M. 
Paris, and the convulsions, which were impostures then 
obtruded on the credulity of the French,, but which he 
•proved to have neither certainty nor evi^nce. All the 
above have been translated into Latin, and:printed at Sens, 
1753, 2 vols. foL; but this edition of M. Languet's <^ Po- 
lemical Works,^' was suppressed by a decree of. council. 
He published also a translation of the Psalms, 12oio; a 
refutation of I>om. Claudius de Vert^s treatise, ff On the 
Chorch Ceremonies,^' 12mo. Several books of devptioa ; 
^Ad *^ The Life of Iflsxy Alacoque, -/ .wMch laade miiid^ 

1 Mafcri««*Dkt QkUT^Poa^ev't Anniul Register fw 1763* 

LANG U E T. * 

tioise, add b by no means worthy of this celebrated arch- 
•bishop, on account of its romantic and fabulous style, the 
inaccurate eitpressions, indecencies, dangerous princtplesi 
and scandalous maxiois which it contains. Languet is es* 
teemed by the catholics as among the divines who wrote 
best against the Aoti-oonstitutionarians, and is only charge«t 
able with not having always distinguished between dogmas 
and opinions, and with not unfrequently adva.ncing as ar* 
ticles of faith, sentiments which are opposed by orthodox 
and very learned divines.^ 

LANIERE (Nicholas], an artist of various talents in 
tbe seventeenth century, was born in Italy, and appears 
to have come oyer to England in the time of James i. He 
had a great share in the purchases of pictures made for 
the royal collection. He drew for Charles I. a picture of 
Mary, Christ, and Joseph ; his own portrait done by him* 
self with a pallet and pencils in his hand, and musical 
Dotes on a scrip of paper, is in the music*sch<>ol at Oxford, 
He also employed himself in etching, but his fame waa 
most considerable as a musician. It is mentioned in the 
folio edition of Ben Jonsoh's works, printed 1640, that in 
1617, his whole masque, which was performed at the 
house of lord Hay, for the entertainment of the French 
ambassador, was set to music after the Italian manner^ 
^sHlo recUativa^ by Nic. Laniere, who was not only ordered 
to set the music,, but to paint tbe scenes. This short 
piece being' wholly in rhyme^ though without variation in 
the measure, to distinguish airs frpm recitation, as ^ was 
all in musical declamation, may be safely pronounced the 
first attempt at an opera in the Italian 'manner, after the 
invention of recitative. In the same year, the masque 
called ^< The Vision of Delight,^' was presented at court 
during Christmas by tbe same author ; and in it, says Or. 
' Burney, we have all the characteristics of a genuine opera, 
or musical drama of modern times complete : splendid 
scenes and machinery ; poetry ; musical recitation ; air ; 
chorus ; jlvA dancing. Though the music of this masque 
it not to be found, yet of Laniere^s *> Musica narmtiva*' 
we have several examples, printed by Playford in the col* 
-lections of the time ; particularly the '^ Ayres and Dia- 
legUjes^" 1653, and the second part of the *^ Musical 
(Companion/' which appeared in 1667; and in which his. 

to L A N tE RrEi 

nvusic to tbe dialogues b lafiaitely the t€it; 
tb^re is melody, ueaaiirey and mewing io it. His reci^ 
tative'is more like that of hk countrymen at pfescDt, (baa 
any contemporary £nglishn»afi^8. However, tbese dia*- 
logiies were oomposed; before tbe laws and phraseology of 
recitative were sealed, even in Italy. His cantata of 
*^ Hero and Leander" was uriuch celebrated during these 
tknes, and the recitative regarded as a model of true Italian 
■msical declamation. Laniere died at tbe age of seventy^- 
eight, and was buried in St. Martinis ia tbe Fields, Nov. 
4, 1646.* 

JLANINI (Bernahpi^o), an bistarical painter, was a 
Bfelive of Yerceili, a pupil of Gaudeneio Ferrari, and imit 
tated the style of that master in bis first works to a degree 
of iiiosion. As he advanced in practice he cast a holder 
eye on nature, and by equal vigour of conception and 
execution, proved to the ficst artists of Milan,- that, like 
^ Ferrari, iie was born for grand subjects ; such is tbat of 
fi« CJatarba, near S. Celso : tbe face and attitude of tbe 
keroine anticipate tbe graces of Guido ; the colour of tbe 
v^ole appreachea the tones of Titian, tbe glory of tbe 
angds rivals Gioidensio ; a Jess neglected style of drapery 
iroidd have left Uttle to wish for. Ainong his copious 
wodct ac Milan^ and in its districts, tbe^ dome of Novara 
daims distinguisfaed notice. There be {minted those 
Sybils^ and that semUance of an Etenial Faitber, so much 
adnired by Lomazzo; and near them certain subjects 
frcMiktbe Ihb of Mary, which even now, in a ruined state 
ofcoloar, enchant by spirit and evidence of design. His 
Tiersatiie' talent indniged sometioies in imitafcioiia of Lie*- 
murdo da Vinci; and at tbe-Basalica of St Arabrogto, the 
figure of Christ between two Angels, in forn>, expression^ 
and effect, folly proves with what felicity he penetrated 
the principles of that genius. 

He bad two brothers unknown beyond Vercelti.; Gau<- 
BEKZio, of whom some sainted subject is said to exist in 
the sacristy of the Bamabites; and GiROL^UiiO LANiNi, of 
whom Lanai mentions a Christ taken from the Cross, in 
aome pnvate oollection. They approach Bersardino^ in 
tfaehr stjie of faces, and tbe former ^ren in strength of co- 
lour ; but they renain far behind him in design. This 
artist died abdut 157 &.* ,J 

1 Walpole'8 ADecdotes.— *])r. Siome^ la^Bees's Cyclopaedia. 
* PilkiDgton, last edit, by Fuselj. • ' * " ' 

L A N S B E R G. II 

LANSBERG (Philip), a mathema^ian, vm born in 
Zealand, mi 1561, and was a pfeacber at Antwerp, in 
1586, and afterwards for sereral years; Vossius mentions 
that he was minister at Goese in Zealand, twenty-ntHa 
years ; and betng then discharged of his functions, on ae«» 
count of his old age, lie retired to Middleburgb, where 
he died in 1632. His works were principally the following: 
h ^^Sia Books of sacred Chikxiology,'* printed in 1626. 
2. ** Essays on the Restitution of Astronomy,'^ printed ai 
Middleburgh, 16^9. 3. ^< Four Books of Geometrical 
Triangles," printed in 1631. 4. " Of Measuring the 
Heavens/* in three books, in the same year. 5. ^^ Aa 
Acoount of the diurnal and annual Motion of the Earth 
and of the true Sitnation of the visible celestial Bodies.'' 
In this work be declares himself openly for Copernicus*s 
System, and even pretends to improve it He composed 
this work in Dutch, and it was translated into Latin by 
Martinus Horteosius, and printed at Middleburgb, 16$^ 
Fromond, a doctor of Louvaio, wrote an answer to it, and 
endeavoured to prove the earth stood still ; and Us soa 
publisbed an answer not only to Fromond, but to Moriti^ 
regiiis professor at Paris, and to Peter Bartholin us, wfaiclt 
is entitled ** A Defence of the Account,*' &c. This ooca^ 
sioned a contraversy, but of no long duration.* 

LANZI (Lewis), an able Italian antiquary, was bon 
June 13, 1732, at Mohtte-del-Celmo^ near Macerata, and 
was educated in the schools of the Jesuits, wfaera he was 
distinguished for the rapid progren he made in theology^ 
philosophy, rhetoric, and poetry. After being admitted 
into the order of the Jesuits, he taught rhetoric in various 
academies in I^ly with great success. When the ^rder of 
the Jesuits was suppressed, he was appointed sub«director 
of the gallery of Florence, by Peter Leopold, grand doka 
of Tuscany; and that noble collection was considerably 
improved and enriched by his care. His first work was a 
*^ Guide*' to this gallery, which he printed in 1782, and 
whieh IjiftAk in mai^r and style is far superior to perform<«> 
9iaceB of that kind* In 1789 he publisbed his ** Essay on 
tiu Tuscan Language,** 3 vols. 8vo, which gave him a re^ 
putation over all Europe, and was followed by h» dabo-^ 
rate '^ History of Painting in Italy ^*' the best edition, of 
irinck is that printed at Bassano^ in 1809, 6 vols. 8vo. 

Oi«t,«^iii«ri.«»M«rtm'» Biog. ffiaiow#ks. 

ta L A N Z I. ' ! 

BKs next publication, much admired by foreign antiquarife^ji 
was his '^ Dissertations on the Vases commonly called 
Etroscan.^' In 1 808 appeared his translation of ^' Hesiod/* 
4to, of which a very high character has been given. He' 
died March 3*1, 1810^ at Florence, a period so recent as 
to prevent our discovering any more particular memoirs of 
him than the above.^ 

. LANZONI (Joseph), a physician, was born at Ferrara, 
October 26th, 1663, and after a careful education under the 
bestmasters, distinguished himself particularly in theschools 
of philosopbyand of medicine, and graduated in both these 
sciences in. 1683. In the following. year he was appointed 
ordinary professor, and displayed talents which did honour 
to the university of Ferrara, during the long period in 
which be filled that office. He- died in February, 1730. 

Lanzoni acquired a high reputation by the success of 
bis practice, and obtained the confidence and esteem of 
many illustrious personages. His attachment to study in* 
creased with his years ; and every moment in which he was 
not employed in the duties of his profession, was devoted 
to- literature, philosophy, or antiquarian researcht His 
character as a physician and philosopher, indeed, ranked 
so high, that if any question upon these subjects was agi- 
tated in Italy, the decision was commonly referred to him. 
He was distinguished likewise by his genius in Latin and 
Italian poetry ; and he was the restorer and secretary of 
tb^ academy of Ferrara, and a member of many of the 
learned societies of his time- He left a considerable 
number of works, a collection of. which was printed at 
Lausanne, in 1738, in 3 vols- ^to, with an account of 
his life, under the title of <^ Josephi Lanzoni, Philor 
sopbiaQ et Medicinse Doctoris, in Patria Universitate Lec^* 
toris primarii, &c. Opera omnia Medico-pbysica et Pbi-> 

LAPIDE, (Cornelius a). See PIERRE. 

LARCHER (P£T£R Henry), an eminent French scholar 
and translator, was born at Dijon, Oct. 12, 1726, of an- 
cestors who were mostly lawyers, connected with some of 
the first names in the parliament of Burgundy, and related 
to the family of Bossuet. His father was a counsellor ia 
the office of finance, >vho died while his son was an infant, 
leaving him to the care of his mother. It was her intention 

} Diet. Hiifcf Sopplcpient ^ Moreri.«?-Reet'8 Cyclop«dia| ffop Eloy. 

larcher: 13 

to brriig him up with a view to the magistracy, but yotin^ 
Larcher wais too much ^enamoured of poKte literature to 
accede to tins plaa. Having therefore finished his studies 
among the Jesuits at Pont-a«M6us8on, he 'went to Paris 
and entered himselfof the college of Laon, wb<ere he knew 
^e:shonId be at liberty to pursue his own method of study. 
]^e wastheii about eightelen yeai» of age.' His modier albwed 
him oiily 500 livres a year, yet with that scanty allowance 
be contrived to b^uy books, and when it was increased to 
TOO, he fancied himself independent. He gave an early 
proof of his love and care for valuable books, when at the 
ix>yal college. While studying Greek under John Cap'? 
peronnier, he became, quite indignant at having, every day 
placed in his hands, at the risk of spoiling it, a fine copy^ 
of Duker's Thucydides, on large paper. He had, indeed, 
from his infanqy, the genuine spirit of a coUector^ which 
became an uuconquerable passion in his more mature years. 
A few months before his death he ifefused to purchase the 
new editions of Photius atid Zoiiaras, because he was too 
old, as be said, to make use of tbegn,. but at the same time 
he could not resist giving an enormous price for what 
seemed of less utility, the princepr.ediiio of Pliny the na- 
turalist, it is probable that during his first years at Paris/ 
he had made a considerable collection of. bdoks, for, when 
at that time he intended, unknown. to his family, to visijt 
England for the purpose of 'forming an acquaintance with 
the literati there, and of learning Englishi to which he w^s 
remarkably partial, he sold bis books to defray the^xpence 
of his journey. In this elopcTnentf -{qv such it was, he was 
assisted by father Patouiltet, who undertook to receive and 
forward bis letters to his mother, which he was to date'firom 
Paris, and make her and his friends believe that he was 
still at the college of Labn. , 

It does not appear that Larcher published any thing be^ 
fore his translation of the ^^ Electra'* of Euripides, which 
appeared in 1750; for the " Calendrier perpetuel" of 1747^: 
although' attributed to him, was certainly not bis. The 
'^ Electra,'' as v/ell as many other of his publications, ap* 
peared without his name, which, indeed, he. appended 
only to his " Memoire sur Venu$," his " Xenbphon,'V 
f* Herodotus,*' knd " Diisertations academiques.'^ The: 
V Electra" had not much success, and was never reprinted,* 
iipless by a bookseller, who blunderingly inserted it* among 
a.collectioii . of a«rft>i^ plays. v . * 

14 L A R C H £ B. 

In list LtfchtriB supposed to have contributed to « 
lifeeratyjouraai called ^^Lettrea d'une Society ;" and after-* 
wards, in the '^ Melange litteraire,*' he published a transia* 
tioD ot Pope^s essay on Pastoral Poetry. He was also a 
. eontributor to other literary journals, but his biographer 
has not been able to specify his articles with certainty^ 
unless those in the '^ Collection Academique*' for 1755, 
where his articles are marked widi an A« and in which he 
trandated the Philosophical Transactions of London. He 
translated also the *^ Martinus Scriblerus** from Pope^s 
works, and Swift's ironical piece on the abolition of Chris* 
tiani^. Having while in England become acqoainted with 
Mr John Pringle, he. published a translation of his work 
^ On the Diseases of the Army,*' of which an enlarged 
edition appeared in 1771. 

In 1757 he revised the text of Hudibras, which accom- 
panies the French translation, and wrote some notes to it. 
But these performances did not divert him from his Greek 
studies, and his translation of <* Chereas and Calliroe,'* 
which appeared in 1758, was considered in France as Mi 
production of one who would prove an honour to the class 
of Greek scholars in France. This was reprinted in the 
*^ Bibliotheque des Romans Grecs," for which also Larcber 
wrote '^ Critical Remarks on the £thiopics of Heliodoms,*' 
but for some reason these never appeared in that work* 
In 1767 the quarrel took place between him and Voltaire. 
Larcber, although intimate with some of those writers who 
called themselves philosophers, and even favourable to 
some of their theories, was shocked at the impiety of Vol«' 
taire^s extremes -, and when the ^' Philosophy of History'* 
appeared, was induced by some ecclesiastics to undertake 
a refutation, which was published under the title of ** Sup- 
plement a la Philosophie de PHistoire,'' a work which Vol- 
taire himself allowed to be full of erudition. He could not, 
however, conceal his chagrin, and endeavoured to answer' 
Larcher in his *^ Defense de mon oncle,'' in vriiich he' 
treats his antagonist ' with unpardonable contempt and 
abuse. Larcher rejoined in '^ Reponse i la Defense dCT 
mon oncle." Both these pampbleu added much to hitf 
reputation ; and although Voltaire, whose resentmenti were 
implacable, continued to tr^t Larcher ifith abuse in kii^ 
writings, the latter made, no reply, content with the ap- 
plause of the really leurned, particularly Brunck and Laf 
Harpe^ which last^ although at that time the wargiestof 

£. A R C H E B. IS 

Voksdre's adtmrers, disapproved of bis ttesCaient of 'siich a 
man as Lurcher ;*and in tlii* opiutoit he was jomed erca 
hj D'Aleo^bert. ^ 

Hift reputation is a translator firom the Giisek being now 
acknowledged, some bookaellers in Parts* who vmre in po»* 
session of a manuscript translation of Herodetns left by 
the abb^ Belianger wi<lK>ttt revision, applied to Laroher na 
prepare it for the press; and be, dnnkiog be bad oobjr to 
eorrect it few dips of the pea, or at most «d' add a few 
notes, readtiy undertook the task, but before he |iad pm<» 
eeeded fisr, the many imperfections, and the style of Bel* 
laoger, appeared to be such, that be coneetved it would 
be easier to make aa entire new translation. He did uot^ 
however, consider this as a trifling undertaking, bufe pre* 
pared himself by profound consideration of the text of his 
author, which he collated with the MS copies in the 
royal library, 'and read with equal care every contempa^ 
fary writer from whom he might derive information to il* 
lustrate Herodotus. While engaged in these studies. Paw 
poblidied his <^ Recherohes philosophiquessac les Egyptiens 
et les Cbinois^'^ and Larcher borrowed a iitde time to pub* 
Itsh an acute review of that author^s p^radoKes in the 
^' Journal des Savana^'for 1774. The ye»r following, while 
inteirupted by sickness from his inquiries into Herodotus, 
he published his very learned << Memoire sur Venus,'* to 
which the academy of insortptions awarded their prize. 
During another interruption of the Herodotus, incident to 
itself, be wrote and published his translation of Xenophon^ 
which added much to the reputation he had already ac* 
quired, and-«|though his style is not very happily adapted 
to transfuse the spirit of Xenophon, yet it produced the 
fallowing high compliment fpom Wyttenbach (Bibl. Critica) 
'^ Larcberus is est quern non dubitemus omnium, qui nos* 
tra sBtat^ veteres soriptores in linguas vertunt recentiores, 
antiquitfttis linguseque GrteciB scientissimum vocare." Lar* 
cber'& critical remarks in this translation are very \taluable, 
particulady bis observations on the pronunciation of the 
Qreek« The rqiutation of his ^ Memoire sur Venus," and 
his '*:XenophOn,'' procured him to be elected into the 
Academy of inscriptions, on Misy 10^ 1778. To the me^ 
Inoirs of this tfocfiety he contributed many essays on classic 
cal antiqiiities, wh^ch are inserted in vols. 43, 45, 46, 47^ 
and 48 ; and these probably, which he thought a duty to 
the ae$iMemy> interrupted hi& labours on Herodotus, nor 

M L A R C H E.Ri 

did it issue frmn the press until 17j86. The stjlef of tbi^ 
translation is liable to some objections^ 4)ut in other re-« 
spects, his profound and learned researches into points of 
geography tad chcondogj^ and the general merit and im*- 
portance of his comments^ gratified the expectaticAis of 
every scholar in Europe. It was Iraoslated into Latin by 
Borhecky into German by Degan,/ and his notes have ap-« 
peared in all the principal languages of Europe. We may 
here conclude this part of our subject by noticing bis new 
and very much improved edition: of *} Herodotus," pub* 
lisbed in 1802, 9 vols. Svo. The particulars wjaticb dis« 
tinguish this edition are, a correctipnof those passages^ 
in which he was not satisfied with having expressed the 
exact sense ;. a greater degree of precision and more coni-> 
pres^ton ctf style; a reformation of such notes as wanted 
exactness; with the addition of several that were judged 
necessary to illustrate various points of antiquity, and ren- 
der: the historian better understood. We have already 
fainted that Larcher was at one time not unfriendly to the 
infidel principles of some of the French 'encyclopedists* 
It is with the greater pleasure that we can now add" what 
he say:s on this subject in his apology for further alterations. . 
<' At length/' he says, << being intimately convinced of all 
the truths taught by the Christian religion, I have re-* 
treA'cbed. or. reformed aU the notes that could offend it. 
From some of them conclusions have been drawn which I 
disapprove, and which were far from my thoughts ; others 
of them contain things, which I must, to discharge my 
conscience, confess friedy, that more mature examination 
and deeper researches have demonstrated to have been 
built on slight or absolutely false foundations. The truth 
cannot but be a gainer by this avowal : to it alone have I 
consecrated all my studies : I have been anxious to return 
to it from the moment I was persuaded I could seize it with 
advantage. May this homage, which I render it in all the 
sincerity of my heart, be the means of procuring me abso- 
lution for all the errors I have hazarded or sought to pro- 
pagate." — In. this vast accumulation of ancient learning, 
the jBnglish reader will find many severe strictures on 
Bruce, which. he. may not think compatible with the ge- 
neral opinion now entertained both in France and England 
on the merits of that traveller. 

During the revolutionary storm Larcher lived in privacy, 
employed on his studies^ and. especially bd the second 

edkktt of Us << Herodoto^'* Md was bdt ihllt disturbed. 
He was indeed carried before the reTolnlionary cdminittee^ 
and his papers very much perplexed those gentleflaen, who 
knew little of Gr^ek or Latin. For one nigiit a sentinel 
waa placed at his door, who was set. asleep by a bottle of 
viae, and next morning Larch^r gave him a ssaall assign 
natt and he came back no more. When the republican 
government became a little more quiet, and affected to 
encourage men of letters, Larcher received, by a decree^ 
the sum of ^000 litres. He wasafterwards^ ndtwithstand^ 
ing his opiniops were not the fashion of the day, elected 
into the Institute ; and when it was divided into four classes* 
and by that change he became again, in some degree, a 
member of the Academy of inscriptions, he published: four 
dtss^tations of the critical kind ia their, memoirs. TJie 
last honour paid to him was by appointing him professor of 
Greek in the imperial university, as it was then called ; but 
he was now too fsr advanced for active services, and died 
after a short illness, in his eighty^sixth year, Dec. aS, 
1812, regretted as one pf the most eminent acholars and 
amiable men of his time. His fine library was sold by 
auction in Nov. 1814.^ 

LAilDN£R (Natbani£L), a very learned dissentbg cler- 
gyman, was bom at Hawkburst, in Kent, June 6, 1684. 
He was educated for some time at a 'dissenter's academy 
in I^ondon, . by the Rev. Dr. Oldfidd, whence he went to 
Utrecht, and studied under Gnetius and Burman, and 
made all the improvement which might be expected under 
such masters. From Utrecht Mr. Lardner went to Leyden, 
whence, after a short stay, he came to England, and em« 
ployed himself in diiigent preparation for the sacred pro* 
fession. He did tmt, however, preach bis first sermon till 
be was twenty^five. years of age. In 1713 he was invited 
to reside in the house ^ lady Treby, widow c^ the lord 
chief justice of common pleas, as domestic ebaplain to the 
lady^ and tutor Xo her youngest son. • He accompanied his 
pupil to France, the N^stheriaods, and United Pro^ocea^ 
and continued in the family till the death of lady Treby. 
It ceBecis : no honour upon. the dissenters that sneh mwam 
shouM be. so long n^lected; but^ in 1728, he was ea« 
gaged with other mkusters to carry on m^m^oHi qf lectures 

at the Old. Jewry* The gentlemen who cpodocted these 

■ • . . ■ , ■« • •. , 

iUte ptt^xed tp the caUlof ue of bis )ibnTj,pt9hMfhj oM of tht jpl Burt'i. 

i& X A R D N E BL 

lectures preak^bed a course of sermonst oil the. evidences o^ 
natural and revealed religion. The proof of the credibiHtjr 
of the gospel history was assigned to Mr Lardner, attd be- 
delilrered three sermons on. this subject, which probably, 
laid the foundation of his great work, as from this period 
he was diligently engaged in writing the first. part of the 
Credibility. In 1727 he published, in two volumes octavo^ 
Che first part of ^' The Credibility of the Gospel History ; 
or the facts occasionally mentioned in the New Testament, 
confirmed by passages of ancient authors who were con- 
temporary, with our Saviour, or his apostles, or lived near 
their time. It is unnecessary to say how well these vo<« 
lumes were received by the learned world, without any 
distinction of sect or party. Notwithstanding, however, 
his great merit, Mr. lAirdner was forty* five years of age 
before he obtained a settlement among the dissenters ) biit^ 
in 1729, be was invited by the congregation of Crutched-' 
friurs to be assistant to their, minister. At this period thm- 
enthusiasmof Mr. Woolston introduced an important con«i 
troversy. In various absurd publications he treated the 
miracles of our Saviour with extreme licentiousness. The89 
Mr. Lardner confuted with the happiest success, in a woite 
which he at this time published, and which was entitled 
<^ A Vindication of three of our Saviour-s Miracles*'^ About 
the same time also he found leisure to write othef occaaional 
pieces, the principal of whioh was his ^^ Letter on the Logos;'^ 
In 1 73^5 appeared the first volume of the second :part of tho 
'^ Credibility of the Gospel-histoiy,"' which, besides being 
universally well received at bome^ was so much approved 
abroad, that it was translated by two learned foreigners f 
by Mn Cornelius Westerbaeu into. Law Dutch, and by Mr^ 
J. Christopher Wolff into Latin. The second volume of 
the second part of this work appeared in 17S5 ; and the 
farther Mn Lardner proceeded in his design, the more he 
advanced in esteem and reputation among learned men of 
all denominations* In 17S7 hie published his '* CouusoU 
of Prudence'' for the use of young people,, on account of 
which he received a complimentary letter from Dr. Seeker^, 
liisbop of Oxford. The third and fourth volumes of the 
second part of the ^< Credibility," no less curious than the 
preceding^ were publsshed in 173d and 1740. T^e fifth 
volume in l!7434 To be circumstantial in tbe>accottnto£ 
all the writings which this eminent man produced would 
greatly exceed our limits. Tbey were all (considered as '6i 

L A R D NrE R* \9^ 

distinguished usefulness and merit We may in par^cular 
notice the " Supplement to the Credibility," which has^ 
a place in the collection of treatises published by Dr. Wnt- 
son, bishop of Llandaff. Notwithstanding Dr. Lardner's 
life and pen were so long and so usefully devoted to the 
public, he never received any adequate recom pence. The 
college of Aberdeen conferred on him the degree of doc\ 
tor of divinity, and the diploma had the unanimous signa- 
ture of the professors* But his salary as a preacher ws^s 
inconsiderable, and his works often published to his loss^ 
instead of gain. Dr. LaHner lived to a very advanced age^ 
and, with the exception of his liearing, retained the use of. 
bis faculties to the last, in a remarkably perfect degree^ 
In 1768 he fell into a gradual decline, which carried him. 
off in a few weeks, at Hawkburst, his native place, at the, 
a^e of eighty-five. He had, previously to his last illness,. 
'*parted with the copy-right of his great work for the mi-» 
terable sum of 160/. but he hoped if the booksellers had 
the whole interest of his labours, they would then do their, 
utmost to promote the sale of a work that could not fail to 
be useful in promoting the interests of his fellow creatures^ 
by promulgating the great truths of Christianity. After 
the death of Dr. Lardner^ some of his posthumous pieces 
made their appearance; of these the first consist of eight, 
sermons^ add brief memoirs of the author. In 1776 was 
published a short letter which the doctor had written in 
1762, ".Upon the Personality of the Spirit.*' It was |5art 
of bis design, with regard to " The Credibility of the Gos« 
pel History," to give an account of the. heretics of the first 
two centuries In 1780 Mr. Hogg, of E^xeter, published 
another of Dr. Lardner's pieces, upon which he had be- 
stowed much labour, though it was not left in a perfect 
•late; this was *^ The History of the Heretics of the first 
two centuries after Christ, containing an account of their 
time, opinions, and testimonies to the books of the New 
Testament; to which are prefixed general observations 
concerning Heretics.'* The last of Dr. Lardner's pieces 
was given to the world by the late Rev. Mr. Wiche, thea 
of Maidstone, in Kent, and is entitled ^' Two schemes of a 
Trinity considered, and the Diviue Unity asserted ;" it 
consists of. four discourses ; the first represents the com*, 
monly received, opinion of the Trinity; the second de* 
scribes the Arian scheme ; the third treats of the Nazarene 
doctriT^ ; and the fourth explaiSs the text according to 

C 2 ■ 

80 L A R D N E R. 


that doctrine. This work may perhaps be regarded as 
iiupplemei^tary tb a piece which he wrote in early life, and 
which he published in 1759, without his name, entitled '^A 
Letter written in the year 1730, concerning the question. 
Whether the Logos supplied the place of the Human Soul 
in the person of Jesus Christ f * in this piece his aim was to 
prove that Jesus Christ was, in the proper and natural 
meaning of the word, a man, appointed, anointed, beloved^ 
honoured, and exalted by God, above all other beings. 
Dr. Lardner, it is generally known, had adopted the So* 
cinian tenets. 

For the many testimonies given of Dr. Lardner^s cha- 
racter, the reader must be referred to the very elaborate 
and carious life written by Dr. Kippis, and prefixed to a 
icomplete edition of his works, published in 1788, in eleven 
very large volumes, by the late J, Johnson. This edition, 
on which uncommon carie was bestowed, has of late become 
very scarce and dear, and another has just been under* 
taken, to'be printed in a 4to size. ^ 

LARREY (Isaac de), a French historian, was born Sep- 
tember 7, 1638, at Montivilliers, of noble parents, who 
were Protestants. After having practised as an attorney 
some time in his native country, be went to Holland, was 
appointed historiographer to the States General, and set- 
tled afterwards at Berlin, where he had a pension from the 
elector of Brandenburg. He died March 17,1719, aged 
eighty. £[is principal works are, the '^ History of Augus- 
tus," 1690, 12mo; "The History oi Eleanor, queen of 
France, and afterwards of England,'* 1691, 8vo; *VA His* 
tory of England," 1697 to 1713, 4 vols. fol. the most va- 
lued of all Larrey's works on account of the portraits, bul 
its reputation has sutik in other respects since the publica« 
tion of the history written by Rapin. He wrote also the 
history, or rather romance of " the Seven Sages," the mos| 
complete edition of which is that of the Hague, 1721, 2 
vols. 8 vo ; and " The History of Frx^nc^, under Louis XIV." 
5 vols. 4to, and 9 vols. l2mo, a work not in much estimar 
tion, but it was not entirely his. The third volume 4co wa,s 
the production of la Martiniere. * 

LARROQUE (Matthew de), in Latin Larroquanus^ 
whom Bayle styles one of the most illustrious ministers tb(» 

I Life by Kippis, as above. 

% Kiceroo, vol. L aud X. — Bibl. 6erniiinique> rpU I.-*Morert«^*Iltfft. Hiil^ 

L A R R OQ U £. 81 

reformed ever had in France, was bom at Letrac, a small 
city of Guienne, near Agen, in 1619. He. was hardly past 
his youth when he lost bis father and Diotber, who werc^ 
persons of rank and character. This misfortune was soon 
followed by the loss of his whole patrimony, although by 
What means is not known ; but the effect was to animate 
him more strongly to his studies, and to add to polite li- 
terature, which he had already' learned, the knowledge of 
philosophy, and above all, that of divinity. He made a 
considerable progress in these sciences, and was admitted 
a minister with great applause. Two years after he had 
been admitted in his office he was obliged to go to Paris to 
answer the cavils of those who intended to ruin his churo)^ 
in which, although he was not successful, he met with 
such circumstances as proved favourable to him. lie 
preached sometimes at Charenton, and was so well liked 
1>y the duchess de la Tremouille, that she appointed him 
minister of the church of Vitre, in Britany, and gave him 
afterwards a great many proofs of her esteenp; nor was b^ 
less respected by the prince and princess of Tarente, and 
the duchess of Weimar. He served that church aboojt 
twenty*seveh years, and studied the ancient fathers with 
the utmost application. He gave very soon public proofr 
of the progress he had made in that study, for tb« answer 
he published to the motives which an opponent had aliedged 
for his conversion to popery, abounded with passages 
quoted from the. fathers, and the works which be published 
afterwards raised his reputation greatly. There was an 
intimate friendship between him and Messieurs I>aill£, fu^ 
ther and son, which was kept up by a constant literary oor* 
respondence ; and the joujrney be took to Paris procured 
him the acquaintance of several illustrious men of letters. 
The church of Charenton wished to have iuvited him in 
1669, but his enemies had so pr^ossessed the cotirt .against 
bim, that his majesty sent. a prohibition to that church not 
to think of calling bim, notwithstanding the deputy general 
of the reformed bad offered to answer for Mona. de Lar« 
roquets good behaviour. He was afterwards chosen to fa|e 
both miuister and professor of divinity at Saumur. The 
former be accepted^ but refused the professorship of d^« 
vinity, as it might interfere with the study of church his- 
tory, to which he was very partial; The intendant of the 
province, however, forbad him to go to Saumur; and aU 
though the. church complained of this unjust prohibition, 



2r2 LA R R O QUE. 

And petitioned vfery zealously for tbe necessary pertnission^ 
which she obtained, Larroque did not think it proper to 
enter upon an employment against the will of the intend- 
ant. He continued therefore still at Vitr^, where he did 
. not suffer his pen to be idle. Three pf the most consi- 
derable churches of the kingdom chose him at once, the 
church of Montauban, that of fiourdeaux, and that of Roan. 
He accepted the invitation of Roan, and there died, Jan. 
31, 1684, having gained the reputation not only of a 
learned man, biit also pf an honqst man^ and a faithful 

His principal works; are, a " Histpire de PEucharistie," 
Elzevir, 1669, 4to, and 1671, 8vo; An answer to M. Bos- 
•uet's treatise "De la Conimunion sous les deux espec^esj" 
** An Answer to the motives of the minister Martinis Con- 
version •/' ^ An Answer to the office of the Holy Sacra- 
ment of Port Royal ;*' two Latin dissertations, " Ue Pho- 
tino et Liberio ;'* " Considerations servant de reponse k ce 
que M. David a ecrit contre la dissertation de Photin," 4to ; 
** Observations," in Latin, in support of Daill^^s opinion, 
that the epistles of St. Ignatius are spurious, against Pear- 
son and Bev^ridore ; " Conformity des Esflises reforra^es de 
France avec les anciens;" ** (Donsiderations sur la nature 
de PEglise, etsur quelques-tines de ses propri^t^,^' 12mo; 
a treatise in French on the Regal and Sacred Observations, 
in Latin, witli " A Dissertation on the Thundering Legion." 
These two last works were published by his son.* 

LARROQUE (Daniel de), son of the preceding, was 
borri at Vitr^. He retired 1681, to London, on the revo- 
cation of the edict of Nautes, and afterwards to Ct)pen- 
hagen, where his father's friends promised him a settlfe- 
ment, but finding them unsuccessful, he went into Holland, 
where he reniained till 1690, and th^n going into France, 
^abjured the protestant religion, and turned Roman catholic. 
Hie usually resided at Paris, but having written the preface 
-to a satirical piece, in which great liberties were taken with 
Louis XIV. on account of the famine in 1693, be was ar- 
rested and sent to the Ch&telet, and then removed t6 tt^e 
castle of Saumur, where he reniained five years; At the 
end of thatjtime, however, be regained his Kberry by the 
abbess of Fontevraud's solicitations, and got a place in M. 
de Torcy's office, minister and secretary of state. When 

L A Jl R O Q U E. . «S 

the regency CDauaeDcedy Larroque was appointed tecre* 
tary to the interior council, and on the suppression of that 
council, bad a pension of 4000 livres till bis death, Sep* 
tember 5, 1731, when b^ was about seventy. He leftie^ 
veral worlLs^ but inuob inferior to bis fatber^s : tbe princi* 

£al are, '^ La Vie de rimppsteur Mahomet,*' 12ino, trans- 
ited froQ^ tbe English of Dr. Prideaox ; ** Les v6ritables 
Motifs de la Conversion de M» (le Boutbiiier de ^Ranci) 
TAbbiS de 1^ Trappe,'*. wi^b some reflections on bis life and 
writings, 1^85,. l^mo, a satirical work. *^ Nouvelles Ac^ 
cusatioiis centre Varillas, ou R6marques critiques centre 
une Partie de son Histoire de TH^resie,** 8vo; <*LaVie 
de Francois £udes de Mezerai,'' 12fno, a satirical romance s 
a traoslatiqu of Ecbard's Rqn^an History, revised and pub« 
lisbed by the abbe Desfc^n^aines. Larroque also assisted, 
during some n^onths^ in tbe ^^ Nouvelles de la Republique 
des Lettre^,'' while Bi^yle was ill. The *^ Advice to the " 
Refugees'' is a^Uo attributed to him, which was believed to 
, bs^ve been written by Bayle, besause tbe latter would never 
betray Larroque, who, it is supposed, was the real author 
. of it, chusing rather to suffer the persecution which this 
: publication raised against him, than prove false to bis friend,* 
. who hs^d enjoined him secrecy. ' 

I^ASCARIS (CpNSTANTiNE), a learned Greek, descend- 
. ed from tbe imperial family of that name, was born at Con- 
stantinople, but became a refugee when it was taken by 
; tbe Turks in 14jf4, and went to Italy, where he was most 
. amics^ly received, by duke Francis Sfora^a of AJilan, jivbo 
. placed bis own daiighter, a child of ten years of age, under 
, the care of Laacaris for instrqctiop in Uie Greek language, 
and it is said to have been for her iise be composed bis 
Greek grammar* From Mils^n be went to Rome, about 
1463, or perhaps later, add fropi thence, 9^t the invitation 
.of king Ferdinan.d, to Naples, where he openied a public 
school for Greek find rhetoric. leaving spent some years 
in. this employment, be was desirous of repose, and em- 
. barked with tbe intentioi) of settling at a town of Greece ; 
bi|t having touched at Measina, be was urged by such ad- 
vantageous offers to make it his residence, that he com- 
plied, and passed there tbe remainder of bis days* Here 
)ie received the honour of citizenship, which be merited 

1 lloreri.^Dict. Hist. d< L'Advoc^t, 

1>y His virttic^ as wdl fis htis teaming, and by llie tnHuie t)f 
scholars which his reputation drew thither. He lived. tcy a 
* veiT'advanced age, and fs supposed to have died about the 
' efind of the fifteenth century. He bequeathed his library 
to'the city of Messina. His Greek graminar was printed 
^^ Milan in f416\ reprinted in 1480, and was, aecorditig 
to Zen6^ ^* prima Grs^oo-Latina prseiorum foetura," the first 
Greek and Latin book that issued from the Italian press. 
A' better edition of it was given in 1495, by Aldus, from a 
copy corrected by the author, and with which the printer 
wa& furnished by Ben^bo and Gabrielli. This was the firttt 
essay of the Aldine press. Bembo and Gabrielli had been 
the scholars of Lasoaris, although in his old age, as they did 
not set out for Messina until 1493. A copy of this Greek 
. grammar of the first edition is now of immense value* 
Erasmus considered it as the best Greek grammar then 
extant, excepting that- of Theodore Gaza. Lascaris was 
author likewise of two tracts on the Sicilian and Calabrian 
Greek writers, and some other pieces, which remain in 

LASCARIS (JoHK, or John Andrew), called Rhyndti- 
cenus, as Constantine. was called Byzantinus, was a learnt' 
Greek of the same family with the preceding,- who came 
either from Greece or Sicily to Italy, en the ruin of his 
country. He was indebted to cardinal 6essarion for his 
^ucation at Padua, where he obtained a high reputatidn 
for his knowledge in the learned langnages, and received 
the patronage of Lorenzo de Medici, who sent him into 
Greece with recommendatory letters to the sultan BajaMt, 
in order tp collectandent manuscripts t fomhis purpose he 
took two journeys, in the latter of which he appears to 
have been vety successful. After the expulsion of the 
Medici family from Florence, in 1494, he was carried to 
'France by Charles Vltl. after which he was patronized by 
Louis XI L Wibb sent him, in 1503, as his ambassador to 
Venice, in which office he remaiined till 150B. He joined 
the pursuit of literature with hii public employment, and 
held a Correspondence with many learned men. After the 
ierminati6n bf bis etilbassy, he remained some years at 
Venice, as an instructoir in the Greek language. On the 
election of pope Leo X. to the popedom in 1513, he set 

1 Hodius de Oraecis iilastribat.->Saxii ODpoiMticoo.— Bibliotbeea Spea- 
Sfsrianfty vol. II!.«-BrttDei'ft MAnael du Libraire. 

L A 8 C A RI S. S5 

Mt J* B«iM^ wher^fat hb ittiligiltoot Loo fbonded m 
coUegft for noble Gredmn youifaii at Roifte, at tlie bead of 
irfaicb fa^ placed the ambor. of, ibe pl^af aodlikedrife 
leade bim so|ieriDteDdaot M the Greek preta; faitdbjlities 
aa a tenrector and ectttoi!^ kad beeo idr^^dy sofiicientiy 
fiiin^ed bv bis magnificeiit editiao of ibe Greek *' Abtbo* 
h^gie," pnoted in capital letters at Florence in 1414^ aiid 
b^ dmt of ** Calltmacbus/' printed in the same forai. Mail* 
tasre thinks be was also editor of foiir of the tragedies of 
^SEaripides/' of the *^ Gnonw Moilasticboi,*' and the 
^^Argonaotios** of Apdlonius Rbodius. He now printed 
the G#eiek << Scholia'' on Homer, in 1517; and. in 1518 
tto.^'.Soholia" ot> Sophocles. Having in this last-raen- 
tioned year -qaitted Home for Fiance, whither hb was in- 
v^bsd i^ Francis I. be was employed by that monarch 
ia forming the royal library. He was also sent as bis 
aad»ftasador to. Venice,, with a view of procuring Greek 
yoaths for the purpose of founding a college at Paris simi- 
lar to that of Rome. After the accbmpiisbment -of dtber 
jimpoitaot . missions, be died at Rome in 1535, at anad« 
vattoed: age. He translated into the Latin language, a 
wndi^ extracted from Polybius, on the military constitutions 
of >jtbe Romans; and composed epigrams in Greek and 
Latin ; this- rare volame is entitled '* Lascaris Rhydacehi 
ep^jraaofflsata, Gr. Lat edente Jac. Tossano,"' printed at 
Paris, 1527,. 8vo. There is anotber Paris edition of 1544, 
4tou: :JMr. Dibdin has given an aimple and interesting ac- 
eoont of bis.^Antbologia*' from lord Spencer's splendid 
veUom copy*^ 

LASENA, or LASCENA (P£T£R), a learned ItaHan, 
was.boni at '.Naples, Sept. 25, 1590. In compliance with 
bis.fatb^r^ be first cQltivateU and practised the law ; but 
afterwards followed 'the bent of liis inclination to polite 
literature; applying himself diiigeiitly to acquire the 
Greek language, in which his education bad been defec- 
txve. He also. learnt French and Spanish. From Naples 
be removed .to Rome ; whene be> was no sooner settled, 
tbali'he obtained the protection of cardinal Francis JBar* . 
berini, besides >other prelates ; he also procnred the friend- 
shift of Lucas Hblstenius, Leo Allatids, and other persons 
of rank in . the republic of letters. He made use of the 

^ Hodius de Graci« illustribus.-*-Oresswell's Poliiiao.^-Rotcoe's Leo. — BibU 
Spenceriaoa, toI. II. , 

9^ : i. A S^.N A.. 

rrepose he enjoyed ill this sitaation .to put the Iifist faandtd 
. some works whicbibe bad began at Naples; but bis conti-» 
MMisfti intense application, 'And (iao~great abstinence (for he 
; made' but one^oieal in t^entyt^four bour^), threw him ioto 
a fever, of^which : be died; Sept ^0^ 1636: At bis dea^fa^ 
• he^iefc to cardinsil Barberinii two Latin discourses, which 
lie bad4pfronoanced before the Greek academy of tb^ monks 
-of £t..Ba8il,"^''De Lingua Heilenistica,'' in which he dis- 
itfuss^d, with great learning, a point upon that isubject^ 
' which then divided tbe literary world. He atiso left to car- 
dinal Bracucaccio his book entitled *' Dell" antioo Giniiasio 

< Napolitanc^" which was afterwards published in 16S8,'4to. 

- It contains a description of the sports, shows, spectacles, 
' and combats, which were formerly exhibited to the pec^le 
. of. Naples: .He was tbe author likewise of ^f Nepenth<i^ 

< Homeric seu deabolendo luctu,?' Lugd. 1624, 8vo; and 
; *^ Cleombrotus^ sive de iis aui in aquis pereont," Roma^ 

- 163^7, 8vo.» 


LASSALA (Manuel), a Spanish Ex-jeaoit, was born 

jatValentiain 1729/ and died in 1 7 98v at Bologna, to which 
be had retired on the expulsion of his order. Our autho* 
rity gives little of his personal history. . He owed his cele- 
brity to bis knowledge of the ancient languages,: and of 
. poetry and history, which be taught > in. tbe univ^ersity of 
Valentia. His works are in Spanish, Italian, and Latin ; 
in the Spanish. be wrote, 1. ^* An essay on general History, 

1 ancient and modem,** Valentia, 1755, SLvols. 4to^ ftaid to 
be the best abridgment of the kind which 'the Spaniards 

, have'; at the end he gives the lives of the Spanish poets , 
2* ^^ Account of the Castillian poets,*', ibid. 175.7, 4ta He 
wrote also tragedies; 1. ^^ Joseph,** acted and printed at 
Valentia :in 1762. 2. *^ Don Sancho Abarva,** ibid. 1765, 

' in Italian, and such pure and elegant Italian as; to astonish 
the critics of Jcaly. He wrote three tragedies; 1. >^ Ipbi* 

, genia in Aulis.** 2. >' Ormisinda.** 3. ^^ Lucia Miranda.^* 

. In Latin, he exhibited his talents for poetvy, and is bighlj 
eommendeii for the classical purity of style of his .^< Rhe- 

• nus,** Bologna, 1781 ; the subject, tbe inundations of the 
Rhine : and his " De serificio clvium Bologniensium libel- 
lus singularis,** ib. 1782, composed in.honour of afdte giveii 
by tbe merchants of Italy. He also made a good tran^U*? 


1 Niceron^ vol. XV.— ^Sai^ Ooooiatiieou. 


L A 8 S d N E. - 2f 

tlon fcom the Arri)ic into Hebrew of *^ Loknaan^s FaMes,^ 
Bologna, 1781, 4to.' 

LASSONE (Joseph Maria Francis de), an emmenfc 
French physician, was born at Carpentras, oh the Sd-of 
July, 1717. He was removed for education to Paris, but 
in bis early years be waa less remarkable for his perseTe- 
rtfitce in study, tliah for a propensity which be shewed for 
the gmy pleasures of youth ; yet even then he raised the 
hopes of his friends by some ii>genious performances, which 
merited acadeihic honours. At length he applied iimh se- 
Yiousness to study, and devoted himself wholly to the puif* 
suits of anatomy, in which he made such rapid progress, 
that, at thie age of twenty* five, he was received into the 
academyof sciences as asaociate^anatomtst: An extraor- 

' dinary event, however, p%it a period to his anatomical pur- 
suits, lo selecting among some dead bodies a proper sub- 

/ jeetfor dissection, he fancied he perceived in one of them 
some very doubtful signs of death, and endeavoured to 
re-animate it} his efforts were for a long time vain ; but 
bis %st persoa^on induced him to persist, and be ultirtiately 

: cucceeded in brtogitig his patient to Kfe, wlio proved t6 be 
a poor peasant. This (Mr^umstance impressed so deep a 
sense of horror on the mind of the anatontist, - that be de- 
ciified ttiese pursnits'iit future. "Natural history succeeded 
the study of anatomy, and mineralogy becoming a favourite 
object of his pursuit, he pnblisbed bia observatiotis on the 

. crystallized free-stones of Foiuakibleau ; but - chemistry 
finally became the beloved occnpation of M. de Laasone. 
•His oamerous memoirs, which were read bejfbre the royal 
^academy of sciences, presented a valuable train of new 
observations, useful both to the progress of that study, 'and 
to the 'art of compounding remedies ; and in every part of 

■ these he evinced the sagacity of an attentive observer^ and 
of an ingenious experimentalists' After having practised 
medicine for a long time in the hospitals and cloisters, he 
was setit for to court ; and held the office of first physician 
at Versailles. • He lived in friendship- with Fontenelle, 
Wihslow, D'Alembert, BufTon, and other scientific . cha- 
racters; an^d the affability of his manners, and his ardent 
zeal for the advancement of knowledge, among the young 
•scholars, whose industry he encouraged, and whose fepu* 
|ation'waa become one of his most satiafactoiy enjoymeotSji 

• » fiiot^ IinftrSuppleiiMtitv' 

, I 

U L A S S O N E. 

gained him general respect. When from a natural ielu 
cacy of constitution, M* de Lassone began to experience 
the inconireniencea of a preoiature old age, he became 
forrowful and fond of solitude ; yet, reconciled to his situa^ 
tioD, he calmly observed his death approaching, and ex^ 

Eired on Dec» 8, 1788. Lassone, at the time of his deaths 
eld the appointment of first physician to Louis XVI. and 
bis queen ; be was counsellor of state, doctor*regent of 
the faculty of medicine at Paris, and pensionary «-veteraii 
of the 9.cademy of sciences, menober of the academy of 
medicine at Madridf and honorary associate of the coilegf 
of medicine at Nancy .^ 

LASSUS (Ob]lanou8), or, as he is called by the Jta<^ 
Jians, Orlando di Lasso^ an eminent musician, was a na^ 
live of Moos, in Haioault, bora in 1520, and not only 
apent many years of bis life in Italy, but had his musical 
^idu^ation there, having been carried thither surreptitiously, 
when a child, on account of bis fine voice. The historian 
Thuanus, who has given Orlando a place among the illus*- 
trious men of bis time, tells us that it was a common prac>- 
iice for young tingen to be forced away from their parent^ 
and detained in the service of princes ; and that. Orlando 
.was carried to Milan, Naples^ and Sicily, by Ferdinand 
Oonaaffo. Afterwards, when h^ was grown up, and had 
probably lost his voice* he went to Rome, where be taught 
music during two years; at the expiration of which, be 
travelled through different parts of Italy and France witb 
Julius Cttsar Brimcatius, and at length, returning to Flan^ 
d^rs, resided many years at Antwerp, til}^ being inyite(|, 
by tbe duke of Bavaria, to Munich, he settled at. that court, 
and. married* He had afterwards an invitation, acqon^f- 
pariiefl with . the promise of great emoluments, frooi 
Charles IX. Mng of France, to take upon him the oflSce 
of master and director of bis bi^nd ; an honour which be 
ficc/epted, but was stopped on the road to Paris by tb^ 
.newa of that n^onarcb's death. After this event he returned 
tQ Municbf whither be was recalled by William*, jthe son 
.J9i,ndi succe^or of bis ptitrpn Albert, to the same oflSce wbicii 
^e bad be)d uader bijB father. Orlando con^niied at tb^ 
i(H>wrt till his death, in 1593, at upwards of seventy years 
of age. His reputation was so great, that it was said of 
him ; ^^ Hie ille Orlandus Lassus, qui recreat orbem.*' 

I Hnteli!Mmi!9 Me^csl Biogfmpli7.-*-Itees't Cydop^dia. 

L A S S U S. t9 

As he lited to a considerable age, and never seems to 
have checked the fertility of bis genias by indolence, his 
compositions exceed, in number, even those of Palestrina. 
There is a complete catalogue of them in Draadius^ 
amounting to upwards of fifty different works, consisting 
of masses, magrnificats, piassiones, motets, and psalms : 
mtli Latin, Italian, German, and French songs, printed in 
Italy, Germany, France, and the Netherlands. He ez- 
icelled in modulation, of which he gave many new speci- 
mens, and was a great master of harmony.* 

LATCH (John), an English lawyer, was a native of 
Somersetshire, and educated at Oxford, in St* John^s coI« 
lege, as Wood was informed, where, he adds, he made 
considerable proficiency in< literature. Afterwards he re- 
lAoved'to the Middle Temple, but being of a delicate 
habit, does not appear to have practised as a barrister, 
^ome years before bis death, he had embraced the Roman 
catholie religion^ influenced by the artifices of a priest or 
ilesait who prevailed on him to leave bis estate to the so- 
ciety of Jesuits. He died at Hayes in Middlesex, in Au- 
gust i655. He was the reporter of certain ** Cases in the 
first three- years of K. Car. L'* which were published in 
French, by Edivard Walpole, 1662, folio.* 

LATIMER (Hugh), bishop of Worcester, one of the 
6rst reformers of the church of England, was descended 
of honest parents at Tburcaston in Leicestershire ; where 
his father, though he had no land of his own, rented a 
small farm, and by frugality aud industry, brought up a 
family pf sis: daughters besides this son. In one of his 
court sermons, in Edward's time, Latimer, inveighing 
against the nobility and gentry, and speaking of the mo- 
deration of landlords a few years before, and the plenty in 
which their tenants lived, tells his audience, in his familiar 
way, that, ^* upon a farm of four pounds a year, at the 
utmost, his father tilled as much groutid as kept half a 
dozen men; that he had it stocked with a hundred sheep 
and thirty cows ; that he found the king a man and horse, 
himself remembering to have buckled on his father's har- 
ness when he went to Blackheath ; that he gave his 
daughters five pounds apiece at marriage; that he lived 
hospitably among his neighbours, and was not backward in 

' y Bantey'i Hitt. of Music* sod in'Re<«i*t Cvclopadia. 
s atb. Ox, vol. ll.-*BridfBiAn*s JLe;gal hkuUogt tipby. 


his alms to the poor.*' He was born in tbe farm-house 
about 1470; and, being put to a grammar-school) he took; 
learning so well, that it was determined to breed him to« 
the church. With this view, be was sent to Cambridge^ 
Fuller and others say to Christ's college^ which must be a 
tradition, as the records of that college do not reach his 
time. At the usual time, be took the degrees in arts^ 
and, entering into priest's orders, behaved with remarka- 
able zeal and warmth in defence of popery, the established, 
religion. He read the schoolmen and the Scriptures with 
equal reverence, and held Thomas a Becket and the apos- 
tles in ^qual honour. He was consequently, a zealous op^- 
ponent of the opinions which had lately discovered them** 
selves in England; heard the teachers of them with high 
indignation, and inveighed publicly and privately against 
the reformers. If any read lectures in tbe schools, Latimer 
tvas sure to be there to drive out the scholars, and could 
not endure Stafford, the divinity-lecturer, who, howeveri 
is said to have been partly an instrument of his conversion. 
When Latimer commenced bachelor of divinity^ he gave 
an open testimony of his dislike to their proceedings in an 
oration against Melancthon, whom he treated most severely 
for bis impious, as he called them, innovations in religion.' 
HiszeaLwas so much taken notice of in the university, 
that he was elected cross-bearer in ail public processions;- 
an employment which he accepted with reverence, and; 
discharged with solemnity. 

Among those in Cambridge who favoured the reforma- 
tion, the most considerable was Thomas Bilney, a clergy- 
man of a most holy life, who began to see popery in a very 
disagreeable light, and made no. scruple to own it. Bilney 
was an intimate, and conceived a very favourable opinion, 
of Latimer ; and, as opportunities offered, used to suggest 
to him many things about corruptions in religion, till he 
gradually divested him of his prejudices, brought him to. 
think with moderation, and even to distrust what he had 
so earnestly embraced. Latimer no sooner ceased from 
being a ;zealous papist, than he became (such was bis con-, 
stitutional warmth) a zealous protestant ; active in support- 
ing the reformed doctrine, and assiduous to make converts 
both in town and university. He preached in public, ex- 
horted in private, and everywhere pressed the necessity 
of a holy life, in opposition to ritual observances; A be- 
haviour of this kind Was immediately taken notice of^ X^m^ 

L A T I ME «• SI 

bridge, no leM thm theretft of tli6 kingdom, was entirely 
popi^^ and everf new opinion was watched with jealousy^ 
Ltftimer soon perceived how obnoxious be had made bim^ 
self; and the first remarkable opposition he met witli from 
the popish party, was occasioned by a course «f sermons 
be preached, during the Christmas holidays, before .{be 
university) in which he spoke his sentiments with great 
freedom upon, many opinions and usages maintained and 
practised in the Romish church, and particularly insisted 
upon the great abuse of locking up ^he Scriptures in an 
unknown tongue. ' Few of the tenets of popery were then 
questioned in England, but such as tended td a relaxatioa 
6^ moi'ais $ transubstantiation, and other points rather spe-* 
cnlative, still held their dominion ; Latimer therefore 
chiefiy dwelt upon those of immoral tendency. He shewed 
what tree religion was, that it was seated in the heart ; 
and that, in comparison with it, external appointmentg 
were of no value. Having a remarkable address in adapt- 
ing him^If to the capacities of the people, and being con- 
sidered as a preacher of eminence, the orthodox . clergy 
thought it high time to oppose him openly. This task was 
undertaken by Dr. Buckingham, prior of the Black-friars^ 
who appeared in the pulpit a few Sundays after ; and, with 
great pomp and prolixity, shewed the dangerous tendency 
of Latimeir's opinions; particularly inveighing against hit 
heretical notions of having the Scriptdres in English, lay- 
ing open the bad effects of such an innovation. ** If that 
heresy,'* said he, '* prevail, we should soon see an end of 
every thing useful among us. The ploughman, reading 
that if he put his hand to the plough, and should happen 
to look back, he was unfit for the kingdom of heaven, 
would' soon lay aside his labour ; the baker likewise read- 
ing, that a little leaven will corrupt his lump, would give 
us a very insipid bread } the simple man also finding him-4 
self commanded to pluck out his eyes, in a few years we 
should have the nation full of blind beggars.*' Latimeis 
could not help listening with a secret pleasure to this in- 
genioas reasoning; perhaps- he had acted as prudently, if 
he had considered the prior's arguments as unanswerable ; 
Uttt, he could not resist the vivacity of his temper, which 
strongly inclined him to expose this solemn trifler. . The 
whole university met together on Sunday, when it waa 
known Mr. Latimer would preach. That vein of plea-^ 
tantry ittd humour which ^raa through all. bis words and 


mclions^ would here, it wa$ im^iiiedy lliite iU fbU flcopf } 
atidy IQ say ihe tradi, tbe proacb^r wajs not a little condcioiif 
of his. oiTQ superiority: to c^omplete tbe scene^ just hef<Mre 
tbe sermon began, prior Buckingham himself entered the 
church with bis cowl about bis 8houlder8> und seated binl^ 
self, with an air of importance^ before tbe pu)pit» Lati* 
mer,» with great gravity, recapitulated the learned docior*^ 
arguments, placed them in the strongest light, and then 
rallied them with such a flow of wit, and at the same time 
with so much good humour, that, without tbe fippearance 
of ill-nature, he made his adversary in the highest degree 
Hdiculous. Jle then, with great address, appealed to the 
people; descanted upon the low esteem in which tbeii 
guides had always held their understandings; expressed 
the utmost offence at their being treated with such.eoil^ 
tempt^ and wished his honest countrymen might only have 
the. use of the Scripture till they shewed themselves sUch 
absurd interpreters. He concluded his discourse with a 
few observations upon scripture metaphors. A figurative 
manner of speech, he said, was common in all langui^es : 
representations of this kind were in daily use, and generally 
understood. Thus, for instance, continued he (address^* 
ing himself to that part of the audience where the prior 
was seated) ,^ when we see a fox painted preaching is^ 
friar^s hood, liobpdy imagines that a fox is meant, bat 
that craft and hypocrisy are described, which are sooften 
found disguised in that garb. But it is probable that h^* 
timer thought this levity unbecoming ; for when one Vene^ 
tus, a foreigner, not long after, attacked him again upon 
tbe same subject, and in a manner tbe most scurrilous and 
provoking, we find htm using a graver strain. .Whether 
he ridiculed, bowevef( or reasoned, with so much of the 
spirit of true oratory^ considering the times, were bis ha<» 
rangues animated, that they seldqm failed of their intended 
effect ; his raillefy shut up the prior within his monastery ; 
and his arguments drove Venetus from tbe university. 

These advantages increased . tbe credit of the protestant 
party in Obmbridge, ef which Bilney and Latimer were 
the leaders ; and great was the alarm of the popish clergy, 
of whfch some were the heads of colleges, and senior part 
9f the university. JTrequent convocations were held, tutors 
were admonished to have 'a strict eye over their pupils, and 
academical censures of all kinds were inflicted. But aca* 
demical censures were found insufficienit. Latiaaei (?oitti« 


fiUed to preacbi and heresj to spfead. The heads of the 
popish party applied to the bishop of Ely^ Dr. West, as 
their diocesan ; but that prelate was oot a man for their 
purpose ; he was a papist indeed, but moderate. He, how« 
erer, came to Cambridge, examined the state of religion, 
and, at their intreaty, preached against the heretics ; but 
he would do nothing farther ; only indeed he silenced Mr. 
Latimer, wbith, as he had preached himself, was an in- 
stance of his prudence. But this gave no check to the 
reformers ; for there happened at this time to be a pn>« 
testant prior in Cambridge, Dr. Barnes, of the Austin-^ 
friars, .who, having a monastery exempt from episcopal 
jurisdiction, and being a great admirer of Latimer, boldly 
licensed him to preach there. Hither his party followed 
him ; and, the late opposition having greatly excited the 
curiosity of the people, the friars* chapel was soon inca- 
pajble of containing the crowds that attended. Among 
others, it is remarkable, that the bishop of Ely was often one 
of his hearers, and bad the ingenuousness to declare, that 
Latimer was one of the best preachers he had ever heard. 
The credit to his cause which Latimer had thus gained in 
the pulpit, he maintained by the piety of his life. Bilney 
and he did not satisfy themselves with acting unexception- 
ably, but were daily giving instances of goodness, which 
malic^ could not scandalize, nor envy misrepresent They 
were always together concerting their schemes. The place 
where they used to walk, was long afterwards known by 
the of the Heretics* Hill. - Cambridge at that time 
was full of their good actions ; their charities to the poor, 
and friendly visits to the sick and unhappy, were then 
common topics. But these served only to increase the 
heat of persecution from their adversaries. Impotent 
themselves, and finding their diocesan either unable or 
unwilling to work their purposes, they determined upon 
an appeal to the higher powers ; and heavy complaints werd 
carried to court of tfjie increase of heresy, not without for- 
mal deposttious agaih^t the principal abettors of it 

Th^ principal persons at this time concerned in eccle« 
siasttodi a^airs were cardinal Wolsey, Warham archbishop 
of Gailterbury, and Tunstal bishop of London ; and as 
Henry VIH. was now in the expectation of having the bu- 
siness of -his divorce ended in a regular way at Rome, he 
was careful to observe all forms of civility with the pope. 
Hie cardinal therefore etected a court, consisting of biAcips^ 

Vol. XX. D 

3* L A-T I ME R. 

divines, and canonists, to put the laws in exeOution agdnst- 
heresy : of this court Tunstal was made president ; and - 
Bilney, Latimer, and one or two tx^oxe, were called before 
him. Bilney was considered as the heresiarch, and against 
him chiefly the rigour of the court was levelled ; and they 
succeeded so far that he was prevailed upon to recant : 
accordingly he bore his faggot, and was dismissed. As 
for Latimer, and the rest, they bad easier terms : Tunstal 
omitted no opportunities of shewing mercy ; and the here- 
tics, upon their dismission, returned to Cambridge, where 
they were received with open arms by their friends. Amidst 
this mutual joy, Bilney alone seemed unaffected ; he 
.shunned the sight of his acquaintance, and received their 
congratulations with confusion and blushes. In short, he 
was struck with remorse for what he had done, grew me- 
lancholy, and, after leading an ascetic life for three years, 
resolved to expiate his abjuration by death. In this reso- 
lution he went to Norfolk, the place of his nativity ; and,, 
preaching publicly against popery, he was apprehended 
by order of the bishop of Norwich, and, after lying a while 
^ in the county gaol, was executed in that city. 

His sufferings, far from shocking the reformation at 
Cambridge, inspired the leaders of it with new courage. 
Latimer began now to exert himself more than he had yet 
done ; and succeeded to that credit with his party, which. 
Bilney had so long supported. Among other instances of. 
his zeal and resolution in this cause, he gave one very re- 
markable : he had the courage to write to the king against 
a proclamation then just published, forbidding the use of 
the Bible in English, and other bpokson religious subjects. 
He bad preached before his majesty once or twice at 
Windsor^ and had been noticed by him in a more affable 
manner than that monarch usually- indulged towards his 
subjects. But, whatever hopes of preferment his sove- 
reign's favour tnight have raised in him, he chose to put. 
all to the hazard rather than omit what he thought his duty. , 
He was generally considered as one of the most eminent, 
who favoured protestantism, and therefore thought it be* 
^ame him to be one of the most forward in opposing 
popery. His letter is the picture of an honest and sincer^. 
heart : it was chiefly intended to point .out to the king the 
bad intention of the bishops in procuring the proclamation^, 
and concludes in these terms : ^^ Accept, gracious, sove-. 
reign, without displeasure, what I have written ^ I thoughtj> 

LA T I M E IL 35 

it nay duty to mention these things to yonr inajesty* No 
personal quarrel^ as God shall judge me, have I wiih.any 
man ; I wanted only to induce your majesty to consider 
well what kind of persons you have about you, and the ends 
for virbich they counsel. Indeed, great prince, many of 
them, or they are* much slandered, have very private ends. 
God grant your majesty may see through all the designs 
of evil men, and be in all things equal to the high office 
with which you are intrusted. Wherefore, gracious king^ 
remember yourself, have pity upon your own soul, and 
think that the day is at hand, when you shall give account 
of your office, and of the blood that hath been shed by 
your sword : in the which day, that your grace nfay stand 
stedfasdy, and not be ashamed, but be clear and ready in 
your reckoning, and have your pardon sealed with the 
blood of our Saviour Christ, which alone serveth at that 
day, is my daily prayer to him who suffered death for our 
sins. The spirit of God preserve you!" 

Though the influence of the popish party then prevailed 
so far that this letter producied no effect, yet the king, no 
way displeased, received it, not only with temper, but 
with condescension, graciously thanking him for his well* 
intended advice. The king, capricious and tyrannical as 
be was, shewed, in many instances, that he loved sincerity 
and openness ; and Latimer's plain and simple manner had 
before made a favourable impression -upon him, which this 
letter contributed not a little to strengthen ; and the part 
be acted in promoting the establishment of the king's su« 
premacy, in 1535, riveted him in the royal favour, -Dr. 
Butts, the king's physician, being sent to Cambridge on that 
occasion, began immediately to pay his court to the pro- 
testant party, from whom the king expected most unani« 
mity in bis favour. Amongthe first, Jiemade his applica* 
tion to Latimer, as a person most likely to serve him; 
begging that he would collect the opinions of his friends in 
the case, and do his utmost to bring over those of most 
eminence, who were still inclined to the papacy. Latimer^- 
being a thorough friend to the cause he was to solicit, un- 
dertook it with his usual zeal,' and discharged himself s6 
much to the satisfaction of the doctor, that, when that 
gentleman returned to court, he took Latimer alotfg with 
him, with a design, no doubt, to procure him. some favouf 
suitfi(ble to bis merit. 

. D 2 


About this time a person was rising into power, who be^ 
came his chief friend and patron : The lord Cromwell, who, 
bein^ a friend to the Reformation, encouraged of course 
8u<^h churchmen as inclined towards it. Among these was 
Latinier, for whom his patron soon obtained West Kington, 
a benefice in Wiltshire, whither he resolved, as soon a& 
possible, to repair, and keep a constant residence. His friend 
Dr. Butts, surprized at this resolution, did what he could / 
to dissuade him from ft : *^ You are deserting,*' said he^ , 
^^ the fairest opportunities of making your fortune : the prime 
minister intends this only as an earnest of his future fa* 
vours, and will certainly in time do great things for you : 
but it is the manner of courts to consider them as provided 
for, who seem to be satisfied ; and, take my word for it, an 
absent claimant stands but a poor chance among rivals who 
have the advantage of being present." Thus the old 
courtier advised. But these arguo^ents had no weight. He 
was heartily tired of the court, where he saw much debau- 
chery and irreligion, without being able to oppose them ; 
and, leaving the palace therefore, entered immediately 
upon the duties of his parish. Nor was he satisfied within 
those limits; he extended his labours throughout the 
county, where he observed the pastoral care most ne- 
glected, having for that purpose obtained a general licence 
from the university of Cambridge. As his manner of 
preaching was very popular in those times, the pulpits every 
vrfiere were gladly opened for him ; and at Bristol, where 
he often preached, he was countenanced by the magis-. 
trates. But this reputation was too much for the popish 
clergy to suffer, and their opposition first broke out at 
Bristol. The mayor had appointed him to preach there on 
" Easter^day. Public tiotice had been given, and all people 
were pleased; when, suddenly, came an order from the 
bishop, prohibiting any one to preach there without his 
licence. The clergy of the place waited upon .Latimer, in- 
formed him of the bishop's order; and, knowing he had na 
such licence, were extremely sorry that they were thus 
deprived of the pleasure of hearing him. Latimer received 
their compliment with a smile ; for he had been apprized 
of the affair, and knew that these very persons had written 
to the bishop against him. Their opposition became after- 
wards more public and avowed ; the pulpits were used to 
spread iuvectives against him; and such liberties were 


taken with his character, that he thought it necessary to 
justify himself. Accordingly, he called upon his malignevs 
to accuse him publicly before the mayor of Bristol ; and, 
with all mea of candour, he was justified ; for, when the 
parties were convened, and the accusers produced, no- 
thing appeared against him; but the whole accusatiosn 
was left to rest upon the uncertain evidence of hearsay 

His enemies, however, were not thus silenced. The party 
against him became daily stronger, and more inflamed. It 
consisted in general of the country priests in those parts, 
headed by some divines of more eminence. These persons, 
after mature deliberation, drew up articles against him, ex« 
tracted chiefly from his sermons ; in which he was charged 
with speaking lightly of the worship of saints ; with saying 
there was no material fire in hell ; and that he would rather 
be in purgatory than in Lollard's tower. This charge being 
laid before Stokesley bishop of London, that prelate cited 
Latimer to appear before him ; and, when he appealed to 
his own ordinary, a citation was obtained out of the arch- 
bishop's court, where Stokesley and other bishops weife 
commissioned to examine him. An archiepiscopal citation 
brought him at once to a compliance. His friends would 
have had him fly for it ; but their persuasions were in vain. 
He set out for London in the depth of winter, and under 
a severe fit of the stone and cholic ; but he was more dis* 
tressed at the thoughts of leaving his parish exposed to 
the popish clergy, who would not fail to undo in his ab- 
sence what he bad hitherto done. On his arrival at Lon- 
don, be found a court of bishops and canonists ready to 
receive him ; where, instead of being examined, as he ex- 
pected, about his sermons, a paper was put into his hands, 
which he was ordered to subscribe, declaring his belief in 
the eflScacy of masses for the souls in purgatory, of prayers 
to the dead saints, of pilgrimages to their sepulchres and 
reliques, the pope's power to forgive sins, the doctriue of 
merit, the seven sacraments, and the worship of images ; 
and, when he refused to sign it, the archbishop with a 
frown begged he would consider what he did. ^< We intend 
not," says he, ^^ Mr. Latimer, to be hard upon you ; we 
dismiss you for the present ; take a copy of the articles, 
examine them carefully ; and God grant that, at our next 
meeting, we may find each other ifi a better temper S'* 
At the nextaAd several succeeding meetings the same scene 


was acted over again. He continued inflexible, and they 
conjtinued to distress him. Three times every week they 
regularly sent for him, with a view either to draw some- 
thing from him by captious questions, ^or to teaze him at 
length into compliance. Of one of these examinations he 
gives the following account: ^^I was brought out,'' says 
he, ^*.to be examined in the same chamber as before.; but 
at this time it was somewhat altered : for, whereas befor^e 
there was a fire in the chimney, now the fire was taken 
away, and an arras hanged over the chimney, and the table 
stood near the chimney's end. . There was, among these 
bishops that examined me, one with whom I have been 
very familiar, and whom I took for my great friend, an 
aged man ; and he sat next the table-end. Then, among 
other questions, he put forth one, a very subtle and crafty 
one; and when I. should make answer, ' I pray you, Mr. 
Latimer,' said he, < speak out, I am very thick of hearing, 
and there be many that sit far off.' I marvelled at this, 
that I was bidden to speak out, and began to misdeem, 
and gave an ear to the chimney ; and there I heard a pen 
plainly scratching behind the clotli. They had appointed 
one there to write all my answers, that I should not start 
from them.. God was my good Lord, and gave m^ an- 
swers ; I could never else have escaped them." At length 
he was tired out with such usage ; and when he was next 
summoned, instead of going himself, he . sent a letter tp 
the archbishop, in which, with great freedom, he tells him, 
that *^ the treatment he had of late met with, had fretted 
him into such a disorder as rendered him unfit to attend 
that day ; that, in the mean time, he could not help taking 
this opportunity to expostulate with his grace for detaining 
him so long from the discharge of his duty ; that it seemed 
to him most unaccountable, that they, who never preached 
themselves, should hinder others ; that, as for their exar 
mination of him, he really could not imagine what they 
aimed at; they pretended one thing in the .beginning, 
and another in the progress; that, if his sermqns were 
what gave offence, which he persuaded himself were neither 
contrary to the truth, nor to any canon of the church, he 
was ready to answer whatever might be thought exception- 
able in them ; that be wished a little more regard might 
be had to the judgment of the people ; and that a distinc- 
tion might be made between the ordinances of God and 

jmu > lUat U some abases m reUgion did prevail^ -s^. was 


then commoiily supposed, be thought preaching was the 
be&t means to discountenance them ; that be wished all 
pastors might be obliged to perform their duty : but that^ 
however, liberty might be given to those who were willing; 
that, as for the articles proposed to him, he begged to be 
excused from subscribing tbem ; while he lived, he never 
would abet superstition : and that, lastly, he hoped the 
^archbishop would excuse what he had written ; he knew 
his duty to his superiors, and would practise it : but, in 
that case> he thought a stronger obligation laid upon 

What particular effect this letter produced, we are not 
informed. The bishops, however, continued their prose* 
cution,.till their schemes were frustrated by an unexpected 
hand ; for the king^ being informed, most probably by 
lord Cromwell's means, of Le^timer's ill-usage, interposed 
^n his behalf, and rescued him out of their hands. A figure 
of so much simplicity, and such an apostolic appearance as 
his at court, did not fail to strike Anne Boleyn, who men- 
tioned him to her friends, as a person, in her opinion, 
well qualified to forward the Reformation, the principled 
^f which she had imbibed from her youth. Cromwell 
rai3ed our preacher still higher in her esteem; and they 
both joined in an earnest recommendation of him for a 
bishopric to the king, who did not want much solicitation 
in bis favour. It happened, that the sees of Worcester 
and Salisbury weise at that time vacant, by the deprivation* 
of Ghinuccii and Campegio, two Italian bishops, who fell 
under the king's displeasure, upon his rupture with Rome« 
The former of these, was offered to Latimer; and, as this 
promotion came unexpectedly to him, he looked upon it 
as the work of Providence, and accepted it without much 
persuasion. Indeed, he bad met with such usage already, 
as a private clergyman, and saw before him so hazardous a 
*|>rospect in his old station, that he thought it necessary, 
both for bis own safety, and fpr the sake of being of more 
service to the world, to shroud himself under a little more 
temporal power. All historians mention him as a person re* 
markably zealous in the discharge of bis new office; and 
tell us, that, in overlooking the clergy of his diocese, 
he was uncommonly active, warm, and resolute, and pre- 
sided in bis ecclesiastical court in the same, spirit In; 
visiting he was frequent and. observant: in ordaining strict 
wd wary : la preaching indefatigable : in reproving and 


exhortifig severe and persuasive. Thus far he could act 
with authority ; but in other things he found himself under 
difficulties. The popish ceremonies gave him great offence; 
yet he neither durst, in times so dangerous and unsettled^ 
lay them entirely aside ; nor, on the other hand, was he 
willing entirely to retain them. In this dilemma his address 
was admirable : he inquired into their origin ; and when be 
found any of them derived from a good meaning, heincul* 
cat^d their original, though itself a ccnrruption, in the room 
of a more corrupt practice. Thus he put the people in 
mind, when holy bread and water were distributed, that 
these elements, which had long been thought endowed with 
• kind of magical influence, were nothing more'than appeii-* 
dages to the two sacraments of the Lord's*supper and bap- 
tism : the'former, he said, reminded us of Cbrist^s death ; 
and the latter was only a simple representation of being pu« 
rified from sin. By thus reducing popery to its principl^s^ 
he improved, in some measure, a bad stock, by lopping 
from it a few fruitless excrescences. 
. While his endeavours to reform were thus confined te 
his diocese, he wfs called upon to exert them in a more 
public manner, by a summons to parliament and convocn^ 
tion in 1536. This session was thought a crisis by the 
Protestant party, at the head of which stood the lord 
Cromwell, whose favour with the king was now in its me- 
ridian. Next to him in power was Cranmer archbishop 
of Canterbury, after whom the bishop of Worcester was 
the most considerable man of the party ; to whom were 
added the bishops of Ely, Rochester, Hereford, Salisbury, 
and St. David's. On the other hand, the popish party was 
headed by Lee archbishop of York, Gardiner, Stokesle}!^ 
smd Tunsta), bishops of Winchester, London, and Dur- 
ham. The convocation was opened as usual by a sermon^ 
or rather an oration, spoken, at the appointment of Cran- 
mer, by the bishop of Worcester, .whose eloquence was at 
this time everywhere famous. Many warm debates passed 
in this assembly ; the result of which was, that four sacra- 
ments out of the seven were concluded to be insignificant : 
but, as the bishop of Worcester made no figure in them, 
for debating was not his talent, it is beside our purpose to 
enter into a detail of what was done in it. Many altera- 
tions were made in favour of the reformation ; and, a few 
months after, the Bible was translated into English, and 
recommended to general perusal in October 1537^ 

JL A T I M E R. 41 

In tbe mean time the bishop of Worcester, highly satis- 
fied with the prospect of tbe times, repaired to his diocese, 
having made a longer stay in London than was absolutely 
necessary. He had no tpileuts for state affairs, and there* 
fore mtddled not with them. It is upon that account that 
bishop Burnet speaks very slightingly of his public charac- 
ter at this time, but it is certain that Latimer never desired 
to appear in any public character at all. His whole am- 
bition was to discharge the pastoral functions of a bishop, 
neither aiming to display the abilities of a statesman, nor 
those of a courtier. ^How very unqualified he was to sup- 
port the latter of. the3e characters, will sufficiently appear 
ifom tbe following story. It was the custom in those days 
for the bishops to make presents to the king on New-year^ s- 
day, and many of them would present very liberally, pro- 
portioning their gifts to. their expectations. Among the 
rest, the bishop of Worcester, being at this time in town, 
waited upon the king with his o£Fering; but instead of a 
purse of gold, which was the common oblation, he pre- 
sented a New Testament, with a leaf doubled down, in a 
very conspicuous manner, to this passage, ^^ Whoremon- 
gers and adulterers God will judge." 

Henry VIII. made so little use of his judgment, that his 
whole reign was one continued rotation of violent passions, 
which rendered him a mere machine in the hands of his 
ministers ; and he among them who could make the most 
artful address to the passion of the day, carried his point. 
Gardiner, bishop of Winchester, was just returned from 
Germany, having successfully negotiated some commis- 
sions which the king had. gready at heart ; and, in 1539, 
a parliament was called, to confirm the seizure and sur- 
jrendry of the monasteries, when that subtle minister took 
his opportunity, and succeeded in prevailing upon his ma- 
jesty, to do something towards restoring the old religion, 
^. being most advantageous for bis views in the present 
situation of Europe. In this state of affairs, Latimer re- 
ceived his summons to parliament, and, soon after his ar- 
rival in town, -he was accused of preaching a seditious 
sermon. The sermon was preached at court, and the 
preacher, according tq, his custom, had been unquestion- 
ably severe enough against whatever he observed amiss. 
The king had called together several bishops, with a view 
to consult, them upoa some points of religion. When they 
bad all given their opinions, and ^ere about to be dis- 



missed, tlie bishop of Winchester (for it was most pfobdbly 
be) kneeled down and accused the bishop of Worcester as 
above-mentioned. The bishop being called upon by the 
king with some sternness, to vindicate himself, was so far 
from denying or even palliating what he said, that be 
boldly justified it; and turning to the king, with that 
noble unconcern which a goc(d conscience inspires, made 
this auswer : " I never thought myself worthy, nor I never 
suedto be a preacher before your grace ; but I was called to 
it, and would be willing, if you mislike it, to give place 
to my betters ; for I grant there may he a. great many more 
worthy of , the room than I am. Andt if it be your gtace-s 
pleasure to allow them for preacher^, I could be content to 
bear their books after them. But if your grace allow me 
for a preacher, I would desire you to give me leave to dis«- 
charge my conscience, and to frame my doctrine according 
to my audience. I had been a very dok indeed, to have 
preached so at the. borders of your realm, as I preach be- 
fore your grace." This answer baffled his accuser's malice^ 
the severity of the king's conscience changed into a gra- 
cious smile, and the bishop was dismissed with that oblig- 
ing freedom which this monarch never used but to those 
whom he esteemed. In this parliament passed the famous 
act, as it was called, of the six articles^, which was no 
sooner published than it gave an universal alarm to all the 
favourers of the reformation ; and, as the bishop of Worv 
cester could not give his vote for the act, he thought it 
wrong to hold any office. He therefore resigned bis bi- 
shopric f, and retired into the country ; where be resided 
during the heat of that persecution which followed upoa 
this act, and thought of nothing for the remainder of his 
days but a sequestered life. . He knew the storta which was 
up could not soon be appeased, and he had no inclination 
to trust himself in it. But, . in the midst of his security, 
an unhappy accident carried him again into the tepipestu^ 

* These articles were, 1. In the sa-. 
crament of the altar, after the coDse> 
cration there remains no substance of 
bread and wine, but the natural bod^r 
and blood of Christ. 2. Vows of chas- 
tity oogiit to be observed. S. The use 
of private masses ought to be continued* 
4. Cprnmunion in both kinds is not ne- 
cessary. 5. Priests must not marry. 
6. Aurienlar -'confession is to be re- 
tained in the church. 

f it is related of him, that when he 
came from the parliament-bouse to his 
lodgings, be threw off his robes ; aocf, 
leaping up, declared t6 those aboul; 
him, that he found himself iigtiter than 
ever be found himself before. Thfe 
itory is not unlikely, a^itismnchia 
charactec: a vein of pleasantry and 
good humour accompanying the most 
serious actions of^his liie. > 


ous weather that was abroad : he received a bruise by the 
fall of a tree, and the contusion was so dangerous, that he 
was obliged to seek out for better assistance than the coun-^ 
try afforded. With this view he repaired to London, 
where he had the misfortune to see the fall of his patron, 
the lord Cromwell ; a loss of which he was soon made sen- 
sible. Gardiner's emissaries quickly found him out ; and 
something, - that somebody had somewhere heard him say 
against the six articles, being alleged against him, he was 
sent to the Tower, where, without any judicial examina*' 
tion, he suffered, through one pretence or another, a 
cruel imprisonment for the remaining six years of king 
Henry's reign. 

Immediately upon the accession of Edward VI. he and 
all others who were imprisoned in the same cause, were 
set at liberty ; and Latimer, whose old friends were now 
in power, was received by them with every mark of affec^ 
tion. He* would have found no difficulty in dispossessing 
Heath, in every respect an insignificant man, who had 
succeeded to his bishopric : but be had other sentiments, 
and would neither make suit himself, nor suffer his friends 
to make any, for his restoration. However, this was done 
by the parliament, who, after settling the national con'- 
cems, sent up an address to the protector to restore him': 
and the protector was very well inclined, and proposed 
the resumption to Latimer as a point which he had very 
much at heart ; but Latimer persevered in the negative, 
alleging his great age, and the claim he had from thence 
to a private life. Having thus rid himself of all incum- 
brance,' he accepted an invitation from Cranmer, and took 
up his residence at Lambeth, where he led a very retired 
life, being chiefly employed in hearing the complaints and 
redressing the injuries, of the poor people. And, indeed-, 
his character for services of this kind was so universally 
known, that strangers from every part of England would 
resort to him, so that he had as crowded a levee as a mi- 
nister of state. In these employments he spent more thaii 
two years, interfering as little as possible in any public 
transaction ; only he assisted the archbishop in composing 
the homilies, which were set forth by authority in the first 
year of king Edward ; be was also appointed to preach the 
Lent sermons before his majesty, which office he performed 
during the first three years of his reign ^. As to his ser- 

* We are informed by Dr. Heylin, that the pulpif was remoTed out of the 
that such crowds went to hear Latimer, Royal chapel into the Privy .garden. 


inons, which are still extant^ they are, indeed, far enougk 
from being exact pieces of composition : yet, his simpli* 
city and familiarity, his humour and gibing drollery, were 
well adapted to the times ; and his oratory, according to 
the mode of eloquence at that day, was exceedingly popu- 
lar. His action and manner of preaching too were very 
affecting, for he spoke immediately from his heart His 
abilities, however, as an orator, made only the inferior 
part of bis character as a preacher. What particularly re- 
commends him is, that noble and apostolic zeal which b« 
exerts in the cause of truth. 

But in the discharge of this duty a slander passed upom 
him, which, being recorded by a low historian of thojie 
days, has found its way into ours. It is even recorded as 
credible, hy Milton, who sufFerefd his zeal against episco- 
pacy, in more instances than this, to bias his veracity, or 
at best to impose upon his understanding. It is said that 
after the lord high admiral's attainder and execution, which 
happened about this time, he publicly defended his death 
in a sermon before the king ; that he aspersed his charac- 
ter ; and that he did it merely to pay a servile complimeat 
to the protector. The first part of this charge is true ; but 
the second and third are false. As to his aspersing the ad« 
miraPs character; his character was so bad, there was no 
room for aspersion ; his treasonable practices too were no- 
torious, and though the proceeding against him by a bill 
in parliament, according to the custom of these times, may 
be deemed inequitable, yet he paid no more than a due 
forfeit to the laws of his country. However, his death oc<* 
casioned great clamour, and was made usi^ of by the lords 
of the opposition (for he left a very dissatisfied party be- 
hind him), as an handle to raise a popular odium against 
the protector, for whom Latimer had always a high esteem* 
He was mortified therefore to see so invidious and base an 
opposition thwarting the schemes of so public-spirited a 
man ; and endeavoured to lessen the odium, by shewing 
the admiraPs character in its true light, from some anec- 
dotes not commonly known. This notice of lord Seymour, 
which was in Latimer's fourth sermon before king Edward, 
is to be found only in the earlier editions. 

Upon the revolution which happened at court after the 
death of the d uke of Somerset, Latimer seems to have retired 
into the country, and made use of the king's licence as a 
general preacher in those parts where be thought his labours 



might be most serviceable. He ttras thus employed daring 
the remainder of that reign, and continued in the same course, 
for a short time, in the beginning of the next ; but, as soon as 
the introduction of popery was resolved on, the first step to- 
wards it was the prohibition of all preaching throughout the 
kingdom, and a licensing only of such as were known to be 
popishly inclined : accordingly, a strict inquiry was made 
after the more forward and popular preachers ; and many 
of them were taken into custody. The bishop of Win- 
chester, who was now prime minister, having proscribed 
Latimer from the first, sent a message to cite him before 
the council. He had notice of this design some hours be- 
fore the messenger^s arrival, but made no use of the intel- 
ligence. The messenger found him equipped for his jour- 
ney; at which expressing surprize, Latimer told him that 
he was as ready to attend him to London, thus called upon to 
answer for bis faith, as he ever was to take any journey in 
his life ; and that he doubted not but God, who had en- 
abled him to stand before two princes, would enable him to 
stand before a third. The messenger, then acquainting 
hiqi that he had no orders to seize his person, delivered a 
letter, and departed. Latimer, however, opening the letter, 
and finding it contain a citation from the council, resolved 
to obey it He set out therefore immediately ; and, as he 
passed throueh Smithfield, where heretics were usually 
burnt, he said cheerfully, '^ This place hath long groaned 
for me." The next morning he waited upon the council, 
who, having loaded him with many severe reproaches, sent 
him to the Tower. This was his second visit to thisprison,^ 
but now he met with harsher treatment, and had more fre« 
quent occasion to exercise his resignation, which virtue no 
man possessed in a larger measure ; nor did the usual cheer- 
fulness of his disposition forsake him. A servant leaving 
his apartment one day, Latimer called after him, and bid 
him tell his master, that unless he took better care of him, 
he would certainly escape him. Upon this message the 
lieutenant, with some discomposure of countenance, came 
tb Latimer^ and desired an explanation. " Why, you ex- 
pect, I suppose, sir,** replied Latimer, " that I should be 
burnt ; but If you do not allow me a little fire this frosty 
weather, I can tell you, I shall first be starved.** Cran- 
mer and Ridley were also prisoners in the same cause with 
Latimer; and when it was resolved to have a public dis- 
putation at Oxford, between the knost eminent of the popish 


and protestant divines, these three were appointed to tb^ 
nage the dispute on the part of the protestants. Accord- 
ingly they were taken out of the Tower, and sent toOxford, 
where they were closely confined in the cominon prison^ 
and might easily imagine how free the disputation was 
likely to be, when they found themselves denied the use 
even of books, aiid pen and ink. 

Fox has preserved a conference, afterwards put inta 
writing, which was held at this time between Ridley and 
Latimer, and which sets our author^s temper in a strong 
light. The two bishops are represented sitting in tbei-r 
prison, ruminating upon the solemn preparations thei> 
making for their trial, of which, probably, they were now ' 
first informed. " The time,'* said Ridley, *' is now come ; 
we are now called upon, either to deny our faith, or to 
suffer death in its defence. You, Mr. Latimer, are an old 
soldier of Christ, and have frequently withstood the fear of 
death; whereas I am raw in the service, and unexpe* 
rienced.'' With this preface he introduces a request that 
Latimer, whom he calls ^^ his father,^' would hear him 
propose such arguments as he thinks it most likely his ad- 
vjersaries would urge against him, and assist him in pro- 
viding proper answers to them. To this Latimer, id his 
usual strain of good humour, replied that ^' he fancied the 
good bishop was treating him as he remembered Mr. BiK 
ney used formerly to do ; who, when he wanted to teach 
him, would always do it under colour of l^eing taught him- 
sielf. But in the present case,^' said he, ^^ my lord, I am 
determined to give them very little trouble: I shall just 
offer them a plain account of my faith, and shall say very 
little more; for I know any thing more will be to no 
purpose : they talk of a free disputation, but I am well 
assured their grand argument will be, as it once was their 
forefathers, * We have a law, and by our law ye ought to 
die.' Bishop Ridley having afterwards desired his prayers,; 
that he mi^ht trust wholly upon God : " Of my prayers,'* 
replied the old bishop, ^^ you may be well, assured ; nor 
do I doubt but I shall have yours in return, and indeed 
prayer and patience should be our great resources. . Fo^i 
inyself, had I the learning of St. Paul, I should think it: 
ill laid out upon an elaborate defence ; yet our case, my/ 
lord, admits of comfort. Our enemies can do no more< 
than Cod permits; and God is faithful, who, will not suf-^ 
i^r us, to be tempted aboye our 8trei>gth. Be at a points 

L- A T I M E R. • « 

wkh them ; gtond totbat, and let them say and do what 
they please. . To use many words would be vain ; yet it is 
requisite to give a. reasonable account of your faith, if they 
will quietly hear you. For other things, in a wicked judg- 
ment-hall, a man may keep silence after the example of 
Christ/' &c. Agreeably to this fortitude, Latimer con- 
ducted himself throughout the dispute, answering their 
questions as far as civility required; and in these answers 
it is observable he managed the argument much better thaa. 
either Ridley or Cranmer ; who, when they were pressed 
in defence of trapaubstantiation, with some passages from 
the fathers, instead of disavowing an insufficient authority, 
weakly defended a good cause by evasions and distinctions, 
after the manner of schoolmen. Whereas, when the same ' 
proofs were multiplied upon Latimer, he told them plainly 
that ^' such proofs had no weight with him ; that the fa- 
thers, no doubt, were often deceived ; and that he never 
depended upon them but when they depended upon Scrip- 
ture.'* " Then you are not of St. Chrysostom's faith," 
replied they, " nor of St. Austin's ?" " I have told you,'* 
says Latimer, .'< I am not, ex<:ept they bring Scripture 
for what they say." The dispute being ended, sentence 
lyas passed upon him ; and he and Ridley were burnt at 
Oxford, on Oct. 16, 1555. When they were brought to' 
the fire, on a spot of ground on the north side of Baliol- 
coUege, and, after a suitable sermon, were told by an 
offiper that they might now make ready for the stake, they 
supported each other's constancy by mutual exhortations. 
Latimer, when tied to the stake, called to his companion, 
M Be of good cheer, brother; we shall this day kindle such 
a torch in England, as I trust in God shall never be ex- 
tinguished." — The executioners had been so merciful (for 
that clemency may more naturally be ascribed to them than 
tp the religious, zealots) as to tie bags of. gunpowder about 
these prelates, in. order to put a speedy period to their*. 
tortures. The explosion killed L&timer imniediately ; but 
Ridley continued alive during some time, in the midst of' 
the flames. — 'Such was the life of Hugh Latimer, one ofr 
the* leaders of that glorious army of martyrs, .who intro-/ 
du^ecl the reformation in England, He was. not esteemed. 
a*^very learned man, for he cultivated only useful learning; 
and that, he thought, lay in a very narrow compass' Hb^ 
n'iBVer 6nga^ed in worldly affairs, thinking that a clergy-.. 
man ought to employ himself in his professibivouly 9 and 

4» L A T I M E R. 

bis talents, temper, and disposition, were adAiirat)!^ 
adapted to render the most important services to the re-' 

Latimer^s " Sermons" appear to have been printed se-' 
parately at first ; but a collection was published in 1549,' 
8vo, and a larger afterwards in 4to, has often been re- 
printed. They contain in a quaint and familiar style, 
more ample materials for a hiistpry of the manners and 
morals of the time, than any volume we are acquainted 
with of that period ; and the number of anecdotes he 
brought forward to illustrate his subjects, must have con- 
tributed greatly to his popularity.* 

LATIMER (William), one of the revivers of classical^ 
learning in England, was educated at Oxford, and became 
fellow of All-Souls* college, in 1489. Afterwards travelling 
into Italy, which was then the resort of those who wished' 
to extend their studies, he remained for some time at' 
Padua, where he improved himself very much, especially 
in the Greek language. On his return to England,' he 
was incorporated M. A. ^t Oxford, Nov. 18, 1513. Soon 
afterwards he became tutor to Reginald Pole, afterwards 
tbe celebrated cardinal, by whose interest, it is thought, 
be obtained the rectories of Saintbury and Weston-under- 
Edge, in Gloucestershire, and a prebend of Salisbury* 
He had also the honour of being one of those who taught 
Erasmus Greek at Oxford, and assisted him in the second 
edition of his New Testament. He died very old, about 
Sept. 1545 ; and was buried in the chancel of his church 
at Saintbury. He was reckoned one of the greatest men 
of his age, and with Colet, Lily, and Grocyn, contributed 
much to establish a taste for the Greek language. Eras- 
mus styles him an excellent divine, conspicuous for in* 
tegrity and modesty ;. and Leland celebrates his eloquence, 
judgment, piety, and generosity. Of his writings there is 
nothing extant, but a few letters to Erasmus.' 

LATINI (Brunetto), an eminent grammarian of Flo- 
rence, in the thirteenth century, was of a noble family in 
that city, and during the party contests between the 
Guelphs and Ghibelins, took part with the fofmer. ^h^v 
tbe Ghibelins hsld obtained assistance from Mainfroy, king 

t Life by Oilpio, and by Fox, in Wordsworth's EccU Biography, to which 
refer on aceount of tbe ▼aluable notes.— -Baroet's Hist, of the Reformation.— 
Ct>llier*s Ob. Hist. 

* Ath. Ox. T<d. I.— Jaiiin's Erasmas.—Kaight's dittoy 


L A *r I ^ 1. 4^ 

i>f Sitil?, th^ Godphs seht Brtknetto to obtain similar aid 
fi-oni Alphonso king of CaBtiik; but oti his return, hearing 
that the Ghibelihs had defeated hi^ t)arly and eot posses- 
idnn of Florence, be fled to Fraricfe, Wb^re lie resi()ed 
i^erai years. At length he was enabled to retuHi to his 
own cotifitry, ih whith he ^d appoihted to sottie honour* 
able offices. He died in 1294. The historian Villahi at- 
tHbiltes td hicti the m^rit of h&vin^ fiHt introduced it de- 
^e of i^eBneinent atnong his ceuhti-jmen, ind of having 
reforttied their language, and the genei-al cohduct of public 
affijiirs. The v^otk which ha^ contributed most to his ce- 
lebrity, was oHe which he ehtltled " Tresbr,'* and wrote 
HihtKi in Prance, and irt the Ff-eficb lahguage, which be 
iHys he chose because it ^as the (host agreeable language 
and the tnon common in £uh)))e. This work is a kind of 
abridgtkiebt of the fiible, o^ Piiny thb naturalist, So(inu^» 
and other writers who have treated on different sciences^ 
and may be called an Encyclopsdia of the knowledge of 
his time. It was translated into Italian about the same 
piVib^, AtiA tbiJ} tran^laiibn 6»ly Was pnhtedi bui there 
ikie.about 4 dot^n tfani^ct^ipis 6f the original iii the royal 
llbraiT at Pdrt^, and ihefe Is a tft6 Ms. of il iii the Vatir 
tkti, m>tlnd ih (:riA[^siDii Velvet, ^\th ttianuscript notes, hjf 
PitM^h. Af^er his retufn td Floteilice, Latini wrote his 
*^ TesDtetto,** o¥ little treasure, which, however, is no^ 
ai stime have reported, an abridgn&eht of the " Tresor,*' 
but a colle^tton bf liioral precepts ih verse, ke also 
tfanslated ifito the Italian language part of Cicero ** de In- 
Ventiboe.^' fiis gi-eatedt honour seems to have been that 
hef was. the tbtoir of Dante, not however in poetry, for bis 
*^Tes6retto** affords no ground to consider hitn as a master 
X>f that art.' 

LATlNtJS (LatiKiUs), one of the most learned critics 
of the sixteenth century, was born about 15 13, at Yiterbo. 
Hid acquired an extensive knowledge of the belles lettres 
atid (Sciences, and was chosen witb the other learned meo| 
in 157 J, to correct Gratian*s " Decretal," in which great 
W6tk he took much pains. H^ died January 21, 1593, ai 
Rotoe. Latinus left Aotes on Tertulliah, and a very learneci 
bonk, entitled *^ iBibliotbeca sacra el profand, sive Observa* 

1 Tirabotcbi -'^Crescerebtoi.^-Oinsu^i Hist. Lit X>*itaiie. 
^ Saxii OnoioatU— Diet. Hist. 

YoL. XX. £ 

50 L A T O M E. 

. LATOME, or LATOMUS (James), a learned scholastk? 
divine of the sixteenth century, a native of Gambron, in 
Hainault, doctor of Louvain, and canon of St. Peter'^s in . 
the same city, wrote against Luther, and was esteemed by 
his party one of the best controversialists of his time. He 
died 1544. All his works were collected and published, 
1550, fol. by his nephew, James Latomus, who died 1596. 
They are io Latin, and consist of " Treatises on the 
Church," the " Pope's Primacy," aud ^ Auricular Con- 
fession ;" a ** Defence of the Articles of Louvain ;" a tract 
** On the study of Divinity, and of the three Languages," 
in which he defends scholastic divinity. ^ Erasmus having 
refuted this work, Latomus answered him by an Apology. 
He wrote Latin with facility, but without elegance, and 
neither understood Greek nor Hebrew. Luther's confu- 

% ... 

tation of Latomus's defence of the articles of Louvain is 
accounted one of the ablest productions of that eminent 


LAtJD (William), archbishop of Canterbury, was son 
of William Laud, a clothier of Reading;, in Berkshire, by 
Lucy his wife, widow of John Robinson, of the same place, 
and sister to sir William Webbe, afterwards lord-mayor of 
London, in 1591. His father died in 1594, leaving his 
son, after his mother's decease, the house which he inha- 
bited in Broad-street, and two others in Swallowfield ; 
1200/. in money, and the stock in trade. The widow wfis 
to have the interest of half the estate during her life. She 
died in 1600. These circumstances, although in them- 
selves of little importance, it is necessary to mention as a 
contradiction to the assertion of Prynne, that he was of 
poor and ' obscure parents, which was repeated by lord 
Say, in the house of peers. He was born at Reading, 
Oct. 7, 1573, and educated at the free-school there, tUl 
July 1589 ; when, removing to St. John's college, in Ox- 
ford, he became a scholar of the house in 1590, and fellow 
in 1593. He took the degree of A. B. in 1594, and that 
of master in 1598. He was this year chosen grammar- 
lecturer; and being ordained priest in 1601, read, th^ 
following year, a divinity-lecture in his college, which 
w^s then supported by Mrs. Maye. Tn some of these^ 
chapel exercises he maintained against the puritans, the 

* Dupin.— Moreri. 

LAUD. 51 

perpetual visibility of the church of Rome till the refortna* 
tion ; by which he incurred the displeasure of Dr. Abbot, 
then vice-chancellor of the university, who maintained that 
the visibility of the church of Christ might be deduced 
through other channels to the time of that reformation. 
In 1603, Xaud was one of the proctors; and the same 
year became chaplain to Charles Blount, earl of Devon- 
shire, whom he in<ionsiderateIy married, Dec. 26, 1605, to^ 
. Penelope, then wife of Robert lord Rich; an affair that 
exposed him afterwards to much censure^ and created him 
great uneasiness; in reality, it made so deep an impres* 
sion upon him, that he ever after kept that day as a day of 
fasring and humiliation*. 

He proceeded B. D. July 6, 1604. In his exercise for 
this degree, be maintained these two points : the neces- 
sity of baptism ; and that there could be no true church 
without diocesan bishops. These were levelled also against 
the puritans, and he was rallied by the dtvinityrprofessor. 
He ]ikewi£»e gave farther offence to the Calvinists, by a 
sermon preached before the university in 160j6; and -we 
are loki it was made heresy for any to be seen in his com- 
pany, and a misprision of heresy to give him a civil salu- 
tation ; his learning, parts, and principles, however, pro- 
cured him some friends. His first preferment was the vi-' 
carage of Stanford, in Northamptonshire, in 1607; and 
in 1608 he obtained the advowson of North Kilwortb, in 
Leicestershire. He was no sooner invested in these livings, 
but he put the parsonage- houses in good repair, and gav^ 
twelve poor people a constant allowance out of them, 
which was bis constant practice in all his subsequent pre- 
ferments. This same year be commenced D. D. and was 
made chaplain to Neile, bishop of Rochester ; and preached' 
his first sermon before king James, at I'beobalds, Sept. 
17, 1609. In order to be near his ]>atron, be Exchanged 
North Kilwortb for the rectory of West Tilbury, in Essex, 
into which he was inducted in 1609.. The following year, 
the bishop gave him the living of Cuckstone, in Kent, on 
which he resigned his fellowship, left Oxford, and settled' 
at Cuckstone ; but the unhealthiness of that place having-^ 
thrown him into an ague, he exchanged it 800i> after for- 
Norton, a benefice of less value^ but in a better air. >. 

* She was divorced by the eeclesi' in the opinion, that in case of a dr- 
astical jtidge for adultery ; and Laod vorce, both the innocent and guilly 
Viftliied to the instances of his patron may lawful) v ra-marry. 

E 2 

M L A U D. 

In Dec. 1610, Dr. Backeridge, president of St. J^obn% 
being promoted to the see of Rochester, Abbot^ jnewijr 
nade archbishop of Canterbury, who had distiked Laud^s 
principles at Osford, complained of him to the lord-chafi'- 
cdllor Kliesoiepe, chancellor of the university; AHedgtng 
that be was cordially addicted to popery. The comptaifii 
was supposed io be made, in order to prevent his see- 
needing Bockeridge in the presidentship of his college ; 
and the lord-chancellor carrying it to the king, ail his 
Cftedit, Interest, and advancement, would probably have 
been destroyed thereby, had not his firm friend bishop 
Neile contradicted the reports to his discredit. He was 
therefore elected president May 10, 1611, though then 
sick in London, and unable either to widke interest in per- 
son or by writing to bis friends; and the king not only 
confinsed his election, after a hearing of three hoors at 
Tichbourn^ but as a farther token of his favour, made him 
-one of bis, chaplains^ upon the recommendation of bishop 
Neile. Laud having thus attained a footing at court, flat- 
tered himself with hopes of great and immediate prefer- 
ment ; but abp. Abbot always opposing applications in hit 
behnJf, after three years fruitless waiting, he was upon 
the point of leaving the oonrt, and retiring wholly to bis 
cMeffif when his friend and patron Neile, newly trans- 
lilted . to Lincoln, prevailed with him to stay one year 
longer, smd in the mean time gav« hwn the prebend of Bng- 
deOy in the church of Lincoln, in l€t4 ; and the arcbdea* 
eoory of Huntingdon the foUowing year. 

Upon the lord*cbancellor Ellesmere's decline, in 1616^ 
Laud's interest began te rise at court, so that, in Noveiti- 
ber that year, the king gave him the deanery of Giouces* 
ter ; and as a farther instance of his being in favoui*, be 
was selected to attend the king in his journey to Scotland, 
in 1617. Some royal directions were by his procurement 
sent to Oxford, for ibe better government of the univer* 
sity, before he set out on that journey, tlie design of 
which was to bring the church of Scotland to an uniformity 
with that of England; a fovourite scheme of Laud and 
other divines : but the Scotch were resolute in their ad-- 
.faeience to the presbyterian form of church government, 
and the only fruit of this expensive journey wes, that the- 
king found bis commands nugatory, and his authority cpQ- 

LAUD. 15 

Laud, faow€?«', sdems to hsre tdvancedl in fiuronr mih 
his RH^ieaty^ for on Ihs relwrA fron Soodftnd^ Asg. 2> ^6t79 
be «vas inducted to the reotorjr of Ibstock, in Letceiea^- 
Akei and Ja»» 22, 1620-i» installed inio a |ireb€Qd of 
WosMniaster. Aboot the saaiof time, there was a gewend 
•9pectaiio» at court,, that the deanery of that ofavrcb wMld 
have been conferrod upon him; but Dr. WiWaoM,^ liion 
dean^ vratMiagtoJceei^itin coaiinendiMa wkh thebiriiopric 
of L^coliR^ to which he was promoted,, procured tbafc Liiud 
^houM be pvoovoted to the bishopric of St. Daf id^s. The 
day before bis conseeration, da resKg^aed the presidentship 
of St^ Johii'a, in obedience to* the cotiege- statute ; baa was 
pefUMkted^ to k^tp hh pcebeod of Weitmiml«r in com* 
mendam^ tbKwigb the lordi-keeper Wiilianna'a interest, 
vrho, abcMt a year after, gave him a Iinriug of about 1202. 
a year, >q« the dioee^ of Sl David's, to help his revenue ; 
and 10 jaeuary 1620^ the king! gave hitti also the rectory 
of Creeke^ iti Northamptanahire. The preacheni of those 
tiiae^ ietrodueing m their sermona discusitfons on. the doc- 
trines of predestination: and election, and even the noyal 
prero^aUrVey; the king publisbedv August lr622, directions 
cwcerning preachers and preaching, in H^iich L<iud was 
said to baiie a baud, and whicfa^ being aitned at the pu^- 
vitaas and lecturers,, occasioned great clamour .among 
theniy and' was one of the first causes of Laud^s unpopu^ 
Jarity. . Tliis year also, our prelate held* his famous coti«- 
iereuoe with Fisher the Jesuit, before the marquia of 
Backinghao) and bis mother^ in order to confirm them 
•both in the protestantr netigion,. in> wiiioh. they were then 
fvavering, - Tber conference wiaa printed in 1624, and pro^ 
d^ed an intiaiafte acqiuaititanoe bemveen' htm and the mar* 
qfrn^ w^o^d sfieoial iavouritat he became at tlus time, and 
to whom be \sf charged with making himself too; subsev- 
vient ; the proof of which is said to be, that Buckingham 
left- him his agent at court, when be went with the prince 
to Madrid, and frequently cornesponded witbhim. 
' About Oct* 1623, the lord-keeper Wiliiams^s jealousy 
of Laud, as a rival in the duke of Buckingham's favour^ 
and other misunderstandinga or misrepresentationaon both 
rides,- occasioned such animosity between these two pre* 
Ifttes^as yvaa attended with the worst consequences' Arch^ 
bkhop Abbot also, resolving to depress Laud aslpngas be 
could^ left him out of the high commission, of which: he co^i- 
plained to the duLo of Buckingham, Nov. 1624, and then* 


L A U D. 

was put into the commission. Yet he was tiot so attached 
.to Buckingham, as not to oppose the design, formed by 
that nobleman, of appropriating the endowment of the 
Charter-house to the maintenance of an army, under pre^ 
tenc^ of its being for the king's advantage and the ease of 
the subject. In December this year, he presented to the 
duke a tract, drawn up at his request, under ten heads, 
concerning doctrinal puritanism. He corresponded also 
with him, during bis absence in France, respecting Charles 
the First^s marriage with the princess Henrietta-Maria ; 
and that prince, soon after his accession to the throne, 
wanting to regulate the number of his chaplains, and to 
know the principles and qualifications of the most eminent 
divines in his kingdom, our bishop was ordered to draw a 
list of them, which he distinguished by the letter O for 
orthodox, and P for puritans. At Charles's coronation, 
Feb. 2, 1625-6, he officiated as dean of Westminster, in 
the room of Williams, then in disgrace; and has been 
charged, althodgh unjustly, with altering the coronation- 
oath^. In 1626 he was translated from St. David's to . 
Bath and Wells ; and in 1 628 to London. The king having 
appointed him dean of his chapel •roj'al, in 1626, and 
taken him into the privy-council in 1627, he was likewise 
in the commission for exercising archiepiscopal jurisdiction 
iluring Abbot's sequestration. In the third parliament of 
king Charles, which met March 17, 1627, he was voted 
a. favourer of the Arminians, and one justly suspected to 
be unsound in his, opinions that way ; accordingly, his 
name was inserted as such in the Commons' remonstrance ; 
and, because he was thought to be the writer of the king's 
speeches, and of the duke of Buckingham's answer to his 
impeachment, &c. these suspicions so exposed him to po- 
pular rage, that his life was threatened f. About the same 

* The alteration was said to be 
Ihia : in that part whera the king swears 
<^ to maintain the laws/' be added 
*' so far forth as it i-tands with the pre- 
rogative ;" or, as it appears in Whar- 
ton's preface, " saving tbe king's pre- 
rogative KoyaU'' litis accusation was 
renewed by lord chief baron Atkyns, 
in his speech to the lord mayor^ Oct. 
1693, with a bint that archbishop San- 
crofl had struck out much more from 
tbe coronation-oath of James II. Laud 
▼indicated himself at bis trial, by hav- 
ing the bpokfl of tiie coronation of king 

James I. and king Charles compared, 
which were found to agree. 

f A paper was found in the dean's 
yard of St. PauPs to this effect: " Laud, 
look to thyself; be assured thy life is 
sought. As thou art the fountain of 
all wickedness, repent thee of thy mon- 
strous sins before tbou be taken out of 
the world, &c. And aftsnre thyself 
neither God nor tbe world c^a endure 
such a vile counsellor, or such A whim- 
perer j" or to this effect. Laud's 
Diary, p..4*» 

LAUD. ' 55 

feime> he was put into an ungracious office ; namely, in a 
commissipn for raising money by impositions, which the 
Cooimons called excises ; but it seems never to have been 

Amidst all these employments, bis care was often exerted 
* towards the place of his education, the university of Ox- 
ford. In order to rectify the factious and tumultuary man- 
uer of electing pr6ctors, he fixed them to the several col- 
leges by rotation, and caused to be put into order the jar- 
ring and imperfect statutes of that university, which had 
lain. confused some hundreds of years. In April 1630 he 
was elected their chancellor ; and he made it his business, 
the; rest of his life, to adorn the university with buildings, 
and to enrich it with books and MSS. In the first design 
he began with his own college, St. John's, * where he built 
the inner quadrangle (except part of the south side of it, 
which was the old library) in a solid and elegant manner : 
the first stone of this design was laid in 1631. He also 
erected that elegant pile of building at the west-end of the 
divinity-school, known by the name of the convocation- 
bouse below, and Selden's library above * ; and gave 
the university, at several times, 1300 MSS. in Hebrew, 
Syriac, Chaldee, Egyptian, Ethiopian, Armenian, Arabic, 
Persian, Turkish, Russian, Chinese, Japanese, Greek, La- 
tin, Italian^ French, Saxon, English, and Irish ; an inva- 
luable collection, procured at a prodigious expence. 

A^ter the duke of Buckingham's murder, Laird became 
chief /avourite to Charles I. which augmented indeed his 
ppvver and interest, but at the same time increased that 
envy and jealousy, already too strong, which at length 
proved fatal to him. Upon the decline of archbishop Ab- 
bot's health and favour at cotilrt, Laud*s concurrence in the 
very severe prosecutions carried on in the high-commission 
and star-chamber courts, against preachers and writers, 
did him great prejudice with most people. Among these, 
however, it has been remarked that bis prosecution of the 
king^s printers, for leaving out the word ** not,'' in the 
seventh commandment, could be liable to no just ob- 
jection. On May 13, 163 3, he left London to attend 

* Ue ha<] also projected to clear the vocations an-l con^rei^ations, the law«r 

^rcat$tquarebelwe«D St. Mary's church for a walk or place of coiirerence, ^e. 

ami the suhools, where now sUnds the But, the owners of ihe hauses not j^eios 

RadclifTe-iibrary.- His desifu was i<v witling to part with iheniy the design 

raise a fair and spacious room upon was fru:>traievi* HcyliUj p. 379, 
pillars, ibc upper part to %erre for coa- 

'ss,- I< A U p, 

t^ kiag^ y^o waj^s ^ho^sfi t^ a^t Qi^t l^p Uii Q0MiHKli<|9 isr 
^:9il^ud2 and w^a sworti ft privy-comi^^if^r of .^b»k kiag^ 
doxD^ June 15, s^n4 ou ttie 26th^ om^. faAek to FuUimii. 
During his stay in Scotland he formed a resololion oh 
b^iqg^og that church tq a cpnformly vi.tb ibe cboroh.of 
£%^9d ; hijk% the king c^minitt^ the ftz^mog of a Ufliurgji. 
tQ s^syel^t nuii^ber of ScQ,ttisb bii^ops, wdbo, infterlaDg. se^. 
veral variations fy^m tiie EngUsb litwrgy, "w^ra Qf>posed 
s.tre»uouts\y biut unsuccessfully, by' L«uii. Having endo^ 
voured to. su^ppl^^t Abbplij ^^ wlp^oqi,^' ast £tiiU«B obsei^vMi 
i% ^M ^huifch history, S^ b^ cokM uol be catt tent e d t^i 
sij^c^/^ upcvii h.i>» de^ij^b \u Auj^t Ibis year, ine wa» 
^PPK^^P^^^ ^is syc^esfliQ^. 'tk^ v^ry^ moxoing, August 4, 
tbere canae oD^e to him at Qvei^nwic^ wilb a serious offer 
(^nd ap avQ^^d abiUty to ps^r^Qirm. \i)i ^i a eardkial'ii hat ; 
wh^ich ol^r Wi^ rep/^aited o^ %bf^ 1%^; but his answer bath 
tinges w^, ^^ tb«at ^OQ^e^^rbs^t dwelt withiu him whieh would 
i^o.t suffer thfLt ti^l R9m^ were q^h^r. thao it is." On Sept. 
14 be elected cba^oeUoii^ of t^b^ uc^YeriMty of Dublin. : 
One of bis^ &^st acts^^ a^ft^r bis adyancement ta the apchx* 
bisljiopric, was ^n injunotion, October 1$, pujrsuant to the 
.kiug^s letter, that no. pJ^rgymant dikOii^M b^ ordaiued priest 
witbput a title. A^t ^be s.aa9.e ti.9).ecaiii:e!ovit the king^&der 
citation about lavi^f^l s^r^Si Qf)> SjUiAdays, wbkh L^ud was 
cbagrged . with having reviv^ a[\d oalairged ; andibkat, with 
the. vexatious pecsetcutioii^ of sj^/ch ciejpgym^a as refused' so 
read it in their churches, brought a great odjuut) ispoa him. 
It wa3 in. vaip that 1^ plew^ed precedents in foreign 
cljiurches; and perhaps 19^ a^ of thift unhappy iieign gave a 
n^ore violent sbock to the iQyab^ of tha peof)le, which 
Laud, unfortunately, seldpra^ ooosMHed. Soon aitec he y e^ 
fa^tbf r interfered with pppuUv pcejttdioea. Dtturing a me^ 
t];opoliticaI visitation, by his ^i<^v«!geoeral, a^iong other 
regulations, th^, cburcbrviraffdens io eviory parish were, en- 
joined to ijemove the compauniourtaJlile from thei^iddie ta 
the ea^t end of the chancel, {Jtar-wise^ the ground ben>g 
raised for tha.t purpose, apd, to fence it in. with diecent raib, 
to avoid profaneness ; and the ref usu^ra were prosecuted in 
the high-con^miasion or star-chambei; courts. In this visi* 
tation, the Dutch and Walloon congregations were sum- 
moned to appear; and such as were bocn in England en- 
joined to repair to the seveir^l parisbncburicbea ^ere« they 
inhabited, to hear divine service and sermons, and perform 
all duties and payments required on that behalf; and. thos>e* 

1. A U D. 5» 


tflbMiy nakiistarsand Qlbex% tibat vert ftKeiM born, to lut 
llio isUi^isb Uturgy ^ansh^od inio FrcuMeb or Dutch ; but 
mmf of tbese^ ratbor ihai^ eomply^ choae to leave tbe king- 
4a«»; V^ cbe great detriment of oar maDufeetures. 

In 1 6^4 our avcbbisbep did the pocw IrUb clergy a very 
io^fMirtJim aenriee^ by obfcaiiiing for Ibein, from the king, a 
{iaojk of aU the impropriatioiis then remaining ka tbe crown. 
Ke alao iai^oved and settled tbe voveimea ef tbe London 
clergy in a better manner than befo«e« On Feb. 5, 1634-.5, 
be was put into tbe gr^t ceoinaittee of trade, and tbe 
kifig'a refvei>ue, and apipointed one of tbe eommisstonerB of 
tbe tdieasury, March tbe 4tb, 'upoA the deatb of Weston 
earii of Portland. Besadea ihift, he was, two day» after, 
called into tbe foreign coataittee^ and had likewise the 
aide diapoMd of whatsoever concerned the cbui ob ; but be 
Ml into warm disputes with the lord Cottington, cbancellev 
ef tbe exchequer, who took all opportunities of imposing 
upon bkn ^. Aft^r having continued for a year commis* 
i^oiier ol* tbo ireaaury, and acc^inted himself with tbe 
ajTstecies of it^ be procused the brd-treasurer^s staff for 
fi^. WiUiam Jijucotii, wbe ba«l thretugh bis interest been 
sofloesaiveiy advianced to tbe presidentship of St. John's 
cellegey. deanery of Woreeatec, elerbship of bis majesty's 
oioset, and bissbepsie o£ L<»ndon, as already noticed in our 
life of J4ixon. For some years Laud had set his heart 
upm getting tbe English liturgy introdoced into Sco«iaml ; 
and some of the Scottish bishops bad, uiMier his directiOR, 
prepared both that book and a collection of canons for 
public service; Um capons were published in 1635, but 
tbe liturgy came not in use till 1 637. On the day it was* 
fiat read «t St Giles's churchy in Edinburgh, it occasioned 
Inmost violent tumult among tbe. people, eivcouraged by 
the nobility, who were losers by the restitution df episco- 
pacy, aiul by tbe ministers, who lost tbeir clerical goverif^ 
ment. Laud, having been tbe greaib promoter of that 
aftiiv, was reviled for it iii tbe most abusive manner, and 
bodi h#^anrd the book were changed, with downright popery. 
Tbe estremely severe prosecution carried on about the* 
aame^timeio the star-cbamben, chiiefly through his insti- 

< . * 

'in AS) CqUuigtoiK v;V> ^^ i^VOft Bf tfal oC Ridiraoiut.park, aud which tliey/ 

ct»urt>er ttult perhaps any tinap hjis both agreed to dissutidQ his Majesty 

]irurfi|OCH}> fcHud'B'Open hoaffty twis from ait+MjK-mp, may he, seen in Cla- 

•P. ePM| • pf « y/ ^ . biio. Am iaat^iMe qC tfiut^u i^s ii6»h .^^ th<) R^beU>op». 
tbis^ wiib. i^gaitl U> the-ik«treDclosioj(^ 

5$ LAUD. 

gation, against Prynne, Bastwick, and Burton, did bitrr 
also infinite prejudice, and exposed him to numberless 
libels and reflections; though he endeavoured to vindicate 
his conduct in a speech delivered at their censure, June 
14, 1637, which was published by the king's command. 
Aijother rigorous prosecution, carried on with his concur- 
rence, in the star-chamber, was against bishop Williams, 
an account of which may be seen in bis article, as also of 
Lambert Osbaldiston, master of Westminster school. 

In order to prevent the printing and publishing of what 
he thought improper books, a decree was passed in the 
star-chamber, July 11, 1637, to regulate the trade of print-* 
^^^^9 '^y wbich it was enjoined that the masters-printers^ 
should be reduced to a certain number, and that none of- 
them should print any books till they were licensed either 
by the archbishop, or the bishop of London, or some of 
their chaplains, or by the chancellors or vice-chaneellors 
of the two universities. Accused as he frequently wa&, of 
popery, he fell under the queen's displeasure this year,: 
by speaking, with his usual warmth, to the king at the 
council-table against the increase of papists, their frequent 
resort to Somerset house, and their insufferable mitde- 
uieanors in perverting his majesty's subjects to popery,- 
On Jan. 3i, 1(538-9, he wrote a circular letter to his suf- 
fragan bishops, exhorting theoi and their clergy to contri-* 
bote liberally towards raising the army against the Scots; 
For this he was called an incendiary: but he declares, on. . 
the contrary, that he laboured for peace so long, till b^ 
i^ceived a great check ; and that, at court his counsels 
alone prevailed for peace, and forbearance. In 1639 he - 
employed one Mr. Petley to translate the liturgy into* 
Greek; and, at his recommendation, Ur. Joseph :Hail,^ 
bishop of Exeter, composed his learned treatise of <* Epis- 
copacy by Divi{)e Right asserted." On Dec. 9, the same 
year, he was one of the three privy-counseilors who ad^- 
vised the king to call a parliament in case of the Scot- 
tish rebellion; at which time a resolution, was adopted 
to assist the king in extraordinary ways, if the parliament _ 
should prove peevish and refuse supplies. A new parlia-^« 
ment being summoned, met April 13, 1649, and the con« 
vocation the day following; but the Copiinons beginning ' 
with complaints against tlie archbishop, and insisting upon 
a redress of grievances before they granted any supply, 
the parliament was unhappily dissolved^ May 5. The con- 



vcX^aiion, however, vcontinued sitting; and certain canons 
were made in it, which gave great offence. On Laud many 
laid the blame and odium of the parliament's dissolution ; 
and that noted enthusiast, John Lilburne, caused a paper 
to be posted, May 3, upon the Old Exchange, animating 
the apprentices to 6ack his house at Lambeth the Monday 
fallowing. On tha< day above 5000 of them assembled in 
a riotous and tumultuous manrrer ; but the archbishop, re- 
ceiving previous notice, secured the palace as well as he 
cotfid, and retired to his chamber at Whitehall, where he 
remained some days; and one "of the ringleaders was 
hanged, drawn, and quartered, on the 21st. In August 
following, a libel was found in Covent-garden, exciting 
the apprentices and soldiers to fall upon him in the king's 
absence, upon his second expedition into Scotland. The 
parliament that met Nov. 3, i 640, not being better disposed 
towards him, but, for the most part, bent upon his ruin, 
several angry speeches were made against him in the House 
of commons. 

It can be no wonder that his rain should appear certain, 
considering bis many and powerful eneanies ; almost the 
whole body of the puritans ; many of the English nobility' 
and others; and the bulk of the Scotch nation. The pu-' 
ritans considered him as the sole author of the innovations 
and of the persecutions against them ; the nobility could 
not brook his warm and imperious manner, and his grasp- 
ing at the office of prime- minister; and the Scots were 
excited to rebellion, by the restoring of episcopal govern- 
ment^ and the introduction of the English service-book 
among them. In this state of general discontent, he was 
not only examined, Dec. 4, on the earl of Strafford's case, 
but) when the Commons came to debate upon the late 
canons and convocation, he was represented as the author 
of them*; and a committee was appointed to inquire into. 

^ Upon the attack made upon him 
for these canons, he wrote the fol lov- 
ing letter to Selden, an active man in 
the Commons agrainst him : '* To my 
much honored friend Mr. Selden these, 
Sal. in Chriftto. Worthy sir, I under- ' 
stand ttvit tlie byainets about the late 
ranoni will be handled againe in your- 
Hoiue tonaorrowe. I shall never aske 
any unworthie thinge of you ; but give 
me leave M aaye as fbilowes : If wee 
have erred in an ye point of legalityc 
uoknoirne unto us, wee shall be bar* 

tilye sorrye for it, and hope that erroc 
shall not be made a cry me. We heare 
that ship-monye is layd aside, .as a 
thinge that will dye of itself; and I 
am gfad it will have «oe quiett a death. 
Maye not these nnfortuf^ate canons be 
•uflTered to dye as quyetlye, without 
btetiii^hinge the church, wbicb bath so 
m^iiye enemies hioth at home and 
abroad? and if thiss may be, 1 heare 
promise you, I will presenllye humblye 
teseeche his majesty e for a licence 'tu 
review the canons and abrogat them^ 


L A tl D. 

aUbisacUofl% aloid prepare a charge agarnst iiinv on the 
letb. The samemoriung^ ia tke House of Lords, he was 
Qaoobed as an ineeikdiavy, m an accosatiott from the Scottish 
coriMnissioQer^ ; and, two days .after, an impeachinent of 
hi^b- treason was carried up t» tike Ipovds by Dentil Hoire9> 
desiring be qnight be forthwith secpesteted from parlia- 
Qient, aad committed, axd the Comrooivi would, in a con* 
veoient time, resoirt to them witb particular articles. ^Sooii 
after, the Scotch eommtssionera presented also to the up« 
per House the charge against him, tending to prove htm 
an incendiary, and he was immediately committed to the 
custody of the black rod. After ten weeks, sir Henry 
Vane, junior, brought up^ Feb. 2:6, foarteen articles against 
bim, whiiQb they desired time to proite in particular, anJ, 
in the n»ean tioie, that he be Icept safe. Accordingly, the 
black rod conveyed him to the Tower, March 1, 1640i-]!, 
amidst the insults and reproaches of the mob. 

Hia enemies, of which the number was great, began 
then to give full vent to their passions and prejudices, and 
ta endeavour to ruin, bis reputation. In March and April, 
the House of Commons ordered him, jointly wid) ail those' 
that had parsed seatence in the Star-eliamber against Bar-' 
tan, Bastwick, and Prynne^ tx> make satisfaction and repsr- 
cation for the damages thi»y had sustained by their sentence^ 
and imprifionnpent ; ancl be was fined 20,000/. for bis act- 
ing in the late con voeation. He was also condemned by* 
the House of Londs. to pay 50O&. to sir Robert Howard for 
faise imprisonment. This pecson was living ia open adul- 
tery with lady f unbeck ; and both were imprisoned by an 
Qrdec of the bigU. commissioa court, at the king's particiiiar 
CQjlUQandk Qn* June 25,. L64-1, be resigned his* ehaiioeMor-' 
ship of the university of 0<s3fend>; and, in- October, t<he» 
House of Lords seqnMbered bis j^ri^ction, putting it ivivo- 

•isaringe mreself that all my brethren 
will joyne with me to pr^senre the pub- 
irck peace, ralHer ihan that act of onrs 
should be thoivgbt-a publick grievance. 
And upon niye crcditt with yoU| I had 
moved* for ih:*s licence at the verye 
lirst sftun^v uf thiss parliament, but 
tHat both rny.eHf if and others diii feare 
the Ht>a8e of'CoiDYnous would lake of- 
f&ncv at it (as tin y did at ihe last) and 
sa^^le, wee did' ii on purpcse to pre* 
vent Utpm. I understand yuu meane 
taipeak of'ihi<s. business in the House 
tomorrow^ and that b«tb wade me 

Wright tlie«e lynes to you, to lett yon 
know our meaninge and desypes. Afid 
1 shall take it for a great kindness to 
me, and a great service to the ciiiuroba 
if by your means the Hou^ wiU> be 
satisfied with tiiisy, which is hearo 
offered, of abrogatifige the canons. 
Ta God's blensed protection I jts^fo 
yjoUj.and rest , 

Your loving poore frei^d* . 
iyimbeth, Nov. '^V, 1640. Vf^CSifT* 
" I mean to move the king tliias 
daye for a KceAse "at i» within ino»> 
tioned/' ♦ 

fOt^.^ 4yi, ^i*t'- 

LAUD. tl 

the hamAg of his infmor oftceni ; and enjcniied, dmt h« 
ehauld give no benefice widiout fiist having the House's 
Approbation of the person nominated by him. On Jan* 20, 
1644-2, they ordered his armoury at Lambeth-palace, which 
had cost him above SOO/. and whiefa tbey represented aa 
sufficient for 2000 men, to be taken away by the sheriffs 
of London. Before the end of the year, all the rents and 
profits of the archbishopric were sequestered by the lords 
for the nseof the oomcnonvrealtli ; and bis hoase was plun* 
dered of what money it aflbrded by two members of the 
Hottse of Commons ; and sncb was their wanton sei^eriiyi 
than when he petitioned the parliament afterwards for a 
maintenance) he could not obtain any, nor even the leain 
part of abore two hundred pounds worth of his own wood 
and coal at Lambeth, for his necessary use in the Tower* 
On April 25, t64S, a motion was made in the House ef 
Commons, at the instance of Hugh Peters and olbers of 
that stamp,, to send or transport him to New England ; but 
that motion was rejected. On May 9> his goods and books 
in Lambeth-house were seized, and the goods sold for 
scarce the third part of their value,, and all this before be 
had. been brought to any trial, the issise of which alone 
eould justify such proce^edings. Seven days after, there 
came ont an ordinance of parliament^ enjoining him to 
give no benefice without leave and order of both Houses* 
On May 31, W. Prynne, by a warrant from the clost 
eommittee, came ami searched his room, was in 
bed, and even rifled his pockets ; tidcing away his diary, 
private devotions, and twenty-one bundiet of piipers, which 
he had prepaned for his own defence. Prynne promised e 
^hful restitution ol' th«m within three or four days ; hnt 
he never returned quite three buiSlles of the papen. in 
the mean time, the archbishop not complying exactly with 
she ordinance above-mentioned, all the temporalities of 
his archbishopric were sequestered to the pariiametit Jtrne 
10, and he was suspentled from his. office and benefice, 
and from all jurisdiction whatsoever. 

On Oct. 24, an order was brought to the archbishop, 
ivom the Lords, with ten additional articles of impeachment 
from the Commons, adding to the charge of treason ** other 
high crimes and misdemeanours/* He petitioned for his 
papers, but the committee oil sequestrations would nos 
grant them, nor permit any copies but at Iris own ex^eoce; 
and as to any allowance fof the charges of his trials it waa 

6a L A D. 

iasuUingly said by Mr.Glyn, "that h« might plead ia/arfHa 
pauperis?^ At length Mr. Deil, his secretary, was ap- 
pointed bis solicitor, and Mr. Heme, of Lincoln's-inn, bis 
counsel; and two .ihore servants were sent to bim, for bis 
assistance. After nearly three years* imprisonmejit, on 
Nov. 13 the archbishop was brought to the bar of the 
House of Lords, and put in his answer in writing, in this 
form, ^' all advantages of law against this impeachmeDC 
saved and reserved to this defendant, he pleads, not guilty, 
to all and every part of the impeachment, in manner and 
form as it is changed in the articles ;*' and to this answer 
be then .set bis band. He then petitioned that bis counsel 
might be heard, and might advise him, both with regard 
to law and fact; which was. allowed in things not charged 
as treason. On Jan. 8, there was an order for the arch- 
bishop^s appearance ; but, at his request, it was postponed 
to the 16th ; when the committee began vi^itb the foriper 
general articles, to which the archbishop had put in no 
answer, nor even joined issue : therefore he was peremp- 
torily commanded to put in his answer both to the original 
and additional articles, in writing ; which he did, plead- 
ing, in general, not guilty. . . ' 

On Tuesday, March 12, 1643-4, the trial was opened in 
form^ tbe original and additional articles of impeachment 
were read, and, after that, the arcbbishop^s answer, plea; 
and demurrer to tbem. He requested that the charge and 
evidence to all the articles might be given together ; and 
the articles of misdemeanour separated from those of trea- 
son ; to which the celebrated lawyer, Maynard, answereid, 
that, in the earl of Strafford*s trial, he was put to answer 
every day tbe particular evidence given that day ; thac they 
were now only to try matters of fact, hot of law, and that 
all the articles collectively, not any one separately, made 
up ;the charge of treason. Serjeant Wilde then made a 
long speech, upon the charge of high treason, insisting 
chiefly upon the archbishop^s attachment to popery, and 
his intention to into England ; concluding with 
these words, that *' Naaman was a great man, but he was 
a leper," and that the archbishop^s leprosy had so infected- 
all, *^ as there remained no other cure but the sword of 
justice/' The archbishop replied to the several charges, 
and mentioned various persons whom he had brought hack 
from the Romish religion, particularly sir William Webbe^ 
his . l^insmaii^ and two of . his daughters; his sofi ht^ took. 

LAUD. 68 

ftQta . bim ; aod, his father being utterly decayed, bred 
him at bis own cbarge, and educated him in the prbtestant 
religion. The trial lasted above twenty days, and on Sept. 
2f 1644, the archbishop made a recapitulation of the whole 
cause ; but, as soon as he came into the House, he saw 
every lord present with a new thin book in folio, in a blue 
cover; which was his " Diary," which Prynne, as already 
mentioned, had robbed him of, and printed with notes of 
bis own, to. disgrace the archbishop. On Sept. 11, Mr. 
Brown delivered, in the House of Lords, a summary of 
the whole charge, with a few observations on the arch- 
bisbop^s answer. The queries of his counsel on the law of 
treason was referred to a committee ; which ordered his 
counsel to be heard on Oct. J I, when Mr. Heme delivered 
bis argument with great firmness an^ resolution. The lord 
chancellor Finch told archbishop Sancroft that the argu- 
riieot was sir Matthew Hale*s, afterwards lord chief justice ; 
and that being then a young lawyer, he, Mr. Finch, stood 
behind Mr. Heme, at the bar of the house, and took notes 
of it^ which he intended. to publish in his reports. With 
this argument, the substance of which may be seen in our 
authorities, the trial ended for that day ; but, after this, a 
petition was sent about LondQn, '^ for bringing delinquents 
to justice ;"' and many of the preachers exhorted the people 
to sign it ; so that with a multitude of hands, it was deli-< 
vered to the House of Commons, on Oct. 8. The arch* 
bishop was summoned on Nov. 2, to the House of Coni- 
mons, to hear the whole charges, and to make his defence, 
which he did at large, Nov. U. On the following Wed- 
nesday Mr. Brown replied; and after the afchbishop was 
dismissed, the House called for the ordinance, and without 
hearing bis counsel, voted him guilty of high treason. 
After vj^rious delays, the Lords had a conference with the 
Commons, on Dec. 24, in which they declared, *^ that they 
had diligently weighed ail things charged' against the arch* 
bishop, but could not, by any one of them,, or all, find 
bim guilty of treason." The judges had unanimously made 
the same declaration. At the second conference, on Jan* 
2, 1644*5, the reasons of the Commons for the attainder 
of the. archbishop were coipmunicated to the Lords, who 
in a very thin bouse, passed the ordinance that he should 
suffer death by bangingy^ which was fixed for Friday the 
loth. He pleaded the king^s pardon, under the great seaH 
which was over-ruled, and rejected, without being read, 

«« L A U D. 

md the onlj fafonr granted^ and lisat ci^tet ^Uf Md #]|li 
reiucuficei was, tbiit bis sentence riunild be eblidged to 

The arcbbisfaop coatioaed 4 jouriMil of dll tb^ ttrctmft' 
stances of bis trial aod impiisoinneiit to Jftitttary 9 ; but oh 
bearing that tke bill of aitaindttr bsd passed ifaie Lord^ bd 
broke off bis bistoty, and prepared biodscif f<^ dtoth. He 
received the notice with gn^at oditiposttfev and paAMd tbe 
tidne between bis sentence and esteetMion^ in prityet Md 
devout exercises. He slept soundly the night before bis 
death, till tlie time came whet) his servants were appbiflted 
to attend his rising ; then, he applied bimsetf td hia pri^ik,le 
prayers^ and so continved until sir John PenAingtoA, 
lieutenant of the Tower, came to cottdWct bite tH tbe 
scafibid, which be ascended with a cheerfel eouAt^ftniMy 
and was beheaded Jan. 10^ I644-S| libout 12 o'eto^k it^ 
noon. His body was buried in the cbureb of AlUhaltowSy 
Barking; but was removed to St. JobA^s c^teg^ ii^ lM%^ 
where it was placed in a vank in the cbap^l. 

By bis will, dated Jan. 13, 1643, be bequeiaibed the 
bulk of bis property to chariubie of libertal p^^^^es : to fit. 
John's college, all his chapel plate andfufhiriufe^ wb&t bocfks 
tfaey bad fK)t in their library, and 5002. lo pnrcbftse hindi, 
the rent to be divided between every scholar and fellow 6t) 
Ost i 7, every y^&r. We have already oientioned that be 
blsik the inner qoadrangle of 8u John's ; be also bbtaikied 
froA king CbBrle^ the vicarage ef 8t Leareinie fMf this 
college!, with other valuable preferiMnts. He foDhded 
an Arable lecture which began to be read Aug. 10, 16$^, 
by the celebrated Pocoeke, whose saccessors ka>^ b^M 
aU schoiani of eminence^ Drs. Hyde, Walli^, tinht, and 
the late Dr. Joseph White. To the bishopric ef Oxford, 
Laud added Ae impropriation of the vicarage of Cudde^-^. 
deti« In his native town of Reading be founded an eicef- 
lent school. 

His diaracter has been variously represented, ahd ihde6d 
enters mare or tesa into every controversy reitpecting the 
ttnbappy reign in which be flourished. He was a man df 
strict integrity, sincere^ and zealous ; but, in matiy re- 
spects, was indiscreet and obstinate, eagerly pursuing 
matters that were either inconsiderable or mischievous. The 
rigorous prosecutions in the Star-chamber and High-com* ^ 
mission courts were generally imputed to him: and he 
formed the aury project of uniting the t&ree kingdoms in an 



• L A U D. 65 

Udifbrmiiy of reHgioa; and the passing of some cerenfionies 
in this last afiair brought upon him* the odious imputation 
of popery, and of being popishly affected, without .any 
good grounds. He was more given to interfere in matters 
qf state than bis predecessors ; and this at a time when a 
jealousy; of the power of the clergy was increasing. Hav- 
ing naturally a great warmth of temper, ji^'hich betrayed 
itself in harsh language, he was ill fitted to contend with 
the party now so powerful that it may even be doubted 
whether a conciliating temper would have had much ef- 
fect in preventing their purposes against the church and 
state. Mr. Gilpin's comparison between him and his great 
predecessor Cranmer appears to us worthy of consideration. 
"Both," says> that elegant writer, " were good nien, both 
were equally zealous for religion, and both were engaged 
in the work of reformation. I mean not to enter into the 
affair of introducing episcopacy in Scotland ; nor to throw 
any favourable light on the ecclesiastical views of those 
times. I am at present only considering the measures 
which the two archbishops took in forwarding their respec- 
tive plans. While .Cranmer pursued his with that caution 
and temper, which we have just been examining; Laud^ 
in.the violence of his integrity (for he was certainly a 
well-meaning man), making allowances neither for men nor 
opinions, was determined to carry all before him. The 
consequence was, that he did nothing which he attempted; 
while Cranmer did every thing. And it is probable that if 
Henry had chosen such an instrument as Laud, he wpuld 
have miscarried in his point: while Charles with such a 
primate as Cranmer, would either have been successful in 
his schemes, or at least have avoided the fatal consequences 
that ensued.'^ But, whatever Laud's faults, it cannot be 
denied that he was condemned tq death by an ordinance of 
parliament, in defiance of the statute of treasons, of the law 
of thQ land, and by a stretch of prerogative greater th^n 
any one of the sovereign whom that parliagoent opposed^ 

The few productions we have of archbishop Laud show 
that his time was more occupied in act.ive life, than ^ in 
studious retirement, and demonstrate but little of that 
learning which was very justly attributed to him. These 
are, L *^ Seven Sermons preached and printed on several 
Occasions," reprinted in 1651, 8vo. j2../* Short Annota- 
tions upon the Life and Death of the'nijcilfe august King 
James,'* drawn up at the desire of George duke of Bucks. 

Vol. XX. F 

66 L A U D.^ 

3. ^^ Aaswer to the Remonstrance made by the Hous« 
of Commons in 1628," 4. " His Diary by Wharton in 
1694 ; with six other pieces, and several letters, especially 
one to sir Kenelm Digby, on his embracing Popery." 
$. '^ The second volume of the Remains of Archbishop 
Laud, written by himself," &c. 1700, fol. 6. " Officium 
Quotidianum ; or, a Manual of private Devotions," 1650, 
8vo. 7. " A Summary of Devotions," 1667^ 12mp. There 
are about 18 letters of his to Gerard John Vossius, printed 
by Colomesius in his edition of " Vossii Epistol." Lond. 
1690, fol. Some other letters of his are published at the 
end of Usher's liife by Dr. Parr, 1686, fol. And a few 
more by Dr. Twells, in his " Life of Dr. Pocock," pre- 
fixed to that author's theological works, 1645, in 2 vols, 

LAUDER (William), a native of Scotland, the author 
of a remarkable forgery, was, educated at the university of 
Edinburgh, where he finished his studies with great repu- 
tation, and acquired a considerable knowledge of the 
Latin tongue. He afterwards taught with success the 
Latin tongue to some students who were recommended to 
him by the professors. In 1734, Mr. professor Watt fall- 
ing ill of that sickness of which he died, Lauder taught for 
him the Latin class, ip the college of Edinburgh, and 
tried, without success, to be appointed professor in bis 
room. He failed also in his application for the office of 
libirarianT^ In Feb. 1739, he stood candidate, with eight 
others, for the place of one of the masters of the high . 
school ; but, though the palm of literature was assigned by 
the judges to Lauder, the patrons of the school preferred 
one of his opponents. In the same year he published at 
Edinburgh an edition of ^* Johnston's Psalms,*' or rather a 
collection of Sacred Latin poetry, in 2 vols, but his hopes 
of profit from this were disappointed. In 1742, although 
he was recommended by Mr. Patrick Cuming and Mn 
Colin Mactaurin, professors of church history and mathe- 
matics, to the mastership of the grammar-school at Dun- 
dee, then vacant, we find him, the same year, in London, 
contriving to ruin the reputation of Milton ; an attempt 
which ended in the destruction of his own. His reason for 
the attack has been referred to the virulence of violent 

1 Wbarton's Troubles and Trial of Land, — Pf ynoe's end Heylin's Li?es.-^ 
Life in Coates's Hist, of Reading. — Biog. Brit. Itc. &c. . 


party-spirit, which triumphed over every principle of 
honour and honesty. He began first to retail part of t|ts 
design in "The Gentleman's Magazine," in 1747; and, 
finding that his forgeries were not detected, was encou- 
raged in 1751 to collect them, with additions, into a vo-» 
lume, entitled " An Essay on Milton's Use and Imitation 
of the Moderns in his Paradise Lost,*' 8vo. The fidelity 
of his quotations had been doubted by several people ; and 
the falsehood of them was soon after demonstrated by Dr. 
Douglas, late bishop of Salisbury, in a pamphlet, entitled 
"Milton vindicated from the Charge of Plagiarism brought 
agaipst him by Lauder, and Lauder himself convicted of 
forgeries and gross impositions on the public. In a letter 
humbly addressed to the right honourable the earl of Bath," 
175 1, 8vo. The appearance of this detection overwhelmed 
Lauder with confusion. He subscribed a confession, dic- 
tated by Dr. Johnson, on whom he had imposed, in which 
he ingenuously acknowledged his offence, which he pro- 
fessed to have been occasioned by the injury he bad re- 
ceived iTrom the disappointment of his expectations of profit 
from the publication of " Johnston's Psalms." This mis- 
fortune he ascribed to a couplet in Mr. Pope's Dupciad, 
book iv. ver. iii. and thence originated his rancour against 
Milton. He afterwards imputed his conduct to other mo- 
tives, abused the few friends who continued to countenance 
him ; and, finding that his own character was not to be 
retrieved, quitted the kingdom, and went to Barbadoes, 
where he was for some time master of the free-school in 
Bridgetown, but was discharged for misconduct, and passed 
the remainder of his life in universal contempt ^^ He ^ 
died," says Mr. Nichols, "some time about the year 1771, 
as my friend Mr. Reed was informed by the gentleman 
who read the funeral-service over him." It may be added, 
that notwithstanding Lauder's pretended regret for his at- 
tack on Milton, he returned to the charge in 1751', and 
published a pamphlet entitled " The Grand Impostor de- 
tected, or Milton convicted of forgery against Charles I.'* 
which was reviewed in the Gent. Mag. of that year, pro- 
bably by Johnson. ' 

LAUNAY (Francis de), an abte Frenqh lawyer, waa 
born August 6, 1612, at Angers. He was received ad vo- 

1 Nichols's Bowyer. — Cbalnaers's Life of Ruddiman, p. 146.— > Hawkins and 
Bosweirs Lires of Johnson.— Qeat Mng ; see Index. 

F 2 

ea L A U N A Y. 

cajke at Paris 1638, became eminent afterwards at the bar, 
and was the first professor of French law at the college of 
Gambray, that chair being newly founded 1680. He died 
July 9, 1693, aged 81. His works are, "Commentaries 
on Anthony LoisePs Instituts Coutumiers,'' 1688, 8vo; 
" Trait6 du Droit de Chasse,'* 1681, 12rao ; " R6marques 
sur I'Institution du Droit Romain, et du Droit Frangois,'* 
1686, 4to, and other valuable works.' 

LAUNAY (Peter de), a learned and judicious pro- 
testant writer, was born 1573, at Blois, descended from 
one of the most respectable families in that city. At the 
age of forty, he resigned a post in the exchequer, the 
title of king's secretary, and all prospects of advancement, 
that he might devote himself entirely to the sacred writings i 
and from that time till he was eighty-nine, rose constantly 
at four in the morning, to read and meditate on Scripture. 
The French protestants placed an extraordinary cpnfidenc6 
ki him. He was deputed to all the synods of his province, 
and to almost every national synod held in his time, and 
died in 1662, greatly lamented. His works are, " Para- 
phrases^' on all St. PauPs Epistles, on Daniel, Ecclesiastes, 
the Proverbs, and Revelations ; and ^' Remarks on the 
Bible, or an Explanation of the difficult words, phrases, 
and metaphors, in the Holy Scriptures," Geneva, 1667, 
4to. These two works are much valued. He wrote abo 
a treatise " De la Sdinte C^ne," and another, " Sur le 

LAUNOI (John de),. or Launoius, a very learned man 
and voluminous writer, was born about 1601, and took a 
doctor of divinity's degree in 1636. He made a journey 
to Rome, for the sake of enlarging his ideas and know- 
ledge ; and there procured the esteem and friendship of 
Leo AUatius and Holsten. Upon his return to Paris, he 
shut himself up, entering upon an extensive course of 
reading, and making collections upon all. subjects. He 
held at his house every Monday a meeting where the 
learned conversed on many topics, but particularly on the 
discipline of the church, and the*rights of the Grallican 
church ; and they cordially agreed in condemning such 
legends as the apostolate of St. Dionysius the Areopagit« 
into France, the voyage of Lazarus and Mary Magdalen 
into Provence, and a multitude of other traditions. Lau- 

1 Moreri. — Niceron, vol. XV. — Diet. Hift. • 
t Diet. Hist • 

L A U N O I. 69 

noi was such an enemy to legendary saints, that Voltaire 
xecords a curate of St. Eustachius, as saying, ** I always 
make the most profound obeisance to Mr. Launoi, for fear 
he should take from me my St. Eustachius.'* He died at 
cardinal d'Estr^es's hotel, March 10, 1678, aged 75, and 
was buried at the convent of the Minimes de la Place 
Roiale, to whom he left two hundred crowns ip gold, all 
the ritnals which he had collected, and half his books ; be- 
queathing the remainder to the seminary at Laon. Few 
men were so industrious and so disinterested, as M. de 
Launoi, who persisted in refusing all the benefices which 
were offered him, and lived in a pla\n, frugal manner, 
contented with his books and his private fortune, though 
the latter was but moderate. He was an enemy to vice 
and ambition, charitable, benevolent, a kind friend, ever 
consistent in his cpnduct, and submitted to be excluded 
from the faculty of theology at Paris, rather than sign the 
censure of M. Arnauld, though he differed in opinion from , 
that celebrated doctor on the subject of Grace. 

His works were collected by the abbe Granet, and pub- 
lished in 1731, 10 vols, folio; his '* Letters'* had been 
printed before at Cambridge, 1689, fol. The principal of 
the other works contained in this edition are, the famous 
treatise ** De variSl Aristotelis fortune," and ^^ Hist, du Col- 
lege de Navarre/' containing some curious and interesting 
particulars and inquiries on several points of history and 
ecclesiastical discipline. All M. de Launoy^s works discover 
great reading, and extensive knowledge of ecclesiastical 
affairs. He forcibly defends the liberties of the Gallican 
church, and shews much penetration and skill in criti* 
cism. His style is neither Howery nor polished, nor is hib 
reasoning always just : but he fully compensates for these 
defects by the variety tif his subjects, and the depth of his 
learning. ^ 


LAURIERE (EusEBius Jam£S de), a celebrated^ lawyer^ 
and learned advocate of the parliament of Paris, was born 
July .31, 1659, and was the son of James de Lauriere, a 
surgeon. He attended but little to the bar, his life being 
almost wholly spent in study, in the course of which he ex* 
plored, with indefatigable pains, every part of the French 
hkff, both ancient atld modern, formed friendships with 

1 KieeroD, roh XXXII.-^Gcn. Diet.— Saxii Oiiomafiticon. 

70 L A U R I E R E. 

men of learning, and was esteemed by all the most able 
magistrates. He died at Paris, January 9, 172S, aged 69, 
•leaving many valuable works, some of whi6h be wrote ifi 
conjunction with Claude Berroyer, another eminent advo* 
cate of Paris. The principal are> 1. " De Torigine d« Droit 
d'Amortissemeot," 1692, 12mo; 2. " Texte des Cos- 
tumes dela Pr6v6t6 et Vicomt^ de Paris, avec des Notes," 
12mo ;• 3. " Bibliotheque des Coutumes," 4to ; 4*. M. 
LoisePs ^^ Instituts Coutumiers," with notes, Paris, ]710, 
.2 vols.* 12mo, a very valuable edition ; 5. " Trait6 deK In- 
stitutions at des Substitutions contractuelles,'* 2 vols. 12mo. 
6. The first and second volumes of the collection of ^^ Of- 
dinances'' of the French kings, which valuable and very 
interesting work has been continued by M. Secdusse, a 
member of the academy of inscriptions and belles- 1 iutres, 
xind M. de Villeraut, to 1) vols. fol. ; 7*^' Le Glossaire 
du Droit Fran9ois," 1704, 4to, &c.* 

LAVATER (John Caspar), the celebrated physiogno- 
mist, was born at Zurich, Nov. 15, 1741. He was fi'om 
his earliest years of a gentle, timid disposition, but rest- 
less in the pursuit of knowledge. At school he was per- 
petually varying his studies by attempting mechanical 6pe- 
rations, and often showed indications of genius and inveif- 
tion in his amusements. When he reached the upper' 
classes of school, his diligence in study was encouraged by 
the advice of Bodmer and Breitenger, and quickened by a 
wish to emulate some school-fellows of superior talent. 
His turn of thinking was original, liberal, and manly. As 
be grew up he wrote some essays on subjects of morals and 
religion, which gained him the hearts of his countrymen. 
Having gone through the usual course of reading and in- 
struction for the ecclesiastical profession, he was admitted 
into orders in May 1761, and two years afterwards be tra- 
velled with the brothers Hess, two amiable friends, of whom 
death deprived him, and, with Henry Fuseli, our cele- 
brated painter. They went over Prussia, under the tuition 
of professor Sulzer, and Lavater made a considerable stay 
with Spalding, then curate of Barth in Pomeranian Prus- 
sia, and afterwards counsellor of the grand consistory. On 
his return to Zurich he became a very eloquent and much 
admired preacher, and proved himself the father of his flock 
by the most benevolent attention- to their w^uts bodily and 

» Cbaufepie^-^Niccron, toI. XXXVII.— Diet, U\$U 

L A V A T E R. 71 

menUiL After having been for some years deacon of the 
Orphans' churchy he was in 1774 appointed first pastor. la 
1778 the parishioners of the church of St. Peter, the only 
persons in the canton of Zurich who have a right to chuse 
their own minister, made choice of Lavater as deacon; 
and, in 1786, as first pastor. Here he remained, intent on 
the duties of his office, and on his physiognomical studies 
t^ntil Zurich was stormed in 1797. On this occasion he was 
wounded by a Swiss soldier, on whom he had conferred 
important benefits ; from the effects of this he never reco- 
yeredy although he lived in full possession of hi^ faculties 
till Jan. 2, 1801, when he expired in the sixtieth year of 
'his age« Hi$ principal works are, 1. *^ Swiss Songs," which 
be composed at the desire of the Helvetic society, smd 
which were sung in that society, and in other cantons. 2. 
Three collections of ^^ Spiritual Songs, or Hymns," an4 
two volumes of *' Odes," in blank verse. 3. '< Jesus Mes- 
siah, or the Evangelists and Acts of the Apostles,'' 4 vols, a 
poetical history of our Saviour, ornamented with 72 en* 
gravings from his designs, executed by Chodoweiki, Lips, 
. &c« 4. ^* A Look into Eternity," which being severely 
criticised by Gothe, Lavater, who loved truth in every 
shape, instead of being offended at the liberties he took, 
sought out the author, and became his friend and corre- 
spondent. 5. ^^ The secret Journal of a Self-Observer," 
which was published here in 1795. In this Lavater un- 
veUs his secret conduct^ and displays the motions of his 
heart*. It may justly be said that every good heart is 
generally in unison with him, but it is impossible not to 
differ from many of his opinions, and not to perceive in 
them an uncommon degree of extravfigance and enthu- 
siasm* We learn from his J.ournal, however, and indeed 
from all, his works, that a warm desire to promote the ho- 
nour of God^ and the good of his fellow creatures, was the 
principaK feature in his character,, and the leading motive 
of all be did. Next to these were an indefatigable placa- 
bility, and an inexhaustible love for his enemies. 

But his physiognomical work is that which procured him 
most reputation in Europe. Accident is s^id to have led 
him to the study of physiognomy ; standing one day at a 
window with Dr. Zimmerman, he was led to make such 

* Many of hii opmions and singu- " Aphorisms,*' a translation of which 
Unties are alio perceivahte in bis was published by Mr. Fuseli in 178S. 

72^ L A V A T E R. 

remarks on the singular countenance of a soldier that wa^ 
passing by, as induced Zimmerman to urge him to pursue 
and methodize his ideas. He accordingly considered the 
subject more seriously, and acquired not only a fondness 
for it, but a steady conviction of the reality of the physio* 
gnomical science, and of the vast importance of the disco- 
veries he had made in it. In 1776, he published the first 
fruits of his labours in a quarto volume, entitled ^^ Frag- 
ments,*' in which he took a wide range of inquiry, and 
carried his ideas of physiognomy beyond the observation 
of those parts of the countenance which' exhibit to a com- 
mon eye the impressions of mental qualities and affections^ 
and maintained, as a leading position, '^ that the powers 
and faculties of the mind have representative signs in the 
solid parts of the countenance.'* Two more volumes ap- 
peared in succession, which presented a most extraordinary 
assemblage of curious observations, subtle and refined rea- 
soning, delicate feeling, and philanthropical and pious 
sentiment, together with a large admixture of paradox, 
mysticism, whim, and extravagance. The whole is illus- 
trated with a great number of engravings ; many of which 
are highly finished and singularly expressive. The work 
was soon translated into the French and English languages, 
and for a time became the favourite topic of literary dis- 
cussion, but has now ceased to maintain much interest. 
Lavater, we are told, was not only an enthusiast in thii 
art, but was'so far carried away by his imagination, as to 
believe in the continuation of miracles, and the power of 
casting out spirits to these days ; opinions which he did not 
scruple to make public, and maintain with all boldness.' 

LAVINGTON (Georgje), an English prelate, andvery 
eminent scholar, was descended from a family long settled 
in Wiltshire, and was born at the parsonage- bouse of Mil- 
denhall, in the above county, and baptised Jan. 18, l€&3, 
his grandfather. Constable^ being then rector of that pa- 
rish. Joseph, father to bishop Lavington, is supposed to 
have exchanged his original benetice of Broad Hinton, in 
'Wiltshire, for Newton Longville, in Bucks, a living and 
a manor belonging to New college, in Oxford. Trans- 
planted thither, and introduced to the acquaintance of 
several members Of that society, he >¥as encouraged to 

Melster's Portraits 4es komibes illustrcs de 1& Suisse .-^Reei'i Cycloptciii^ 
-ii Onomasticon: ' ' ' ' " ' 

L A V I N G T O N. 74 

educate the elde^ of his numerous children, George, th6 
sabject of this article, at Wykeham*s foundation, neai* 
Winchester, from whence he succeeded to a* fellowship of 
New college, early in the reign of queen Anne. George, 
while yet a schoolboy, had produced a Greek translation 
of Virgil's eclogues, in the style and dialect of Theocritus,' 
which is still preserved at Winchester in manuseript. At 
the university he was distinguished by his wit and learning, 
and equally so by a marked attachment to the protestant 
succession, at a period when a zeal of that kind could pro- 
mise him neither preferment nor popularity. But if some 
of bis contemporaries thought his ardour in a good cause 
excessive, still their affection and esteem for him remained 
undiminished by any difference of political sentiment. In 
1717, he was presented by his college to their rectory of 
Hayford Warren, in the diocese of Oxford. Before this 
his talents and principles bad recommended him to the 
notice of many eminent persons in church and state. 
Among others Talbot, then bishop of Oxford, intended 
him for the benefice of Hook Norton, to which his suc- 
cessor, bishop Potter, collated him. Earl Goningsby not 
only appointed him his own domestic chaplain, but intro- 
duced him in the same capacity to the court of king George 
I. In this reign he was preferred to a stall in the cathe- 
dral church of Worcester, which he always esteemed as 
one of the happiest events of his life, since it laid the 
foundation of that close intimacy which ever after subsisted 
between him and the learned Dr. Francis Hare, the dean'. 
No sooner was Dr. Hare removed to St. Paul's, than he 
exerted all his influence to draw his friend to the capital 
after him ; and his endeavours were so successful that Dr. 
LaVington was appointed in 1732, to be a canon residen- 
tiary of that Church, and in consequence of this station*, 
obtained' successively the rectories of St. Mary Aldefmary, 
and St. Michael Bassishaw. In both parishes he was es^ 
teemed a minister attentive to his duty, and an instructive 
and awakening preacher. He would probably never have 
thought of any other advancement, if the death of Dr. Stil- 
lingBeet, dean of Worcester, in 1746, had not recalled to 
his memory the pleasing ideas of many years spent in that 
city, in the prime of life. His friends, however, had 
higher views for bim ; and, therefore, on the death of 
bishop Ciagget, lord chancellor Hardwick, and the duke 
of Newcastle, recommefKled him to the king, to fill the 


JL A V I N G T O N* 

vacancy, Without his solicitation or knowledge. From Um 
time he resided at Exeter among his clergy, a faithful and 
vigilant pastor, and died universally lamented, Sept. 13, 
1762; crowning a life that bad been devoted to God's 
honour and service, by a pious act of resignation to his 
will ; for the last words pronounced by bis faulteriog tongue, 
were Ao&iTd0 0ta) — << Glory to God." He married Francis 
Maria, daughter of Lave, of Corf MuUion, Dorset, who 
bad taken refuge in this kingdom from the popish perse* 
cution in France. She survived the bishop little more 
than one year, after an union of forty years. Their only 
daughter is the wife of the rev. N. Nutcombe, of Nutcombi», 
in Devonshire, and chancellor of the cathedral at Exeter. 

' Bishop Lavington published only a few occasional sermons, 
except his ^^ Enthusiasm, of the Methodists and Papists 
compared,^' three parts^;. which involved him in a tern* 
porary controvery with Messrs. Whitfield and Wesley.^ 

LAVOISIER (AKTHOiiy Lawrence), a distinguished 
chemicai philosopher, was born at Paris, on the Iftth of 
August, 1743. His father, a inan of opulence, sparing no 
expence on his education, he displayed very early proofs 
of the extent and success of his studies, especially in the 
circle of the physical science^. In 1764, when the French 
government proposed a prize question, relative to the best 
method of lighting the streets of a large city, Lavoisier 

' presented a dissertation on the subject, which was highl}' 
approved, printed at the .expence of the academy <^ 
sciences, and obtained for him the prei^nt of a gold medal 
from the king, which was delivered to him by the presi« 
dent of the academy, at a public sitting, in April 1766. 
Two years afterwards, he was admitted a member of that 
learned body, of which he. was constantly one of the mosr 
active and useful associates. About the saqae time, he 
was occupied in experimental researches on a variety of 
subjects ; such as the analysis of the gypsum found in the 

• « The bishop of Exeter's book 
against the Methodists is, I tbiok, on 
the whole, composed well enough 
(though it be a bad copy of Still ing- 
fleet's famous book of the ** Fanaticism 
of the Church of Rome)" to do the exe- 
cution he intended. In pushing the 
Methodists, to make them Uke every 
thing that is bad, he compares their 
laiiaticisBi to the ancient mysteries; 

but, as the mysteries, if they had ever 
been good, were not, in the bishop's 
opinion, bad enough for this purpose, 
he therefore endeavours to show against 
me, that they were abominations even 
from the beginning. As this contra** 
diets all antiquity so evidenUy, I 
thought it would be ridiculous in me 
to take any notice of him.*'— WarbUF- 
ton't Letters to Hurd, p, 86, 4to edit. 

^ Foiwhele's Hist, of Deronaliirei yol. I, p. 31^. 

L* A r O I S I E R. 75 

neighbourhood of Paris; the crystallization of salt; the 
properties of water ; and in exploring the phenomena of 
thunder, and of the aurora borealis : and he distinguished 
himself by several dissertations on these and other topics, 
practical and speculative, which appeared in different pe* 
nodical works. In the Memoirs of the Academy for 1770 
were published bis observations on the nature of water, 
and on the experiments which had been supposed to prove 
the possibility of its conversion into earth. He proved, by 
a careful repetition of these experiments, that the earthy 
deposit, left after repeated distillations of water, proceeded 
solely from an abrasion of the vessels employed. Lavoisier 
performed several journeys into various parts of France, in 
company with M. Guettard ; in the course of which he 
coUected a store of materials for a lithological and minera- 
logical history of that kingdom, which he ingeniously ar- 
ranged in the form of a chart. These materials were the 
basis of a great work on the revolutions of the globe, and 
ion the formation of the strata of the earth : two interesting 
sketches of which were printed in the Memoirs of the Aca- 
demy for 1772 and 1787. 

- • Between these two periods, Lavoisier, struck with the 
-discoveries that had been made by Dr. Black, and pursued 
by Dr. Priestley, respecting the properties of certain 
aeriform substances, gases, or factitious airb, entered into 
the same field of research, and published the result of his 
experiments in 1774, in his ** Opuscules Chymiques,*' 
which contained not only a clear and elegant view of all 
-that had hitherto been done, in regard to gaseous or aeri- 
form fluids, but also several original experiments, re- 
markable for their ingenuity and accuracy. 

The existence of a gaseous body, in a fixed or solid 
Btate, in the mild alkalies and alkaline earths, which, when 
expelled from these substances, assumed an atrial form, 
and left them in a caustic state, as well as its production 
during the combustion of fuel, had been demonstrated by 
Dr. Black; and Bergman bad shown that this air possessed 
acid properties. Dr. Priestley had also submitted it to 
various experiments in 1767, but the honour of ascertain- 
ing the real constituent parts of this acid gas, or fixable 
air, was reserved for Lavoisier. He now turned his ex- 
perimental researches to the subject of the calcination of 
metak. It had already been shewn by ftey and Homberg^ 
that metals acquire an augmentation of weight during piil* 


cination ; but they differed io the causes of this augmen- 
tation. Lavoisier, who published the result of bis expe* 
riments on the subject in 1.774, demonstrated that a given 
quantity of air was requisite for the calcination of a giveti 
quantity of tin ; that a part of the air is absorbed during 
this process, by which not only the bulk, but the weight 
of the air is diminished ; that the weight of the tin is 
increased during the same process ; and lastly, that the 
weight acquired by the tin is exactly equal to that which 
is lost by the air. 

Thus, by a few simple, accurate, and well- chosen ex- 
periments, Lavoisier had apparently arrived at the legi- 
timate inference, that during the process of the formation 
of acids, whether with carbonaceous matter, sulphur, or 
phosphorus, and also during that of the calcination of me«* 
tals, an absorption and fixation of air take place ; and thus 
he gained a glimpse of principles, in the view of which his 
singular sagacity in devising experiments, and his accu- 
racy in executing them, would in all probability have alone 
conducted him to those brilliant results to which Dr. 
Priestley so materially contributed. The synthetic proofs 
only of this union of air with the base had b^en as yet as* 
certained ; but Dr. Priestley first furnished the analytic 
proof, by dissevering the combination ; a discovery which 
at once advanced the nascent theory of Lavoisier, and, in 
his hands, became the source of more than one important 
conclusion. In August 1774, Dr. Priestley discovered that 
by heating certain metallic calces, especially the calcined 
mercury (the precipitate per se, as it was then called) a 
quantity of air was separated, while the mercury resumed 
its metallic form ; and this air, which he found was much 
purer than that of the atmosphere, he called, from the 
theory of the time, depldogisticated air. Having communis 
cated this discovery to Lavoisier, the latter published a 
memoir in 1775, in which he shewed, in conformity with 
the experiments of Dr. Priestley, that the mercurial pre* 
cipitate per se^ by being heated in a retort, gives out a 
highly respirable air (called since oxygen)^ and is itself re- 
duced to the metallic state ; that combustible bodies burn 
in this air with increased brilliancy ; and that the same* 
mercurial calx, if heated with charcoal, gives out not the 
pure air, but fixed air ; whence be concluded that fixed*, air 
is composed of charcoail and the pure air. It has, therefore^ 
since been called carbonic acid. 

L-A V O I S I E R. 77 

A 9ec0nd very important consequence of Dr. Priestley's 
diflcovery of the pure or vital air, was the analysis of tb9 
ftir of the atmosphere, which was accomplished by Lavoisier 
in the following manner. He included some mercury in a 
elose vessel^ together with a known quantity of atmospheric 
air, and kept it for some days in a boiling state ; by de- 
grees a small quantity of the red calx was formed upon the 
surface of the metal ; and when this ceased to be produced 
the contents of (he vessel were examined. The air was 
found to be diminished both in bulk and weight, and to 
have been rendered altogether incapable of supporting 
combustion or animal life ; part of the mercury was found 
converted into the red calx, or precipitate per se ; and» 
which was extremely satisfactory, the united weight of the 
mercury and the precipitate exceeded the weight of the 
original mercury, by precisely the same amount as the air 
had lost. To complete the demonstration, the precipitate 
was then heated, according to Dr* Priestley's first expe- 
riment, and decomposed into fluid mercury and an air 
which bad all the properties of vital air ; and this air, wbea 
-iriijced with the unrespirable residue of the original air of 
thereceiver, composed an elastic fluid ppssessing the same 
properties as atmospherical ain The vital air was after- 
wards made the subject of various experiments in respect 
to the calcination of metals, to the combustion and conver- 
sion of sulphur and phosphorus into acids, 4^c. in which 
processes it was found to be the chief agent. Hence it 
was named by Lavoisier c^rj/^^n (or generator of acids), and 
the unrespirable residue of the atmosphere was called a%ot 
j^u e. incapable of supporting /i/i;). 

The new theory thus acquired farther support and con«* 
sistency ; oxygen appeared to be one of the most active 
and important agents of chemistry and of nature ; combus- 
tion, acidification, and calcination (or, as it was now called, 
o^t/daiioriy the calces being also termed oxyds, i. e. some- 
thuig approaching to, or. resembling acids), were proved 
to be processes strikingly analogous to each other ; all ac- 
cording in these points, that they produced a decomposi- 
tion of the atmospheric air, and a fixation of the oxygenous 
{portion in the substance acidified or calcined; 

Time alone seemed now requisite j:o establish these doc- 
trines, by exemplifying them in other departments of che- 
mical research^ In } 777 six memoirs were communicated 
to the Academy of sciences by Lavoisier, jn whick his 


former experiments w^re confirmed, and new advanced 
were made to a considerable extent* Our countrvymen^ 
Black and Crawford, in their researches respecting latent 
heat, and the different capacities of bodies under different 
circumstances, had laid a solid foundation, on which the 
dbctrines of combustion, resulting from the foregoing ex- 
periments, might be perfected, and the cause of the light 
and heat connected with it might be explained. The first 
nyentioned philosopher. Dr. Black, had shewn, that a solid, 
when it is made to assume a liquid form, and a liquid, 
when it assumes the form of vapour, absorbs or combines 
with, and renders latent, a large portion of heat, which is 
again parted with, becomes free and cognizable by the 
sense of feeling, arid by the thermometer, when the va* 
pour is again condensed into a liquid, and the liquid be- 
comes solid. In like manner, it was now said by Lavoisier, 
during the process of combustion, the oxygen, which was 
previously in a gaseous state, is suddenly combined with' 
the substance burnt into a liquid or solid. Hence all the 
latent ^eat, which was essential to its gaseous state, being 
instantaneously liberated in large quantity, produces fiame, 
which is nothing more than very condensed free heat. 
About the same time, the analogy of the operation and 
necessity of oxygen in the function of respiration, with the 
preceding hypothesis of combustion, was pointed out by 
Lavoisier. In the process of respiration,, it was found thatj 
although atmospheric air is inhaled, carbonic acid and azot 
are expired. This animal operation, said Lavoisier, is a 
species of slow combustion : the oxygen of the air unites 
with the superfluous carbon of the venous blood, and pro- > 
duces carbonic acid, while the latent or combined caloric 
(the matter of heat) is set free, and thus supplies the ani« 
mal heat Ingenious and beaqtjkful, however, as this ex* 
tension of the analogy appeared, the subject of animal, 
temperature is still under many obscurities and difficulties. 
The phenomena of chemistry, however, were now ex- 
plicable upon principles more simple, consistent, and sa- 
tisfactory than by the aid of any former theory ; and the 
Lavoisierian doctrines were everywhere gaining ground. 
But there yet remained a formidable objection to them, 
which was derived from a circumstance attending the so- 
lution of metals in acids ; to wit, the production of a con«< ' 
siderable quantity of inflammable air. If sulphuric acid 
(formerly called vitriolic acid, or oil of vitriol) consists onlj 

L A V O I &I E R. 79 

of nalpbur and oxygen^ it was said, how does it happen^ 
that wheu these two substances, with a little water, comef 
in contadt, they should produce a large quantity of inflam- 
mable air during their re-action ? This objection was un- 
answerable, and appeared to be fatal to the whole theory : 
but it was most opportunely converted into an argument 
in its favour, by the grefit discovery of the decompositioa 
of water, made by Mr. Cavendish ; who resolved that ele- 
ment, as it was formerly esteemed, into oxygen and inflam- 
Inable air. The latter has since, therefore,, been called 
hydrogen^ or generator of water. This experiment was 
repeated with full success by Lavoisier and his associates in 
1783 ; and the discovery was farther established by a sue*- * 
cessful experiment of the same chemists, carried on upon 
a. grand scale, in which, by combining the oxygen with 
hydrogen, they produced water, and thus adding synthesis 
to analysis, brought the fact to demonstration. 

This new view of chemical phenomena, together with 
the immense accession of new compounds and substances, 
which the labours of modern experimentalists had brought 
to light, appeared to demand a correspondent alteration in 
the nomenclature. Accordingly, a committee of some of 
the ablest of the French chemists, of whom Lavoisier was 
the most conspicuous, undertook the arduous task, and 
produced a regular system of nomenclature, derived from 
the Greek language, which, although far from being fault* 
less^ and notwithstanding much opposition with which it 
was at first treated, has become the universal language of 
chemical science, and has been adopted even in pharmacy 
and medicine. His work, entitled ^^ Elemens de Chymie,'* 
which was published in 1789, was a model of scientific 

We have hitherto Viewed M. Lavoisier principally as a 
chemical philosopher, in which character he has founded 
his great claims to the respect and admiration of posterity. 
But the other arts and sciences are indebted to him for 
considerable services which he rendered thein, both in a 
public and private capacity. In France, more than in any 
other country, men of science have been consulted in mat- 
ters of public concern; and the reputation of Lavoisier 
caused him to be applied to, in 1776, to superintenjd tlie 
manufiu:ture of gunpowder, by the minister Turgot. By 
the applics^tion of his chemical knowledge to this manufac- 


tttre, he was enabled to increase the explosive forc^ df the 
powder by one- fourth ; and ^while he. suppressed the trou- 
blesome regulations for the collection of its materials from 
private houses, previously. adopted, he quintupled the pro- 
duce. The academy of sciences. received many services 
ffom his hands. In addition to the communication of forty 
papers, relative to many of the most important subjects of 
philosophical chemistry, which were printed in the twenty 
volumes of Memoirs, from 1772 to 1793, he most actively 
promoted all its' useful plans and researches, being a mem«« 
ber of its board of consultation, and, when appointed to 
the office of treasurer, he introduced order into its ac- 
counts, and economy into its expenditure. When the new 
system of measures was proposed, he contributed some 
new and accurate experiments on the expansion of metals. 
The national convention consulted him with advantage coi^« 
kerning the best method of manufacturing assignats, find 
of securing them against forgery. Agriculture early en- 
gaged his attention, and he allotted a considerable tract of 
land on his estate in the Vendome, for the purpose of ex« 
perimental farmings The committee of the constituent 
assembly of 1791, appointed to form an improved system 
of taxation, claimed the assistance of his extensive know- 
ledge ; and he drew up, for their information, an extract 
of a large work on the different productions of the country 
and their. consumption, for which he had been long col- 
lecting materials. This was printed by order of the assem- 
bly, under the title of ^^Richesses Territoriales de la 
France," and was esteemed the most valuable memoir on 
the subject. In the same year, he was appointed one of 
the commissioners of the national treasury ; and he intro- 
duced into that department such order and regularity, that 
the proportion between the income and the expenditure, 
in all the branches of government, could be seen at a single 
view every evening. This spirit of systematic and lucid 
arrangement was, indeed, the quality by which he was 
peculiarly distinguished, and its happy influence appeared 
in every subject which occupied his attention. 

The private life of this distinguished person was equally 
estimable with his public and philosophical character. Ha 
was extremely liberal in his patronage of the arts, and en- 
couraged young men of talents in the pursuit of science* 
His house became a vast laboratory, where philosophical 
experiments were incessantly carrying on, and where he 

L A y O I S I E & 81 

bdld cOnvevsaBibnes twice a w6ek, to which be invited every 
literary character that was most celebrated in geometrical, 
physicali and chemical studies; in these instructive dis* 
cussions, the opinions of the most eminent literati in Eu^ 
rope were canvassed ; passages the most striking and novels 
out of foreign writers, were recited and animadverted on ; 
and* theories were compared with experiments. Hera 
learned men of all nations found easy admission ; Priestley, 
Fontana, Blagden, Ingenhousz, Landriani, Jacquin, Watt, 
Bolton, and other illustrious physiologists and chemists of 
England, Geprmany, and Italy, found themselves mixed 
in the same company with Laplace, Lagrange, Borda, 
Cousin, Meunier, Vandermonde, Mouge, Guyton, and 
Bertbollet In his manners M. Lavoisier was mild; afiable, 
and obliging ; a faithful friead and husband, a kind rela« 
tioD, and charitable to the poor upon his estates; in a 
word equally claiming esteem for his moral qualities, as for 
those of his understanding. « 

The time was arrived, however, when distinction event 
by his talents and worth was so hx from securing publio 
respect, amid the tumults of tbe revolution, that it became 
aiource of danger, and, when joined with wealth, was 
almost certainly fatal. All those especially who had held 
any situation under the old administration, particularly in 
the financial departments, were sacrificed, during the mur- 
derous reigu of Robespierre, to tbe popular odium. La- 
voisier was seized and thrown into prison, upon some 
charges fabricated, against himself and twenty-seven other 
farmers-genaral. During his confinement he foresaw that 
be should be stripped of all his property ; but consoled 
himself with the expectation that he would be able to main- 
tain himself by the practice of pharmacy. But a more se<* 
vere fate awaited him : be was capitally condemned, and 
dr^ged to th^ guillotine on the 8th of May, 1794. ^ 

llie name of Lavoisier will always be ranked among the 
most illustrious chemists of the present age, when it is con- 
sidered what an extensive and beneficial influence his 1^-* 
hours have had <^^t the whole science. It has been said, 
iadaefl, that if be be estimated on the score oi his actual 
discoveries, not only Scbeele and Priestley, and Caven- 
^sb, but many moie, will stand before him. But he pos^ 
sessed in a high degree that rare talent of discernment, hy 
which he detected analogies, which others overlooked, 
even in their own discoveries, and a sagacity in devising 

Vol. XX. G 


and an accuracy in completing his experiments, for th6 
purpose of elucidating every suggestion which he thus ac^ 
quired, such as few philosophers have possessed No on^ 
who did so much, probably ever made so few unsuccessfol 
or random experiments. It was the singular perspicuity^ 
'siioplicityy and order ta which he reduced the phenomena 
of chemistry, that claimed for his theory the general re- 
ception which it met with, and occasioned the abandon- 
ment of those doctrines which prejudice and habit con- 
spired to support. Subsequent discoveries, however, and 
more especially those numerous facts which the genius of 
sir Humphrey Davy has lately brought to light, through 
the medium of that most. powerful agent of decomposition, 
galvanism, have rendered several modifications of the La- 
voisierian theory necessary, and bid fair to produce a more 
general revolution in the language and doctrines of che- 

M. Lavoisier married, in 177 1, the daughter of a farmer- 
general, a lady of pleasing manners and considerable ta- 
lents, who partook of her husband's ^eal for philosophical 
inquiry, and cultivated chemistry with much success. She 
engraved with her own band the copper*plates for his liet 
work. Mad. Lavoisier aft^erwards gave her hand to anolber 
. emment philosopher, count Rumford, who, in ISK, left 
her a widow a second time.' \ 

LAW (Edmund), bishop of Carlisle, was bom in the 
parish of Carl mel in Lancashire, in 1703» His father, wha 
was a clergyman, held a small chapel in that neighbour- 
hood, but the family bad been situated at Askham, in the 
county pi Westmoreland. He educated for some time 
at Cartmel school, afterwards at the fr^ grammar-school 
at Kendal; from which. he went, very well instructed im 
the learning of grammar-schools, to St. John^s college, 
Cambridge. He took his bachelgr^s degree in 1723, and 
soon after was elected fellow of ChristVcollege. in. that 
uuiversity, where he. took bis. mastetr'-s degree in 172^. 
During his residence here, he became knowa to.the pi>b- 
]}c by a. translation of archbishop King's (see William. 
Kino) " Essay* upon the jOngbx . of Evil,!' >with > cpptokia 
notes;. in which many metaphysical subjects, curibuff and 
interesting in tbeii*.owQ natkire, anre /treated of with tgreait 

', • . • ;' , ' ■ ' . * ; . ■ ; ^ 

» CJogc by Lalapde 1r the Mag. Epcyclopedi^uc— but cbiefly in th^ wgrds »f . 
Ue account given in Rees's Cyclopedia^ .' ' ' '* '* 


L A Wi ^ |» 

ingetiuity, learning, and novelty. To this work was pre* 
fixed, under the name of a <* Preliminary Dissertation^'* a 
very valuable piece written by Mr. Gay of Sidney-college. 
Oor bishop always spoke of this gentleman in terors of the 
greatest respect. ^' In the Bible, and in the writings of 
• Locke, no man,'' he used to say, *' was so well versed." 

Mr. Law also, whilst at Cbrist's^coU^e, undertook and 
went through a very laborious part, in preparing for the 
press, an edition of <^ Stephens's Thesaurus." His ac-* 
<|paiutance, during his first residence in the university^ 
was principally with Dr. Waterland, the learned master pf 
Magdalen-4College ; Dr. Jortin, a name known to every 
scholar ; and Dr. Taylor, the editor of Demosthenes. 

In 1737 he was presented by the university to the living 
of Grayatock, in the county of Cumberland, a rectory of 
about 300/. a year. The advowson of this benefice be- 
^longed to the family of Howards of Graystock, but devolved 
to the university for this turn, by virtue of an act of par- 
liament, which transfers to these two bodies the nomina- 
tton to such benefices as appertain, at the time of the va« 
'cancy, to the patronage of a Roman catholic. The .right^ 
however, of the university was contested, and it was not 
until after a lawsuit of two years continuance, that Mr. 
Law was settled in his living. Soon after this he married 
Mary, the daughter of John Christian, esq. of Unerigg, in 
the county of Cumbedand ; a lady, whose character is re- 
membered with tenderness and esteem by all who kneyf 
her. In J 74^ he was promoted by sir George Fleming, 
bishop of Carlisle, to the archdeaconry of that diocese; 
and in 1746 went from Graystock to settle at Salkeld, a 
pleasant village upon the banks of the river Eden, the rec-' 
tory of which is annexed to the archdeaconry ; but he was 
not one of those who lose and forget themselves in the 
country. During his residence at Salkeld, he published 
*-* Considerations on the Theory of Religion ;" to which 
were subjoined, ^ Reflections on the Life and Character 
of Christ ;" and an appendix concerning the use of the 
words soul and spirit in the Holy Scripture, and the stato 
of the dead there described. 

Dr. Keene held at this time with the bishopric of Ches- 
ter, the masten^ip of Peter-house, in Cambridge. De- 
siring to leave the university, he procured Dr. iJaw to be 
elected to succeed him in that station. This took place 
ia 1756^ in which yean Dr. Law resigned his archdeaconry 

a 2 

t* LAW. 

in favour of Mr. Eyre, a brolber^ki4atr of Br. Keene. 
Twro years before this (the list of graduates says 1743) he 
bad proceeded to his degree of D. D., in his public exer-» 
cise for which, he defended the doctrioe of what is usually 
called the ** sleep of the saul/' a tenet to which we shall 
hate occasion to revert hereafter. About 1760 he was 
Appointed head librarian of the university; a situation 
which, as it procured an easy and quiek access to books^ 
was peculiarly agreeable to his taste and habits. Sem^ 
time after this he was appointed casuistical professor* In 
1762 he suffered an irreparable loss by the death of his 
wife; a loss in itse^lf every way afflicting, and rendered 
more so by the situation of his fiamily, which then con-^ 
sisted of eleven children, many of thera very young. 
Some years afterwards be Yeceived several preferments, 
which were rather honourable expressions of regard from 
kls friends, than of much advantage to his fortune. By 
Efr. Cprnwallis, then bishop of Lich&eld, afterwards arch-* 
bi^op of Canterbury, who had been his pupil at Christ-*^ 
college, he was appointed to the archdeaconry of Staffwd-^ 
shire, and to a prebend in the church of Mchfield. By- 
bis old acquaintance Dr. Green, bishop of Lincoln, he^ 
was made a prebendary of that church. But ki 1767, by 
^e intervention of the duke of Newcastle, to whose in* 
terest, in the memorable contest for the high stewardship 
of the university, he had adhered in opposition to some^ 
temptations, he obtained a stall in the cbui^h of Durham. 
The year after this, the duke of Grafton, who had a short 
time before been elected chancellor of the university^ re- 
f^ommended the master of Peterhouse to his majesty for 
the bishopric of Carlisle. This recommendation was made, 
i>ot only without solicitation on his part, or that <^ bis friends, 
but without his knowledge, until tlie duke's intention in 
his favour was signified to him by the archbishop. . 
, In or about 1777, our bishop gave' to the puhKc a hand* 
some edition, in 3. vols. 4to, of the works of Mr. Lookey 
with a life of the author, and a preface. Mr* Locke's- 
writings and character he held in the highest esteem, and 
seems to have drawn from them many of bis own principles v 
he was a disciple of that school. About the same time 
he published a tract which engaged some attention in the 
controversy concerning subscription ; and he published 
new editions of his two principal works, widi considerable 
Editions, and some alterations. > Besides the works aU 

LAW. 85 

ready mehtioned, be published, in 1734 of* 173f^ a very 
ingenious " Inquiry into the Ideas of Space, Time,** &c. 
in which he combtits ihe opinions of Dr. Clarke and bil 
adberients on these subjects. 

Dr. Law held the see of Catlrsle almost mneteen years; 
during which time he twice only omitted spending the 
summer months in bis diocese at the bishop's residence at 
Rosef Castle ; ft situation with which he was much pleased, 
not only on- account of the natural beauty of the place, but 
because it restored him to the country, in which he bad 
spent the best part of his life. In 1787 he paid this visit 
in a state 6f great weakness ,and exhaustion ; and died at 
Rose about a month after his arrival there, on Aug. 14| 
and id the eighty-fourth year of his age. 

The life of Dr. Law was a life of incessant reading and 
thought, almost entirely directed to metaphysical and re* 
ligious inquiries ; but the tenet by which bis name and 
writings are principally distingnished, .is, <^ that Jesu9 
Christ, at his setond coming, will, by an act of his power^ 
restore to life and consciousness the dead of the human 
species ; Who by their own nature, and without this inter- 
position, would r^maii) in the state of insensibility to 
which the death brought upon mankind by the sin of Adam 
bad reduced them." He interpreted literally that saying 
of St. Paul, I Cor. xv. 21. " As by man came death, by 
man eame also the resurrection of the dead." This opi- 
nion. Dr. Paley says, had no other effect upon his own 
mind, than to increase his reverence for Christianity, and 
for its divine founder. He retained it, as he did his other 
speculative opinions, without laying, as many are wont tcj 
do, an extravagant stress upon their importance, and with- 
out pretending to more certamty than the subject allowed 
of. No man formed his own conclusions with more free- 
dom, or treated those of others -with greater candour and 
equity. He never quarrelled with any person for differing 
from him, or considered that difference as a sufficient; 
reason for questioning any man's sincerity, or judging 
flaeanly of his understanding. He was zealously attached 
to religiotrs libert}^ because he thought that it leads to 
truth ; yet from his heart he loved peace. But he did 
ncft perceive any repugnancy in these two things. Therc^ 
was nothing in his elevation to his bishopric which he 
spoke of with more pleasure, than its being a proof tliat 
decent freedom of inquiry was not discouraged. 

86 LAW. 

He was a man of great softness of aiani>ers» and of th« 
mildest and most tranquil disposition. His voice was never 
raised above its ordinary pitch. His countenance seemed 
never to have been ruffled ; it preserved the same kind 
and composed aspect, truly indicating the calmness and 
benignity of bis temper. He bad an utter.disUke of large 
and mixed companies. Next to bis books^ his chief satis- 
faction was in the serious conversation of a literary com* 
panion, or in the conipauy of a few friends. In this sort 
of society he would open his mind with great unreserved* 
ness, and with a peculiar turn and sprigbtliness of expres-* 
sion. His person was low, but well formed ; his complexion 
fair and delicate. Except occasional interruptions by .the 
gouty he had for the greatest part of his life enjoyed good 
health ; and when not confined by that distemper, was full 
of motion and activity. About nine years before hi» deaths 
he was greatly enfeebled by a severe attack of the gout, 
and in a short time after that/ lost the use of one of his 
legs. Notwithstanding his fondness for exercise, he re*» 
signed himself to this change, not only without complaint, 
but without any sensible diminution of his cheerfulness 
and good humour. His fault was the general fault of re« 
tired and studious characters, too great a degree of inac^ 
tion and facility in his public station. The modesty, ox 
rather basfafulness of his nature, together with an extreme 
unwillingness to give pain, rendered him sometimes less 
firm and efficient in the administration of authority than 
was requisite. But it is the condition of human nature. 
There is an opposition between some' virtues, which sel- 
dom permits them to subsist together in perfection. Bishop. 
Law was interred in the cathedral of Carlisle, in which a 
bandsome monument is erected to his memory. Of his 
fiamily, his second son, John, bishop of Elphin, died ig^ 
1810 ; and his fourth son, Edward, is now lord EUenbo* 
rougb, chief-justice of the king*s-bench.V 

LAW (John), usually known by the name of the pro«. 
jector, was born at Edinburgh, in April 1671 ; and on the 
death of his father, who was a goldsmith or banker, in-* 
berited a considerable estate, called Lauristoo. He ia 
said to have made some progress in polite literature, but 
bis more favourite study was that of financial matters^ 

I Life by Dr. Paley. written for Hutchinson's Hist, of Durham, and which 
we have not altered* although we are not of opinion that Dr. Law's tenets were 
ftU of the mere speculative and harmless kiud.^ 

LAW. 87 

banks, taxeSi &c* ; and he was at the same time a man of 
pleasure, and distinguished by the appellation of Beau 
Law. Having visited Lo.ndon'^in 1694, his wit and accom- 
plishm^fits procured bim admission into the first circles^ 
and be beeame noted for his gallant attentions to the ladies. 
One of his intrigues having involved him in a quarrel with 
a Mr. Wilson, a duel took place, and Mr. Law killed his 
antagonist. He was then apprehended, and committed to 
the kingVbencb prison, from which he made bts escape, 
and is supposed to have retired to the continent^. In 1700, 
however, he returned to Edinburgh, as be appears in that 
year to have written bis ** Proposals and reasons for con<^ 
stituting a Cpuncil of Trade," which, although it met with 
DO encouragement from the supreme judicature of the 
kingdom, procured bim the patronage of -fio^me noblemen, 
under which he was induced in 1705, to publish another 
plan.for removing the difficulties the kingdom was then 
exposed to by the great scarcity of money, and the insoU 
vency of the bank. The object of bis plan was to issue 
notes, which were to be lent on landed property, upon 
the principle, that being so secured, they would be equal 
in value to gold and silver money of the same denomina- 
tion^ and even preferred to those o^etals, as. not being 
liable to fall in value like tl^em. . This plausible scheme 
being also rejected as an improper expedient, Mr. Law 
now abandoned his native country, and went to Holland, 
on purpose to improve himself in that great school of 
banking and finance. ' He aftewards resided at Brussels, 
where his profound skill in calculation is said to have con- 
tributed to his extraordinary success at play. 

On bis arrival at Paris, bis miud was occupied with 
higher objects, and be now presented to the comptroller- 
general of the finances under Louis XIV. a plan which was 
approved by that minister, but is said to have been rejec- 
ted by the king because-^^ he would have nothing to do with 
a heroic.'* ^ After, however, a short residence in Sardinia, 
where he in vain wanted to persuade Victor Amadeus to 
adopt one of bis plans for aggrandizing his. territories, he 
returned to Paris on the death of Louis XIV. and was 

* A reward of 50/. was offered in in his face, bi^' high nose, speech 

the I«oodon Gazette of Jan. 3—7, brci^d and loud." Nichols's Leioes- 

1694-5, in which he is described as tershire, vol. III. in which are sqiq^ 

;|ged twenty-six, *^ a black lean tnkn, curious particulars of Mr. Law. 
flibottt six feet high, large pock-holes 

«* LA W. 

more f avoarably received. He gained the ednfidence of 
the regent to such a degree, that he not only admitted 
him to all his convivial parties, bat nominated him one of 
bis counsellors of state. France was at this time btirtbened 
with an immense debt, which Law proposed to liqilidate^ 
by establishing a bank for issuing notes secured on landed 
property, and on all the royal, revenues, unalleiiably en* 
gaged for that purpose. This scheme was apjMroved of, 
, but the conjuncture being thought unfavourable, be could 
Only obtain letters patent, dated May 30, 17i6, for es« 
tal}lishing a private bank at Paris, along with his brother 
and some other associates. This scheme promised suc- 
cess, and the bank had acquired great credit, when it was 
dissolved id December 1718, by an arbitrary arret of the 
regent, who, observing the great advantages arising from 
it, and perceiving also that the people were growing fond 
of paper money, resolved to take it into the hands of go* 
• vernment. 

Mn Law, however, was named director- general of this 
royal bank, and branches of it were established at Lyons, 
Rocbelle, Tours, Orleans, and Amiens. In 1720, he he* 
gan to develope his grand project, so well known to all 
Europe, under the name of the Missisippi scheme. This 
scheme was no less than the vesting the whole privileges^ 
effects, and possessions of all the foreign trading compa- 
nies, the great farms, the profits of the mint, the general 
receipt of the king's revenue, and the management and 
property of the bank, in one great company, who thus 
naving in their hands all the trade, taxes, and royal re« 
venues, might be enabled to multiply the notes of the 
bank to any extent they pleased, doubling or even trebling 
at will the circulating cash of the kingdom ; and by the 
greatness of their funds, possessed of a power to carry, tb^ 
foreign trade, and the culture of the colonies, to a height 
altogether impracticable by any other means. This mon- 
strous and impracticable monopoly was approved of by the 
regent, who issued letters patent for erecting the *^ Com-^ 
pany of the West,'' to which he granted at the same time, 
the whole province of Louisiana, or the country on the 
river Missisippi, from which the scheme took its name. 
That part of America having been represented as a region 
abounding in gold and silver^ anjd po$ses8ing a ^rtile and 
lu^Lurious soil, the actions or shares were bought up with 


LAW. aft 


greftt avidity ; and »uch vvas the rage for specuhtion, that 
the unimproved parts of the colony were actually sold for 
10,000 hvres the square league. 

The " Company of the West," of which Law was of 
coiorse dh^ector-general, in pursuance of his scheme, un* 
dertook the Isrm of tobacco at an advanced rent of upwards 
of two miUions of livres; they soon after engrossed the 
charter and effects of the Senegal company, and in May 
1719, actually procured the grant of an exclusive trade to 
the East Indies, China, and the South*seas, with all the 
possessions and e|Feets of the China and India companies, 
which were now dissolved on the condition of liquidating 
their debts. The price oi actions soon rose from 550 to 1006 
livres each. On July 25th, the mint was made over to 
this company, which now assumed the natne of ^' The 
Gompaoy of the Indies" for a consideration of fifty mil- 
lions of livres, and on Aug. 27, following, they also obtained 
a lease of the farms, for which they agreed to pay thre6 
mtUiofls and a half of livres advanced rent. Having 
thus concentered within themselves, not only the whole 
foreign trade and possessions of France, but the collection 
and management of the royal revenues, they promised an 
annuaLdividend of 200 livres per share, in consequence 
of which the price of actiens rose to 5000 livres, and 
,a rage for the purchase of their stock seems to have infa« 
tuat^d all ranks in the kingdom. The whole nation, 
clergy, laity, peers, and plebeians, statesmen, and princ'es, 
nay even ladies, who had, or could procure money for 
that purpose, turned stock-jobbers, outbidding each other 
widi such avidity, that in November 1719, after some 
.flttctoations, the price of actions tost to above 10,000 
livres, more than sixty times the sum they originally 
sold fon 

Our projector had now arrived at an unexampled pitch 
of power and wealth; he possessed the ear of the duke of 
Orleans ; he was almost adored by the people, and was 
constantly surrounded by princes, dukes, and prelates, 
who courted his friendship, and even seemed ambitious of 
his patronage* Such was the immensity ot his property, 
that be bought no less than fourteen estates with titles an* 
nexed to them, among which was the marquisate of Rosny« 
that bad belonged to the great duke 6f Sully, the minister 
and friend of Henry IV. About this period too, a free 

90 LAW. 


pardon^ for the murder of Mr. Wilson was conveyed la 
him from England, while Edinburgh, proud of having 
produced so great a man, transmitted the freedom of the 
city in a gold box. 

The only obstacle to his advancement to the highest 
offices in the state being soon after removed by his abju* 
ration of the protestant religion, he was declared comp* 
troller-general of the finances on Jan « 18, 1720* But 
after having raised himself to such an envied situation, he 
at length fell a sacrifice to the intrigues of the other mi- 
nisters, who, playing upon the fears of the regent, induced 
him to issue an arret on May 21, 1720, which, contrary 
to sound policy, and even to the most solemn stipulations, 
reduced the value of the company's bank notes one half^ 
and fixed their actions or shares at 5000 livres. By this 
fatal step, which seems to have been taken in opposition 
to the opinion and advice of the comptroller*general, the 
whole paper fabrick was destroyed, and this immense spe- 
culation turned out to be a mere bubble. The conster* 
nation of the populace was soon converted into rage; troops 
were obliged to be stationed in all parts of the capital to 
prevent ipischief ; and such was the depreciation of this 
boasted paper money, that 100 livres were given for a 
single louis-d'or. Law with some difficulty made his 
escape to Brussels, and of all his wealth and property, re- 
tained only the salary of his office, through the friendship 
of the duke of Orleans. 

After waiting for some time, in expectation of being re- 
called to France, he travelled through part of Europe, and 
at length, in consequence of an invitation from the British 
ministry, arrived in England in Oct. 1721, was presented 
to the king, George I. and afterwards hired a house in 
Conduit-street, Hanover-square, where he was daily vi- 
sited by people of the first quality and distinction. In 
1722 he repaired once more to the continent, and con- 
cluded the chequered course of his life at Venice, in March 
1729, in the fifty-eighth year of his age. He was at this 
time in a state little removed from indigence. Various 
opinions have been entertained respecting the merit of his 

* It 18 said in the work quoted in what improbable ; but we ought p^r- 

the preceding: note, that he found haps, to recollect that. there was a 

means to pacifjibe surviving relations time, a short one, indeed, when Mrw 

of Mr. WiUon, 9}^ the payment of not Law Could comDund greater aujiis. 
less than I00,000f. This appears some* 

LAW. 91 

project, but it seems generally agreed that if it had not 
been violently interrupted by the rec^ent's arret, it was too 
insecure in its principles to have been permanent. His 
family estate of Lauriston is still in the possession of his 
descendants, one of whom, the eldest son of John Law de 
Lauriston, governor of Pondicherry, was one of the offi- 
cers wbo perished in the unfortunate voyage of De la Pe- 
Touse, and was succeeded as the head of the family, by 
general Lauriston, known in this country as the bearer of 
the ratification of the preliiioinaries of the short-lived peace 
between Great Britain and France in 1802.^ 

LAW (William), the author of many pious works of 
great popularity, was bom at King^s-cliffe, in Northamp- 
tonshire, in 1686^ and was the second son of Thomas Law, 
a grocer. It is supposed that he received his early edu* 
cation at Oakham or Uppingham, in Rutlandshire, whence 
on June 7, 1705, he entered of Emmanuel college, Cam- 
bridge. In 1708 he commenced B. A. ; in 1711, was 
elected fellow of bis college; and in 1712 took his degree 
of M. A. Soon after the accession of his majesty George L 
being called upon to take the oaths prescribed by act of 
parliament, and to sign the declaration, he refused, and 
in consequence vacated his fellowship in 1716. He was 
after this considered as a nonjuror. It appears that he had 
for some time officiated as a curate in London, but had 
no ecclesiastical preferment. Soon after his resignation of 
bis fellowship he went to reside at Putney, as tutor to Ed- 
ward Gibbon, father to the eminent historian. When at 
home, notwithstanding his refusing the oaths, he continued 
to frequent his parish-church, and join in communion with 
his fellow parishioners. In 1727 he founded an alms-house 
at ClifFe, for the reception and tnaintenance of two old 
women, either unmarried and helpless, pr widows ; and a 
school for the instruction and clothing of fourteen girls. 
It is thought that the money thus applied was the gift of 
an unknown benefactor, and given to him in the following 
manner. While he was standing at the door o^ a shop in 
London, a person unknown to him asked whether his name 
was William Law, and whether he was of King's-cliffe ; 
and after having received a satisfactory answer, delivered 
SI sealed paper, directed to the Rev. Wiliiaoi Law, which' 

1 Hiit» of Ihe Parish of Cramond, 1794, 4to.— Private Life of Loais XV* 
translated by Justaroond. — Voltaire's Siecle de liOuis XV.— ^Dict* Hist^«« 
Ktchols's Leicestertlure, vol. IIL 

9» LA W. 

contained a bank note for 1000/. But as there is no proof 
that this w^s given to him in trust for the purpose, he is 
fully entitled to the merit of having employed it in the ser-> 
vice of the poor ; and such beneficence was perfectly con- 
sistent with his general character. 

At what time Mr. Law quitted Mr. Gibbon^s house at 
Putney, his biographer has not discovered, but it appears 
that some time before 1740, he was instrumental in bring-* 
ing about ah intimacy between Mrs. Hester Gibbon, his 
pupiPs sister, and Mrs. Elizabeth Hutcheson, widow of 
Archibald Hutcheson, esq. of the Middle Temple. Mr« 
Hutcheson, when near his decease, recommended to his 
wife a retired life, and told her he knew no person whose 
society would be so likely to prove profitable and agree-^ 
able to her as that of Mr. Law, of whose writings he highly 
approved. Mrs. Hutcheson, whose maiden name was Law-» 
rence, had been the wife of <iolonel Robert Steward ; andf 
when she went to reside in Northamptonshire, was in pos-» 
session of a/large income, from the produce of an estate 
which was in her own power, and of a life interest in pro-' 
perty settled on her in marriage, or devised to her by Mr« 
Hutcheson. These two ladies, Mrs. Hutcheson and Mrs. 
H. Gibbon, appear to have been of congenial sentiments, 
and now formed a plan of living together in the conntiy, 
fbr from that circle of society generally called the world ; 
and of taking Mr. Law as their chaplain, instructor, and 
almoner. With this view they took a house at Tbrapston, 
in Northamptonshire; but that situation not proving agree-' 
able to themj the two ladies enabled Mr. Law, about I740, 
to prepare a roomy house near the church at King's-clifitey 
and in that part of the town called **The Hail-yardi-* 
This house was then possessed by Mr. Law, and was the 
only property devised to him by his father. Here the 
whole income of these two ladies, after deducting the fru*' 
gal expences of their household, was expended in acts- of 
charity to the poor and the sick, and in donations of greater 
amount to distressed persons of a somewhat higher class.- 
Afld after twenty years residence^ Mr. Law died in this 
bouse April 9, 1761. ^ 

By some persons now or lately living at Cliffe, wbor 
knew Mn Law, it is reported that he was by nature of an^ 
active and cheerful disposition, very warm-hearted, unaf* 
fected, and affable, but not to appearance so remarkable 
for' meekness ^^ as. some others of the mo3t revered mem*. 


lien of ibe Christian church , are reported to hare been,^ 
He was in stature rather oyer than under the middle size ; 
not corpulent, but stout made, with broad shoulders ; his 
visage was round, his eyes grey, his features welUpropor«» 
tioned, and not large, his complexion ruddy, and his coun* 
penance open and agreeable. He was naturally more in- 
clioed to be merry than sad. In his habits he was very re- 
gular and temperate; he rose early, breakfas^d in his 
bed-room on one cup of ohocolate ; joined Us family in 
prayer at nine o'clock, and again, soon i^ter noon, at dinner* 
When the daily provision for the poor was not made punc« 
tually at the usual hour, he expressed bis displeasure 
sharply, but seldom on any oAer occasion. He did not 
join Mrs, Gibbon and Mrs. Hutcheson at the tea-table, but 
sometimes ate a few raisins standing while they sat. At ai| 
early supper, after an hour's walk in his field, or elsewhere, 
be ate something, and drank one or two glasses of wine ; 
then joined in prajNir with the ladies and their servants, 
attended to the reading of some portion of scripture, and 
at nine o'clock retired. 

We know not where a n^re just character pf this singu- 
lar man can be found than in the *^ Miscellaneous Works'^ 
of Gibbon, the historian, who has for once praised a 
qhurchman and a man of piety, not only without irony^ 
. bnt with affection. '^ In our family," says Gibbon, ^' he 
left the reputation of a worthy and pious man, who be- 
lieved all that he professed, and practised all that he en- 
joined. The character of a nonjuror, which he maintained 
to the last, is a sufficient evidence of his principles in 
church and state ; and the sacicifice of interest* to conscience 
will be always respectable. His theological writings, which 
our domestic connection has tempted me to peruse, pre- 
serve an imperfect sort of life, and I can pronounce with 
more confidence and knowledge on the merits of the att« 
thor. His last compositions are darkly tinctured by the 
incomprehensible visions of Jacob Behmen ; and his dis- 
course on the absolute unlawfulness of stage-entertain-p^ 
ments is sometimes quoted for a ridiculous intemperance 
of sentiment and language. — But these sallie; of religious 
phrensy roust not extinguish the praise which is due to 
Mr. William Law as a wit and a scholar. His argument 
on topics of less absurdity is specious and acute, his 
ipanoer is lively^ his style forcible and clear; and, had 
not his vigorous mind been clouded by enthusiasm, he 



ttighc be ranked with the most^ agreeable and ingenloiM 
writers of the times. While the Bsingorian controrersj 
was a fashionable tbemey he entered the lists on the stA*^ 
jeck of Christ's kingdom^ and the 9»otfaority of the priest- 
hood ; against the ' Pkin account of the sacrament of th^ 
Lord's Supper' he resomed the combat witb bishop Hoadly^ 
the object of Whig idolatry and Tory abhorrence ; and at 
every weapon of attack and defence, the nonjuror, on the 
ground which is common to both, approves himself at least 
^ual to the prelate. On the appeaurance of the < Fable of 
the Bees/ he drew his pen against the licentious doctrine 
that private vices are public benefits^ and morsdity as-well 
as religion must joih in his applause. Mr. Law's master- 
work, the ' Serious Call,' is still read as a popular and. 
powerful book of devotion. His precepts are rigid, but 
they are founded on the gospel ; his satire is shaq), but it 
is 'drawn from the knowledge of human life ; and many of 
his portraits are not unworthy of tbefWB of La Bruyere *» 
If he finds a spark of piety in bis reader's mind, he wiil 
soon kindle it to a flame ; and a philosopher must allow- 
that he exposes, with equal severity and truth, the strange 
contradiction between the faith and practice of the Chris- 
tian world." 

As a theologian, Law held certain tenets peculiar to 
himself which, either from being misunderstood, or mis* 
represented, subjected him at different times, to two veiy 
opposite imputations, that of being a Socinian and that of 
being a Methodist. What, however, was really erroneous 
in his opinions has been ably pointed out by bisbop Horne 
in a small tract, printed with his life, entitled " Cautions 
to the readers of Mr. Law.'' It was in his latter days that 
Mr. Law became most confused in his ideas, from having 
bewildered his imagination . with the reveries of Jacob 
Bebmeu, for whose sake be learned German that he might 
fead his works, and whom he pronounces *^ the strongest, 
the plainest, the most open, intelligiHef awakening, con- 
vincing writer, that ever was." Although it is as a devon 
tional writer that he is now best known^ and there, can 

* The late writer of Mr. Law's Life 
is of opinion that Mr. Gibbon was 
wrong in sopposing that *' Miranda," 
ID the '* S«inons C^allt" ivas intended 
for his aunt, she being very young at 
lier father's hoosa when the work was 
wrttteo^ Of his power of drawing cha- 

racters, Dr. WartoD speaks as highly 
as Mr. Gibbon. ** There are some fe- 
male characters sketched, with ex«|iii« 
site delicacy and deep knowledge. o£ 
nature, in a book where one would not 
expect to And them, in L&lr's ** Chris- 
tian Perfection." 

LAW, 95 

doubt that his *< Serioijs eall^'' and << Christian pa-fec- 
tioQ*^ have been singularly useful, it is as a controversial 
writer, that he ought to be more highly praised. His let- 
ters to bishop Hoadly are among the finest specimens of 
controversial writing in our language, with respect to styles 
wit, and argument. 

Mr. Law's works amount to nine vols. Svo, and consist oF, 
1. " A Serioi;<i Call to a devout aud holy life.'* 2. " A 
practical Tr^tise on Christian Perfection." 3. ** Three 
Letters to the Bishop of Bangor.'* 4. ^^ Remarks upon a 
late Book, entitled, The Fable of the liees ; or private 
vices public benefits." 5. '^ The absolute Unlawfulness 
of Stage Entertainments fully demonstrated." 6. *^ The 
Case of Reason, or Natural Religion,, fairly and fully 
stated." 7* ^^ An earnest and serious answer to Dr« 
Trapp's Discourse of the folly, sin, and danger, of being 
righteous over much." 8. ** The -Grounds and Reasons of 
Christian Regen«)ei|»op." 9. <^A Demonstration of the 
gross and fundamental errors of a late book, cs^Ued, A plain 
, account of the nature and end of the Sacrament of the Lord's 
Supper." 10. << An Appeal to all that doubt or disbelieve 
the Truths of the Gospel." 11. « The Spirit of Prayer; 
or, the Soul rising out of the vanity of Time into riches of 
Eternity* In two Parts." 12. " The Spirit of Love, ia 
two Parts." 13. " The Way to Divine Knowledge; being 
several Dialogues between Humanus, Academious, Rusti- 
cus, and Tbeophilus." 14. '^ A shor,t but sufficient Con- 
futation of the rev. Dn Warburton's projected Defence (as 
he calls it) of Christianity, in his Divine Legation of Moji^s. 
In a Letter to the right rev. the Lord Bishop of London.'*. 
15. *^ Of Justification by Faith and Works; a Dialogue 
between a Methodist and a Churchman," .8vo. 16. <^ A 
Collection of Letters on the most interesting and impor- 
tant subjects, ai^d on, several occasions." 17. '< An burna- 
ble, earneat, and affectionate Address to the Clefgy."^ 

LA WES (H£NRY), an English musician, was the son of 
Thomas Lawes, a vicar- choral of the church of Salisbury, 

♦ ** When at Oxford," says Dr. I fouDd Law quite an over-match for 

Jofansoo, '* I took up ' Law's Serious me ; and this was the first occasion of 

Call to a Hoiy Life,' expecting to find my thinking in earnest of religion; 

it a dull book (as such books generally after I became capable qf rational in* 

mn), and perhaps to laugh at it. But quiry." 

* ^ Short Account of the Life and Writings of Mr. Law, by Richard Tighe, 
1813, Sto. — ^QiblK>n*8 Miscellaneous Works, vol. L pp. 14, 142. — Jones's IM 
aif Bishop Home, pp. 73, a98««-.0€|it. Mag. vol. LX^.*-NichoU's Bowvec 

§S L A W E S. 

and born there about 1 60D, He was a dfsciple of Cope- 
lario. In t625, he became a gentleman of the chapel 
royal; and was afterwards appointed one of the private 
music to Charles [. In 1653, were published his ^^ Ayreff' 
and Dialogues," &c. fplio, with a preface by himself, and 
commendatory verses by the poet Waller^ Edward and 
John Phillips, nephews of Milton, and others. In the pre- 
fitce, speaking of the Italmns, he acknowledges them iti 
general to be the greatest mastars of music ; yet contends^ 
that this nation has produced as able musicians as any ia 
Europe, He censures the fondness of his age for songs ia 
a language whi^ the hearers do not understand ; and, to 
ridicule it, mentions a song of his own composition, printed 
at the end of the book, which is nothing but an iade¥, gcms- 
taining the itiitial words of some old Itidian songs or ma- 
drigals : and this index, which read together made a strange 
inedley of nonsense, he says, he set' to a varied air, and 
gave out that it came from Italy, by whioh it passed for au 
Italian song. In the title*page of this book is a very fine 
engraving of the author's head by Faithorne. 

Twenty years before, in 1633, Lawes had been chosen 
to assist in composing the airs, lessons, and songs of a 
saasque, presented at Whitehall on Candlemas-night, be- 
fore the king and queen, by the gentlemen of the four inns 
of court, under the direction of Noy the attorney* general, 
Hyde afterwards earl of Clarendon, Seldert^ Whitelock, 
and others. Whitelock has given an account of it in bis 
<^ Memorials,** &c. Lawes also composed tunes to Mr. 
George Sandys's ^' Paraphrase op the Psalms," published 
in 163S ; and Milton^s '' Comus" was originally set by him, 
and published in 1637, with a dedication to lord Brady, 
son and heir of the earl of Bridgewater. It was repre- 
sented in^ 1634, at Ludlow*castle, Lawes himself perform- 
ing in it the character of the attendant spirit. The music to. 
'* Comus** was never printed ; and there is nothing in any 
of the printed copies of the poem, or in the many accounts 
of Milton, to ascertain the form in which it was composed. 

I^wes taught music to the family of the earl of Bridge- 
water : be was intimate v^itb Milton, as may be conjectured 
from that sonnet of the latter, ^^ Harry, whose tuneful and 
welUmeasured song." — Peck ^ays, that Milton wrote bis 
masque of '^ Comus" at the request of Lawes, who engaged 
to set it to music. Most of the songs of Waller are $et by 
Lawes; and Waller has acknovfrtedged his obligation to 

L A W E S.- 97 

fcim for one in particular, which he had set in 1635, in ^ 
poem/ wherein be celebrates bis skill as a musician. Fen- 
ton, in a note on this poem, says, that the best poets of 
that age were ambitious of having their verses set by this 
Incomparable artist ; who introduced a softer mixture of 
Italian airs than before had been practised in our nation. 
Dr. ^urney entertains another kind of suspicion. " Whe- 
ther,'' says this historian, ^' Milton chose Lawes, or Lawes 
Milton for a colleague in Comus, it equally manifests the 
high rank in which he stood with the greatest poets of his 
time. It would be illiberal to cherish such an idea ; but 
it (f(?^5 sometimes seem as if the twin-sisters. Poetry and 
Music, were mutually jealous of each other's glory : 'the 
less interesting my sister's offspring may be,' says Poetry, 
' the more admiration will my own obtain.' Upon asking 
some years ago, why a certain great prince continued to 
bonour with such peculiar marks of favour, an old per- 
former on the ilute, when he had so many musicians of 
superior abilities about him ? We were answered, * be- 
cause he plays worse than himself.' And whp knows whe- 
ther Milton and Waller were not secretly influenced by 
tome iuch consideration ? and were not more pleased with 
Lawes for not. pretending to embellish or enforce the sen- 
timents of their songs, but setting them to sounds lesji 
captivating than the sense." 

He continued in the service of Charles I. no longer tha»a 
till the breaking out of the civil wars ; yet retained his 
place in the royal chapel, and composed the anthem for 
the coronation of Charles II. He died Oct. 21, 1662, and 
was buried in Westminster-abbey. ** If," says Hawkins, 
^we were to judge of the merit of Lawes as a musician 
from the numerous testimonies of authors in bis favour, we 
should rank him among the first that this country has pro?- 
duced ; but, setting these aside, his title to fame will ap- 
pear to be but ill-grouhded. Notwithstanding he was a 
servant of the church, he contributed nothing to the in- 
creasJe of its stores: his talent lay chiefly in the composi- 
tion of songs for a single voice, and in these the great and 
almost only excellence is the exact correspondence be- 
tweetl the accent of the music and the quantities of the 
verse ; and, if the poems of Milton and Waller in his eom^ 
mendation be attended to, it will be found that bis care in 
this particular is his chief praise.'* * 

^ Ha«kms*f and Barney's Hist, of Masic.--Wartoo's MUIoIb, p. 345 ct if (jq. 

Vol. XX. H 

9S L A W E S. 

r • 

LA WES (William), brother to the preceding, waf 
placed early in life under Coperario, for bis ndusical edu« 
cation, at the expence of the earl of Hertford. His first 
preTeraient was in the choir of Chichester, but be was 
soon called to London, where, in 1 602, he was sworn a 
gentleman of the chapel royal ; whicb place, however, be 
resigned in 1611, and became one of the private, or cfaani- 
ber- musicians, to Charles, then prince and afterwards king. 
Fuller says, '^ he was respected and beloved of all such 
persons as cast any looks towards virtue and honour :'^ and 
he seems well entitled to this praise. He manifested bis 
gratitude and loyalty to his royal master by taking up arms 
in bis cause against the parliament. And though^ ta 
exempt him from danger, lord Gerrard, the king's gene* 
ral, made him a commissary in the royal army, yet the 
activity of his spirit disdaining this intended security, at 
the Kiege of Chester, 1 64 jf, he lost bis life by an accidental 
shot. The king is said, by Fuller, to' have been so affecti^d 
at his loss, that though he was alrescly in mourning for bis 
kinsman lord Bernard Stuart, killed at tbe same siege^ his 
majesty put ^* on particular lAourning for his deari^rvant 
William Lawes, whom be commonly called the fatbet* 6S 
music.** ' ' ' 

His chief compositions were fantastas for vioh^ and songS: 
and symphonies for masques ; but his /brother Henry, m 
the prefoce to the ** Choice Psalmes** for three voieei, 
which they published jointly, boasts that ** he composM 
mpre than thirty several sorts of music for voices and iii- 
struoients, and that there was not any instrument in use' in 
his titne but he composed for it as aptly as if be had ottfy 
studied that." In Dr. Aldrich^s collection, Christ churchy 
Oxon, there is a work of his called Mr. William lilwes^ 
Great Consort, ^< wherein are six setts of musicke, sik 
books," His " Royal Cbiisort" for two treble viols> twi^ 
viol da gambas, and a thorough-bas^, wbicb was al^ay^ 
mentioned with reverence by his admirers in the s^ven;* 
teenth century, is, says Dr. Bumey, one of the mostidjrj^ 
aukward, and unmeaning compositions we ever remenibe^ 
to have had the trouble of scoring. It must, boweve% ba^ 
been produced early in his life, as there are no bjit^j-an^ 
the passages are chiefly such as were used in queen EHs^a^ 
beth's time. In the music>school at Oxford are tylahfg^ 
manuscpipt volumes of his works in scoi^e, for.o\arioii»^ifl^ 
struments; one of which includes his original compositions 

/ ' 

L A W E S. 99 

ibr masques, performed before the king, and at the inns 
of court. 

Hb anthem for four voices, in Dr. Boyce's second vo« 
lume, is the best and most solid composition of this author ; 
though it is thin and confused in many places, with little 
melody. He must have been considerably older than his 
brother Henry, though they frequently composed in con- 
junction ; but we are unable to clear up this point of pri* 
mogeniture. Several of the songs of William Lawes occur 
in the collections of the time, particularly in John Play- 
£prd's Musical Companion^ part the second, eonsisting of 
dialogues, glees, baJlads, and airs, the words of which are 
in general coarse and licentious. The dialogue part, which 
be furnished ta this book, is a species of recitative, wholly 
'irithput accompaniment: and the duet at last, which is 
palled a chorus, is insipid in melody, and ordinary in coun- 
feerpoiptt His boasted cdnons, published by his brother 
Henry at the end. of their psalms, as proofs of his great 
abilities in harmony, when scored, appear so far from 
finished composition^, that there is not. one of them totally 
£ree firom pbjjsctioos, or that bears the stamp of a great 

;LAWJI^NGE.(THMIAI^, an eminent .physician, the son 
,pf captaiu Thomas Lawrence of the royal navy,' and grand* 
son of Dr. Thomas Lawrence^ first physicism 'to queen 
lAmie^was bom May 25, 1711, in the parish of St/ Mar- 
garet, Westminster. His mc^er was Elizabeth, daughter 
of Jlr^, Gabriel Soulden, merchant of Kinsale in Ireland, 
and widow ai colonel Piers. His father's residence being 
jwfc. Southampton, he was placed under the care of the rev. 
iMe. Ktngsman, master of the free^school at that place, but / 
bad previously received some education at Dublin, where 
Jbis fytber was in 1715. . In 1727 he was entered as a com* 
jnoner of Trinity college, Oxford, under the tuition of the 
rev^ George Huddesibrd, afterwards president of that col- 
lege ; and^here he pursued his studies until some time in 
1734^ He then removed to London, and took a lodging 
inutile oity for the convenience of attendhig St. Thomas's 
liiospital, ami became a pupil of Dn Mcholls, who was a^ 
that time reading anatomical lectures, with uncommon 
iQdebrily* Mr. Lawrence made a suitable progress under 
so aUe aa imftru^tor, and at those lectures formed many of 



1 . 

^Bumey in R««s*f CycIopaedia.^Hawkint. 

B 2 


the friendships which he most valued during the remainder 
of his life; among others he became here first acquainted 
with Dr. Bathur9t9 who introduced him to the friendship of 
DfT. Johnson. 

. I0 1 740 he took his degree of M. D. at Oxford, and was^ 
uppn the resignation of Dr. Nicholls, chosen anatomical 
Cfader in that univei'sityy where he read lectures forsom6 
y^rs^ as he did also in London/ having quitted his lodg- 
i#?gs in the city for a house in Lincoln's-inn-fields, which 
had heen before occupied by Dr. NichoUs^ and was vacated 
hy him upon, his naarriage with the daughter of Dr. Mead*. 
On May 25, 1744^ Dr. Lawrence was married toFrano^ft, 
daughter of Dr. Chauncy, a.physi<nan at Derby, and todk 
9i bouse in Es$ex-«treet, in the Strand, where he oontimied 
to read hi^ anatomical lectures till 1750, after which h^ 
laid tiiem aside. He jiow. devoted biniselftxai his >practic€^ 
which became very coosrderaMe^^ adrd -which he obtain^ 
•olejy by the reputation of his skill and integrity, fDir hk 
Uboured under the. disadvantage of .frequent fits of dea^ 
neas, and knew no art of success but that of deserving i€» 
In the same year ((744),^. he was. chos^a fellow of the royil 
college of physicians in London, where he read bim^ 
cessively all the lectures instituted in that society ^tk- 
great repiutation, both for his professional knowledge, and 
for the purity and elegance of his Latin.; nor did he con«» 
fine himself to the oral instnuction of his contemporartei^ 
for in i 7 5Q be published a. medioal disputation ^'De^Hyw 
^rope,'* and ki 1759, " De iNatura Mus^uldrum preieC'-* 
tion^ tres ;*' fmd when tbel College .publtihed 'the works aoif 
Br. Harvey in 1766, Dr<r Lawrence wrote the life which is 
prefixed to that edition, for which he had a oompUmeot oC 
LOO guineas. In 1759 he wats.cfadssn elect, and- itrl96^ 
pdresident of the college, to which of&tt he was re-^IecteJL 
for the seven succeeding y^ars. j » . 

. About 1773, Dr. Lawrence^s health began to dedrne, 
and be first perceived symptoms of that disorder on tlM. 
breast which is called: angina pectoris^ and which oonumied. 
to afflict him i;o the^end of Us life*-. Yet be remitted litde 
of his attention, either to study ior biisin«»$ ; he s^llidl con^ 
linued bis custom of rising eariy^« that he migbt secDnto 
leisure for study ; and hss old friend and instructor, Dt. 
Kicfaolb,. dy'ingr in the beginning of .1 778, ^h8|Df»d a tfi» 
bute of friendship and gratitude to hisinempry by writing 
an account of his life, in Latin, Whicbwas pirinted for pri« 




Vate disfribution- in 1780^ 4to. Tlie^ death of his friwd 
was soeii followed by a nearer loss, in Jan. 17^0, that of 
his wife, with whom he had lived with great happiness for 
above thirty*five years ; and from this time his health and 
spirits declining more rapidly, his family prevailed. on hiti 
to retire from business and London > he aocordingly re-^ 
moved with his femily to- Canterbury, in 1782, and died 
there June 6, 1783. • 

By bis wife he had six sons and three daughters, llie 
death of one of his «ons in India, in 1783^ gave occasion 
to a very elegant Latin ode by Dr. Johnson. Another of 
his sons was the late sir Soulden Lawrence, one of the 
judges of the king's bench ; sind Elizabeth, widow of George 
Gipps^ esq. M.P. for Canterbury^ is now, we believe, the 
only survivor of Dr. Lawrence's family. * 

LAZIUS (Wolfgang), physician and historian to the 
emperor Ferdinand I. was born *at Vienna in 1 504, -and 
there taught the belles lettres and physic for some years 
with great reputation.- He died in 1555. His numerous 
works shew him to have been indefatigable in l>is re-* 
searches, but not so judicious in digesting his materials* 
The principal arei» 1. ** Commentariorum ReipubUc« Ro- 
manes in exteris Prbvinciis hello acqoisitis constitiitae," 
Libri XII. 1598, fol. 2..^f De Gentium migrationibus,*' 
1572, fol. in whi^h he examines particularly the migrations; 
of the northern people, which weakened and divided the 
Roman empire;- 3. " Geographia PannonJse," in Ortelius,'* 
4v *< De rebus Viennensibu?," 1546. 5. " In Genealogiam 
Austriacam Commentarii,-' 1504, fol. &c. The greatest 
part of this author-s works were eollected and printed at 
Francfort, 1698, 2 vols, fol.* 

LEAKE (Richard), master-gunner of England, was born 
at Harwich, in 1629, and beiiHg bred to the siea- service, 
distinguished himself by his skill and bravery in many 
actions. At the restoration he was made master-gunner 
of the Pxii^icess, a frigate of fifty guns; and in the first 
Dutch war exhibited his skill and bravery jn two very 
extraordinai'y actions, in one against fifteen sail of Duich 
men of war, and another in 1667, against two Danish ships 
in the Baltic, in which, the principal officers being killed, 

* Gent. Mag. Tol. LVII. — Cenaura Literaria, toI. I.—Hawkins and Boswell's 
Lives of JohosoB. 

« Niceron, vol. X^XL — Moreri.— Bullart's Academic des Sctanccs.—Saxii 
OBomast. * ' 

lot LEAKE. 


the coinmand devolved od bim, though only master-gun- . 
Sier. In 16159 be was promoted to be gunner of the Royal 
Prince, a first-rate man of war. In 1673 be was engaged 
with his two sous Henry and John, against Van Trump, 
His ship was the Royal Prince, a first-rate man of war, all 
the masts of which were shot away, four hundred of her 
tnen killed or disabled, and most of her upper tier of gunf( 
dismounted. Whilst she was thus a wreck, a large Dutch 
ship of war came down upon her, with two fire-ships, mean^i- 
ing to burn or carry her off. Captain, afterwards sir George 
Rooke, thinking -her condition hopeless, ordered the mea 
to save tbeir lives, and strike the colours. Mr. Leake, 
hearing this, ordered tb^ lieutenant off the quarter«decky 
and took the command upon himself, saying, '^ the Royal 
Prince shall never be given up while I am alive to defeod 
her.*' The chief-gunner's gallantry communicated it;seli^ 
to all around ; the crew returned with spirit to tbeir guns^. 
and, under the direction of Mr. Leake and his two sons,, 
compelled the Dutchman to sheer off, and sunk both the 
fireships. Leake afterwards brought the Royal Prince safe, 
to Chatham ; but the joy of his victory was damped by the, 
loss of his son Henry, who was killed by bis side. He wi^ 
afterwards made master-gunner of England, and store* 
keeper of the ordnance at Woolwich. He bad a particular 
genius for every thing which related to the, management of 
artillery, and was the first whp contrived to fire on f, mortar 
by the blast of a piece, which has been used ^vet sincev 
He was also very skilful in the Tsomposition of fire-works, 
which he often and successfully exhibited for the amuse* 
men't of the king, and his brother, the duke of York. He 
died in 1686, leaving a son, who is the s.ubject of our next 
article. ' 

LEAKE (Sir John), a brave and successful Engliisb adt- 
miral, son of the preceding, was born in 1656, at Rotber- 
hithe, in Surrey, His father instructed him both in ma- 
thematics and gunnery, with a view to the navy, and en- 
tered hina early into that service as a midshipman ; in which 
station he distinguished himself, under his father, at the 
above-mentioned engagement between sir Edward Spragg;e 
and Van Trump, in 1673, being then no more thao seved- 
teen years old. Upon the conclusion of that war soon 
after, he engaged in the merchants' service, and had the 

^ Bioff. Brit. 


* command of a ship two or three voyages ap the Mediter- 
ranean ; but his inclination lying to the navy, he did not 
long remain unemployed iu it. He had indeed refused a 
lieutenant's commission ; but this was done with a view to 
the place of master-gunner, which was then of much 
greater esteem than it is at present. When his father was 
advanced, not long after, to thotcommand of a yacht, he 
gladly accepted the offer of succeeding him in the post of 
gunner to the Neptune, a second-rate man of war. This 
Hiippened about 1675; and, the times being peaceable*, 
he remained in this post without any promotion till 1688. 
James II. having then resolved to fit out a strong fleet, to 
prevent the invasion from Holland, Leake had the com- 
mand of the Firedra^e fireship, and distinguished himself 
by several important services ; particularly, by the relief 
of Londonderry in Ireland, which was chiefly effected by 
his means. He was in the Firedrake in the fleet under 
lord Dartmouth, when the prince of Orange landed ; after 
which he joined the rest of the protestant officers in an 
address to the prince. The importance of rescuing Lon* 
donderry from the hands of king James raised him in the 
navy ; and, after some removes, he had the command 
given him of 'the Eagle, a third-rate of 70 guns. In 1692, 
ihe distinguished figure he made in the famous battle off 
X^a Hogue procured him the particular friendship of Mr. 
(afterwards admiral) Churchill, brother to the duke of 
Marlborough ; and he continued to behave on all occasions 
with great reputation till the end of the war ; when, upon 
concluding the peace of Ryswick, his ship was paid off, 
Dec. 5, 1697. In 1696, on the death of his father, his 
friends had procured for him his father's places of master- 
gunner in England, and store-keeper of Woolwich, but 
these he declined, being ambitious of a commissioner's 
place in the navy ; and perhaps be might have obtained it, 
I had not admiral Churchill prevailed with him not to think 

of quitting the sea, and procured him a commission f6r a 
third-rate of 70 guns in May 1699. Afterwards, upon the 
prospect of a new war, he was removed to the Britannia, 
the finest first-rate in the navy, of which he was appointed, 
Jan. 1401, first captain of three under the eairl of Pem-^ 
broke, newly made lord high admiral of England. This 
was the highest station he could have as ^a captain, and 
higher than any private captain ever obtained either before 
or since. Bu^ upon the earl's removal, to make way for 

104 LEAKE. 

prince George of Denmark, Boon after queen Anne's aor 
cession to the throne, Leakeys commission under him bc^ 
coming void, May 27, 1702, he accepted of the Associa- 
tion, a second-rate, till an opportunity ofiered for his far-^ 
ther promotion. Accordingly, upon the declaration ofwa^ 
against France^ be received a commission, June the 24thr 
that year, from prince George, appointing him commandeK*^ 
in chief of the ships designed against Newfoundland. He 
arrived there with his squadron in August, and, destroying> 
the French trade and settlements, restored the English to. 
the possession of the whole island. This gave him an op- 
portunity of enriching himself by the sale of the capturesy . 
at the same time that it gained hioi the favour of the nation, 
by doing it a signal service, without any great danger of 
not succeeding ; for, in ,truth, all the real fame he ac- 
quired on this occasion arose from his extraordinary dis- 
patch and diligence in the execution. 

Upon his return home, he was appointed rear-admiral pf 
the filue, and vice-admiral of the same squadron ; bu^ de- 
clined the honour of knighthood, which, however, be ac- 
cepted the following year, when he was engaged with a4^ 
miral Rooke in taking Gibraltar. Soon after this, be p^rr 
ticulariy distinguished himself in the general eiigagenie^t 
off Malaga ; and, being l^ft with a winter-guard at Lisboa. 
for those parts, he relieved Gibraltar in 1705, which the 
French had besieged by sea, and the Spaniards by land,. 
and reduced to the last extren^ity. ' He arrived Oct* 29, 
and so opportunely for the besieged, that two days would^ 
in all probability, have, decided their fate; but this Wft9 
pXevented by sir John's ^seasonable arrival. In F^b. 1705^ 
he received a commission, appointing .hinoi vice-^admiral.of 
the white, and, in March, relieved Gibraltar a secpnct time<^ 
On March 6 be set sail for that place ; and, pn the lOtbtj 
attacked five ships of the French fleet coming <]tiat, of tbei 
^^y» of whom two were taken, two more r.un ashore,! amii 
were destroyed; and baron Pointi died soon after of the 
wounds he received in the battle. The rest of the French, 
fleet, having intelligence of sir John's coming, had left 
the Bay the day before his arrival there. He had no sooner 
anchored, but he received the letter inserted below from, 
the prince of Hesse * : his highness, also presented bii^ 

^ " Sir, I expected with great im- and good success at this your second 
patience this good opportunity to ex- appearing off this place, wbtch I hopw 
prefs my hearty joy for your great hath been the first stroke towards o«r 

LEAKE. las: 

with a gold cup on the oeca«ioiD« This blow styucfc apaiiici- 
along the whole coast, Of which, sir John received thd 
following a^counti in a letter Irom Mr. Hill, envoy to the 
court of.Savpy: •*! can tell you/* nays, be^ '^yoar lata 
fiuccess against Mn Pointi put ^1 the French coast into a. 
great cans^teroation^ as if yon we^e come, to ^cour. the. whole. 
Mediterrc^nean. AU the riiips of war. that were in the road 
of Toulon were hauled into the harbour ; and notbingdorit' 
look ottt for some day».V In short, the. effect at Gibraltar 
was, that the enemy, in a few days, entirely raised the si^ge|. 
and marched off, leaving only a detachment at ^ome)distani:e[> 
to observe the garrison ^ so that this iosportant place was 
se<?ured from any farther attempts of the enemy. Tbera 
are but few instances in which the sea< and land.officerai 
agreed so well together in an expedition^ and sacrificed all 
private .views and passions to a disinterested regard for the 
public good. . . , 

The same year, 1705, sir John was engaged in the joh. 
duction of Barcelona ; . after which, being iieCt at the head 
of a squadron in the Mediterranean, be. conaert^d an. ex* 
pedition to surprize the Spanish i the bay- oC^ 
Cadiz; but this proved unsuccessfnl, hyxbe management; 
of the confederates. In 1 706, he relieved Barcelona, re-*/ 
dueed to the last extremity, and thereby, occasioned the* 
siege to be raised by king Philip. This was so great a^ 
deliverance of bis competitor, king Charles, afterwards 
emperor of Germany, that he annually commemorated it^i 
by a public thanksgiving on the 26th of May^ as long aa 
he lived. The.raising of the siege was attended with a total 
eclipse of the sun, which did not a little. increase the enei* 
my?s consternation, as if the heavens ooncorred to defeat 
the designs of the French, whose monarch had assumed* 
the son for his device ; in allusion to which, . the reverse of 
the medal. struck by queen. Anne on this occasion, repre- 
sented the sun in eclipse over the cit^ and harbour of Bar-^ 
c^oiia. .Presently after this success at Barcelona, sir John 
rediaced the city of Carthagena, whence, proceeding to 
those of Alicant and Joyce, they both submitted to him ; 

relief; . the cneiny, since fire dayf, consequences of it: and I in particular 

baring began to withdraw their heavy cannot express my hearty thanks aad 

caomMi, b^ng the effects- on(y to be obligations I lie under. I ami ^itb 

ascribed, to your eondnet and care* great -aincerity and respect, Ue* 
'TfSonly to you the public owes, and Ocorge, Prince of Hesse»'' 

will owe, so tMMf irttLt and happy 

106 LEAK E. 

ftnd he concluded the campaign of that year with the re<^ 
duction of the city and island of Majorca. Upon his re* 
tarn home, prince George of Denmark presented him witH 
ik dtamond-ring of four hundred pounds value ; and be had 
the honour of receiving a gratuity of a thousand pounds 
from the queen^ as a reward for his services. Upon the 
unfortunate death of sir Cloudesly Shovel, 1707, he was 
advanced to be admiral of the whiCCi and commander in 
chief of her majesty^s fleet. In this command he returned 
to the Mediterranean, an^, surprizing a convoy of the 
enemy^s corn, sent it to Barcelona, and saved that city 
atid the confederate army from the danger of famine, in 
1708. Soon after this, convoying the new queen of Spaiii' 
to her consort, king Charles, he was presented by her 
majesty wiUi a diamond«ring of three hundred pounds va^ 
lue. From this service he proceeded to the island of Sar- • 
dinia, which being presently reduced by him to the obe^- 
dience of king Charles, that of Minorca was soon after sur^ 
rendered to the fleet and land-forces. 

Having brought the campaign to so happy a conclusion^ 
be returned home ; where, during his absence, he had been 
appointed one of the council to the lord-high-admiral, and < 
was likewise elected member of parliament both' for Har- 
wich and Rochester, for the latter of which he made his 
choice. In December the same year, he was made a ser 
cond time admiral of the fleet. In May 1709, he was con- 
stituted rear-admiral of Great-Britain, and appointed onei 
of the lords of the admiralty in December. Upon thct 
change of the ministry in 1710*, lord Orfbrd resigning the 
place of first commissioner of the admiralty, sir John 
Leake was appointed to succeed him ; but be declined that 
post, as too hazardous, on account of the divisions at that 
juncture. In 1710, he was chosen a second time member 
of parliament for Rochester, and made admiral of the fleet 
the third timeinM711, and again in 17.12, when he con- 
ducted the English forces to take possession of Dunkirk; 
Before the expiration of the year, the commission of ad* 
miral of the fleet was given to him a fifth time. He was 
also chosen for Rochester a third time. Upon her majesty^s 
decease, Aug. 1, 1714, his post of rear-admiral was de- 
termined ; and he was superseded as admiral of the fleet 
by Matthew Aylmer, esq. Nov. 5. In the universal change 
that was made in every public department, upon the acces- 
sion of George I. admiral Leake could not expect to be 

L E A X E. 107 

excited. Al^ ^8 lie lived privately ; mnd, bailding a 
little box at Gteenwich, spent part of his time there, re« 
Ueating aometimes to a coantry-boqie he had at Bedding* 
6m in Surrey. When a yoaog man, be bad married a 
daughter of captain Richard Hill of Yarmouth ; by whom 
he had oue son, an only child, whose miscdnduct had giren 
him a great deal of uneasiness. In Aug. 1719, he was 
seized with an apoplectic disorder ; but it went off witbout 
any visible ill consequence. Upen the death of his son, which 
happened in March following, after a lingering incurable 
^isoi'cler, he discovered more than ordinary alffliction ; nor 
was he himself ever well after ; for he died in his house at 
Greenwich, Aug. 1, 1720, in his sixty-fifth year. By bis 
win, he devised his estate to trustees for the use of his son 
during life : and upon his death without issue, to captain 
Martin, .who married his wife's sister, and his heirs.' 

LEAKE (Stephen Martin}, a herald and antiquary, 
son of captain Stephen Martin, mentioned in the preceding 
article,' was born April 5, 1702. He was educated at the 
school of Mr. Michael Maittaire, and was admitted of the 
Middle- temple. In 1724 he was appointed a deputy-* 
fieuteuant of the Tower-hamlets ; in which station be after* 
wands distinguished himself by his exertions during the 
rebellion in 1745. On the revival of the order of the Bath 
in 1725, he was one of the esquires of the earl of Sussex, 
deputy earl-marshal. He was elected F. A. S. March 2, 
1726- ?• In the same year he was created Lancaster be- 
laid, in the room of Mr. Hesketh ; in 1729 constituted 
Norroy; in. 1741 Clarenceux ; and by patent dated De« 
cember 19, 1754, appointed garter. In all his situations 
ip, the college Mr. Leake was a constant advocate for the 
];ights and privileges of the oflSce. He obtained, after 
iiniuch solicitation, a letter in 173 1, from the duke of Nor- 
folk to the earl of Sussex, bis deputy earl-marsbal, re- 
questing him to sign a warrant for Mr. Leakeys obtaining 
a commission of visitation, which letter, however, was not 
attended with success. In the same year he promoted a 
prosecution against one Shiets, a painter, who pretended 
ig) keep an office of arms in Dean's-court. The court of 
chivalry was opened with great solemnity in the painted- 
qbamber, on March 3, 1731-2, in relation to which be bad 
taken a principal part. In 1733, he appointed Francis Bas- 

. * Biog. Brir. 

log LEA K.E. 

siai:H>9 of Chester, hnitputy^ as Norroj; iior. Chester ttoni 
North Wales; and abont tbe^^me time asserted biarightyo 
as Norroy, to grant arois ia Noirtb Wales, which right watf 
clainaed by Mr. .LongTille^t who had been > constituted 
Gioucester King nt Arms partium Wallia^ annexed to tba^ 
of Bath King at Arms^ at the revival of that order. He 
dreyif up a petition in January 1737-8, .which was presented 
tp the king in council, for a new charter, virith the sold 
power, of painting arms, &€. which petition was referred 
to the attorney and solicitor genenal; but .they makings 
their report favourable to the painters, it did not succeeds 
He printed, in 1744, '^ Reasons for granting Commissionff 
to the Provincial Kings at Arms for visiting their Pro^ 
vinces." Dr. Cromwell Mortimer, having, in 1747, pro^ 
posed to establish a registry for . dissenters io the college 
of arms, be had many meetings with the heads of. the seve- 
ral denominations, and alsp of the Jews, and drew up ar« 
tides of agreement,: which, were approved by all parties it 
proposals were printed and dispersed, a jseal made to affiis 
to certificates, and the registry was opened on Febroary 
SO, 1747-^; hut it did not succeed, .oiwing to a misun«< 
derstanding between the ministers and the deputies of the 
congregations. A bill. having been brought in by Mr/ 
Potter, in the session of parliament. in the year 176S, foi^ 
taking the number of the people,, with their marriages and 
births, he solicited a claim in favour of the college: but 
the hill did not pass. In 1165^6, he made an abstract of 
the register-books belonging to. th£ order of the gaster^^ 
Mrhich being translated iotx> Latin, was deposited in the re^ - 
gister^s oCBce of the order. 

In 1726, he published his '^NummiBritan. Historia, or 
Historical Account of English .Money.'' A new editiooyf 
with large additions, was printed in 1.745, dedicatedto the 
duke of Suffolk. It is much to Mr. Leake's honour, that 
he ws^s j^he first writer upon the English coinage. Froa|^ 
a^ectionate gratitude to admiral sir John Leake, and at the 
particular desire .o£ hip father,- he h&d written a history of 
the life of that ^dmisal, prepared from a great collection* ^ 
of b^oks aqd papers relating to the subject which were ia 
his possession* Thiikhe published in 1750, in large octavo^ 
Fifty copies only were printed, to be given tothisrfriends^: 
this book is therefore very scarce and difficult to be ob«^ 
tained. Bowyer, in 1766, printed for him fifty copies of 
the Statutes of the Order of St. George, to enable him to 

X S A K E. 109 

capply" each kiyight at liis tnstallatiofi with one, as he was 
required td do offietally.! Eir^r attentive to proniote scifence^ 
lie'wasxofistantiy adding to the ki^owledge of armS| de- 
tileatis, iiotiorS) preo^deiK:^,: the history of the college, and 
oftfae several pierAOtis who bad been officers of arms, and 
itvtrj cfther subject in any manner connected with his of- 
Ace. He also wrote* several original essays on some of 
tho^'flubj^fotf. " These mtilti&hous collections are con- 
tained in a pward' of -il Ay volmnesj all ih his own hand* 
Hrritffig; #hich*MS., mth many others, he bequeathed to 
Ilia son, John*Mf(rtiii Leake, esq. He married Ann, 
^ungest daughter, and' at lei^gth sole-heiress of Fletcher 
liPervali, esq. of Downton, in the parish and county of 
fttfdnor, by Ann- bis wife, daughter of Samuel Hoole of 
iix>ndon, %y vi^om he had nine children, six sons and thre6 
daughters; all of' whom surviyed him. He died at his 
aeat'. at Mile^nd at Middlesex, March 24, 1773, in the 
Mi^eiftieth year of his age, and was bnried in the chancel 
of' Thorpe S€»ken church in Essex, of which parish he was 
Ibng impropriator, and owner of the seat of Thorpe -hall, 
and the aitate belonging to it, inheriting them from his 

LEAKE (John), an English physician and writer, waa 
lihe 'sdn of a dergyman who was curate of Ainstable in 
(Cttmberland. He was educated partly at Croglin, and 
}f^Vf M Ae grammar*school at Bishop Auckland. He 
th6Vi went to London, intending to engage in the military 
)irofefsnon : but 6nding some promises, with which he had 
been flattered, were not likely soon to be realized, h6 
turned his attention to medicine. After attending the hos* 
flitals, amd being admitted a member of the corporation of 
tforgeons, an opportunity presented itself of improving 
Utnsetf in foreign schools ; he embarked for Lisbon, and 
€fterwaHs Tisited Italy. On his return, he established 
him^lf as a surgeon and accoucheur in the neighbourhood 
rf Piceadilly ; and about that time published " A Disserta- 
tion oil the Properties and Effica^ of the Lisbon Diet- 
driifk,^* whidh he professed to adnii'nister with success in 
^any des|>erate cases of scrophuia, scurvy, &c. Where 
4e~«bta(ii1ied bis doctor^s diplonia is not known ; but he be- 
«ittitie ere long a licentiate of the College of Physicians, 
and removed to Craven- street, where he began fo lecture 

1 Nobie'f Hist of the Colkge of Amw. 

no L E A K i. 

on the obstetric art, and invited tbe fitculty to attend. In 
1765 he purchased a piece of ground on a building lease, 
and afterwards published the plan for the institution of tbe 
Westminster Lying-in- Hospital : and as soon as the build* 
ing was raised, be voluntarily, and without any considera* 
tion, assigned over to the governors all his fight in the 
premises, in favour of the hospital. He enjoyed a con* 
siderable share of reputation and practice aji an accoucheur, 
and as a lecturer; and was esteemed a polite and accoQi* 
plished man. He added nothing, however, in the way of 
improvement, to his profession, and his writings are> not 
characterized by any e^itraordinary acuteness, or depthjii 
research ; but are plain, correct, and practical. He vvas . 
attacked, in the summer of 1792, with a disorder of . the 
chest, with which he had been previously affected, and was 
found dead in his bed on the 8th of August of that yeu". 
He published, in 1773, a volume of ^^ Practical Observa* 
tioDs on Child-bed Fever;'* and, in 1774, "A Lectnro 
introductory to the Theory and Practice of Midwifery, in- 
cluding tfie history, nature, and tendency of that scienccv * 
&c. This was afterwards considerably altered and ehn 
larged, and published in two volumes, under the title of 
'^ Medical Instructions towards the prevention and cuie df 
various ' Diseases incident to Women,** &c. The woi:k 
passed through seven or eight editions, and was translated 
into the French and German lauiguages. In th^ beginning 
of 1792, a short time before his death, he published ^^^ A 
practical Essay on the Diseases of the Viscera, patticu^arlgr 
those of the Stomach and Bowels."^ 

LEAPOR (Mary), a young lady of considerable poeti* 
cal talent, was born Feb. 26, 1722. Her father at thW 
time was gardener to judge Blencowe, at Mars^n St 
Lawrence, in Northamptonshire. She was brought, up 
under the care of a pious and sensible mother, who died |k 
few years before her. The little education which she re* 
ceived, consisted wholly in being taught to read and wntCf 
and it is said that she was for some time cook-ipaid in a 
gentleman's family : with all these disadvantages, how^vef, 
she began at a very early age to compose verses, at 6rsl 
with tbe approbation of her parents, who afterwards, wa?^ 
gining an attention to poetry would be prejudicial to hei^ 

^ Hutchinson's Bio|;. Medlctt.-^Hutdunson's History of CumberIaikl.-<-<^fn!t» 
Jllag. LXII. 

L E A P O R. HI 

ttndeavoure4 by .efery possible means to discouotenaooe 

such pursuits. These, however, were ioeffectual^ aodshe 

was at last left to follow her inclination. She died the 

\12th of November, 1746, at Brackley ; and after her 

death two volumes of her Poems, were printed in Svo, in 

^'1748 and 1751, by subscription, the proposals for which 

^ were drawn up by Mr. Garrick. Mr. Hawkins Browne was 

editor of the second volume. Our late amiable poet and 

crFtic, Cowper, had. a high opinion of Mrs*. Leapor'« 

r poetry. ' 


' / LEBEUF (John), a French historian and antiquary, was 
^ born «t Auxerre in 1687, and became a member of the 
' academy of belles lettres and inscriptions of Paris in 1750. 
;He died in 1760, aged 73. Among his productions are, 
[I. '' R^cueil de divers Merits servant sL P^claircissement de 
rhistoire de France," 1738, 2 vols. l2mo. 2. ^< Disser- 
bitions sur rhistoire ecc](£siastiqiie et civile de Paris;" to 
^ which are added several matters that elucidate. the history 
^of France; 3 vols. rimo. 3. *^ Trait^ historique et pra* 
tiqiie sur le chant eccl^siastique," '1741, 8vo. This, was 
.dedicated to Vintimille, archbishop of Paris, who had em- 
.^ployed him in composing a chant for his new breviary and 
missal. 4. *^ M6moires sur PHistoire d' Auxerre,'* 1743, 
2 vols. 4to. 5. ** Histoire de la yille et ,de tout le diocese 
de Paris," 15 vols. 12100. 6. Several dissertations dis- 
persed in the journals, and in the memoirs of the academy 
^pf which he was member* The learned are indebted to 
ibim likewise for the discovery of a number of original 

EieceS| which he found in various libraries, where they 
ad long remained unknown. He was a man of extensive 
'learning and laborious research ; and undertook several 
Journeys through the different provinces of France for the 
purpose of investigating the remains of antiquity. In such 
matters he was an enthusiast, and so engaged iu them, as jlp 
know very little of the world, being co^itent with the very 
small competency on which he lived.' 

LE BLANC (John BeknaAd le), historiographer of 

;t>uiIdings;of the academy della Crusca^ and of that of the 

'Arcacies at Rome, was boru at Dijan, in 1707, of poor 

parents, but he went early to Paris, where his talents prp«- 

I Bior. Di^iA.^-'Hayley'ft.Xife of Cowper, Vol. IIU p. SSS.—Gent Mas* ^o\, 
IjV, « Moreri.— JKct. Hist. 

Hi L E B L A N C. 

cured him friends and patrons. . He then cade to London^ 
and met with the same aidvanta^e. In 1746 Maupertutt 
offered hitn, on the part of the king of Prussia, a' place 
>suua4>Ie to a mdn of letters, at the c6urt of Berlin ; but 
he preferred mediocrity at home to flattering hopes held 
out to him from abroad. He died in 1781. His tragedy 
of ^* Abensaide," the subject of which is very interesting, 
was well received at first, notwithstanding the harshness of 
the versification ; but it did not support this success when 
revived on the stage in 1743. What most brought the 
ahh6 Le Blanc into repute was the collection of his letters 
oil the English, 1758, 3 vols. 12ino, in which are many 
jtidicious refleciions ; but he is heavy, formal, frniti\il in 
vulgar notions^ and trivial in his erudition, and the praises 
he bestows on the great men, or the literati^ to whom he 
addresseil his letters, are deficient in ease and delicacy. 
'The letters of abb6 Le Blanc cannot bear a comparison with 
the " London" of Grosley, who iis a far more^ ilgreeaUe 
•writer, if not a more accui'ate observer. * 




LECCHI (John Anthony), a learned Italian mathe* 
matician, was born at Milan, Nov. 17, 1702; He wks 
'^ducM^ed atmong the Jesuitii, and entered into their order ih 
-1718. He afterwards taught the belles-lettres at VercisIU 
fiitid Pavia, and was appointed rhetoric-professor in the unU 
vieMty of Brera, in Milan. In 1733 the senate of Milan 
appointed him professor of mathematics at Pavia, and af- 
terwards rembved him to the same office at Milan, the du- 
ties of which he executed with reputation for twenty years. 
In 1759 his fanie procured him an invitation to Vienna 
from the empress Maria Teresa, who honoured him with 
ber esteem, and appointed him mathematician to the court, 
with a pension of 500 florins. What rendered him mb^t 
celebrated, was the skill he displayed' as superintendant 
and chief director of the processes for measuring the bed 
of the Retio and other less considerable rivers belonging 
to Bologna, Ferrara, and Ravenna. On this he was em- 
ployed for six years, under Clement XIII. ; and Clement 
XIV. ordered that these experiments should be continued 
upon Leccbi's. plans. He died August .24^^ 1776, |kge,d 

» Diet HUt. 

■ « 

t £ C C H I. 113 

B^^nty* three, years; Fabroni, who has given an excellent 
pfrsonal character of Lecchi, and celebrates his skill ia 
hydraulics^ has, contrary to bis usual practice^ mentioned 
his works only in a general way ; and for the following list 
we have therefore been obliged to have recourse to a less 
accurate authority: 1. '' Theoria lucis," Milan, 1739. 
2, '^. Arithmetica universalis Isaac! Newton, sive de com* 
positsone, et resolutione arithmetica perpetuis commentariis 
ilhistrata et aucta," Milan, 1752, S vols. 8vo. . 3. '< Ele^ 
n^nta geometric theoricee et practicae," ibid. 1753, 2 vols. 
8vo. 4.. '^ Elementa Trigonometric,'' &c. ibid. 1756. 5. 
^M>e sectionibus conicis," ibid. 1758. 6. <^ Idrostatica 
esaminata,'' &c.'ibid. 1765-, 4to. 7. '' Relazione della 
visita alle terre dannegiate dalle acque di Bologna, Fer« 
ram, e Ravenna," &c. Rome^ 1767, 4to. 8. *^ Memorie 
idroatatico*st6ricbe delle operazioni esequite nella inal- 
veazione del Reno di fiologna, e degli altri minori torrent! 
per la linea di primaro almare dalF anno 1765 al 1772,'* 
JVfodena, 1775, 2 vols. 4to. 9. << Trattato de' canali na« 
vigabili," Milan, 1776, 4to.* 

LE CENE (Charles), a learned protestant divine, was 
bora about the end of 4646, at Caen, in Normandy, where 
be waa first educated. He afterwards went through a 
course of theological studies at Sedan. Returning thence 
ID 1^69, he was very honourably received by the learned 
of his native country, which he again left, in order to at-* 
tend the lectures of the divinity-professors at Geneva. 
Bere he remained until Nov. 1670, and after a re^idence 
of some time at Saumur, came back in March. 1672 to 
Caen, with the warmest recommendation^ from the various 
professors under whom he had studied. He then became 
pastor at Honfleur, where he married a lady of fortune, 
^hich joined to his own, enabled him to prosecute his 
studies without anxiety. It appears to be about this time 
that be conceived the design of translating the Bible into. 
French, on which he was more or less engaged for a great 
mjany years. He continued his functions, however, as a 
minister, until the revpcation of the edict of Nantes, iiv 
1685, which annihilated the protestant churches in Franpe, 

Oh this^vent be came over, accompanied by many of 
bis brethren, to England, and was so fortunate as to brings 
with him the greater part qf his valuable library, «Qd pro* 

» FabroDi Vit« lUloru», ^l- XVIIJ.— Pi«t, Hist, 

Vol. XX. I 

114 t E C EN E. 

perty enough to enable him to rdteTe many of bis suffering 
companions. He might probably have received some 
church-preferment in this country, had he not objected to 
re-ordination. He died at London, in 1703. He wrote 
some controversial pieces, but the chief object of his la« 
bours was to make a good translation of the Bible, which 
was published by his son 'at Amsterdam, in 2 vols. fol. It 
eontains some valuable preliminary dissertations. He had 
in 1696 announced his intention in a volume entitled 
^> Projet d'une nouvelle version Frangois de la Biblet'^ from 
which a high opinion was formed of his undertaking. This 
projet was published in English, under the title of ^ An 
Essay for a new translation of the Bible,*' and so well re* 
eeived, that a second edition appeared in 1717. Th« 
translation itself, however, although ably executed, did 
not answer the expectation of the public, which was prin« 
cipally owing to the author's introducing certain whims 
and fancies of his own^ and taking unnecessary liberties 
with the text.^ 

LEDERLIN (John Henry), an eminent Hebrew and 
Greek scholar and critic, was the son of a poor mechanic at 
Strasburgh, where he was born July 18, 1672. His parents 
w^re so unable to give him education, that he must have 
been obliged to work at his father's trade, had he not 
found an early patron in Froereisen, a learned townsman, 
who placed him at ten years old in the public school, at 
his own expence* Lederlin's extraordinary proficiency 
rewarded this generous friend, whom, however, he had 
the misfortune to lose by death in 1690. This would have 
been irreparable, if his talents had not already recom- 
mended him to other patrons, and his school educatioQ 
being finished, he was enabled to pursue his studies at the 
university with great reputation. He received his master's 
degree in 1692, and at the persuasion of Boeder the me^* 
dical professor, Obrecht, and others, he opened a school 
for the Hebrew atid Greek, of which languages, he was in 
1703, corfstituted professor, and was for many years one 
of the greatest ornaments of the university of Strasburgh. 
He died Sept 3, 1737, leaving various monuments of 
learning and critical skill. Among those, we- may enu- 
merate, 1. his edition of Julius Pollux's *< Onomasticon,'^ 
170$, 2 vols. fol. 2. His «' Homer's Iliad," Amst. 1707, 

1 Diet. Hist. iaCtiMi—Wwks of tba Leaned for l^^-ll. 

L £ D E R L I N. 115 

i Vols. 12mo, Gr. 8c Lat. Lederlin edited only a part of 
dira edition, which on his death, Mr. Dibdin says, was 
completed by Bergler. But in this case there must have 
been an edition posterior to 1737, when Lederlin died. 
3. ^< Vigerus de praecipuis Graecss dictionis idiotismb/* 
Strasburgh, 1709, 8vo. 4. '* Brissonii de regio Persa- 
mm principatn,'* ibid. I WO. 5. " iBliani vans historicB,'* 
ibid. 1713, 8vo, which Harles says is superior to Schefier*8 
edition, but must yield to that of Perizonius. He pub- 
lished also some critical dissertations on parts of the Greek 
Testament, on which he was accustomed to lecture.^ 

LE DRAN (Henry Francis), an eminent French sur- 
geon, was born at Paris in 1685, and received his educa« 
tion under his father, Henry Le Dran, who had acquired 
considerable reputation as an operator, particularly in can- 
cers of the breast. Under his auspices our young surgeon 
ttimed bis thoughts principally to the operation of litho- 
tomy, which he performed in the lateral method, as prac- 
tised by Cheselden, and was enabled to make some valuable 
improvements in the art. These he communicated to the 
public in his '^ Paralele des differentes manieres de tirer la 
Pierre hors de la Vessie,** printed in 1730, 8vo, to which 
he added a supplement in 1756, containing the result of 
his later practice. The work was well received, has been 
frequently reprinted, and translated into most of the mo- 
dern languages. He published also, 2. ^^ Observations de 
CSfairurgte, auxquelles on a joint plusieurs reflections en fa- 
vettr des Etudiens,'' Paris, 1731, 2 vols. 12mo. 3. " Traitfi 
on reflections tiroes de la pratique sur les playes d^ Armes a 
feu,'* Paris, 1737, 12mo. 4. " Trait6 des Operations de 
Chirurgie," Paris, 1743, 12mo. To the translation of this 
work into English, by Gataker, Cheselden made some va-» 
hiiable additions. 5. ** Consultations sur la plupart des 
Maladies qui sont du report dela Chirurgie," 1765, 8vo; 
a work well calculated for the instruction of students in 
surgery. The author also sent several ■ observations of 
considerable merit to the academy of surgeons, which are 
published in their memoirs. He died, at a very advanced 
age, in' 1770.* 

LE0YARD (John), a native of America, of a very 
enterprizing turn, was born at Groton in Connecticut. 

> Harltfi de Vitis Pbilologoram. — Saxii Onoiiiast.*»Dibdia'i ClaHic9, 
* Diet. HisW— Bailor Bibl. Aoat^Rees'i Cyclopwdia. 


lia L E D Y A R D. 

Having lost his father in his infancy, he was taken n'nief 
the care of a relatioti, who sent him to a grammar-school,, 
and he studied for some tkiie at Dartmouth college, in 
New Hampshire. Here it appears to have been his in- 
tention to apply to theological studies, but the friend who 
sent him to college being dead, he was obliged to quit ir^ 
and by means of a canoe of his own construction, he found 
bis way to Hartford, and thence to New York, where he 
went on board ship as a common sailor, and in this capacity 
drrived^at London in 1771. When at college, there were 
several young Indians there for their education, with whomL 
be used to associate, and learned their manners ; and hear* 
ing of capt. Cook's intentions to sail on his third voyage^ 
Ledyard engaged himself with him in the situation of a 
corporal of marines ; and on his return from that memora' 
ble voyage, during which his curiosity was rather excited 
than gratified, feeling an anxious desire of penetrating 
from the north-western coast of America, which Cook had 
partly explored, to the eastern coast, with which he him- 
self was perfectly familiar, he determined to traverse the 
vast continent from the Pacific to the Atlantic ocean. His 
first plan for the purpose was that of embarking in a vessel, 
which was then preparing to sail, on a voyage of commer- 
cial adventure, to Nootka sound, on the western coast of 
America ; and with this vi^w he expended in 'sea-store» 
the greatest part of the money with which he had been 
supplied by the liberality of sir Joseph Banks, who has 
eminently distinguished himself in this way on other occa- 
sions for the promotion of every kind of useful science. 
But this scheme was frustrated by the rapacity of a custom- 
house officer ; and therefore Mr. Ledyard determined to 
travel over land to Kamtschatka, from whence the passage 
is extremely short to the opposite coast of America. Ac- 
cordingly, with, no more than ten guineas in his purse, 
which was all that he had left, he crossed the British chan- 
nel to Ostend, towards the close of 1786, and by the way 
of Denmark and the Sound, proceeded to the capital of 
Sweden. As it was winter, he attempted to traverse the 
gulf of Bothnia on the ice, in order to reach Kamtschatka 
by the shortest course ; but finding, when he came to the 
middle of the sea, that the water was not frozen, he re- 
turned ' to Stockholm, and taking his course northward, 
walked to the Arctic circle, and passing round the head of 
the gulf} descended on its eastern side to Petersburg^ 

L E D Y A R D. 117 

where he arrived in the beginning of March 1787. Here 
he was noticed a^ a' person of an extraordinary character ; 
aiid though he had neither stockings nor shoes, nor means 
to provide himself with any, he received and accepted an 
invitation to dine with the Portuguese ambassador. From 
him he obtained twenty guineas for a bill, which he took 
the liberty, without being previously authorized, to draw 
on sir Joseph Banks, concluding, from his well-known dis- 
position, that he would not be unwilling to pay it. By the 
interest of the ambassador, as we may conceive to have 
been probably the ca^e, be obtained permission to acconri- 
pany a detachment of stores, which the empress had or- 
dered to be sent to Yakutz, for the use of Mr. Billings, an 
Englishman, at that time in her service. Thus accommo- 
dated, he left Petersburg on the 2 1st of May, and tra- 
velling eastward through Siberia, reached Irkutsk in Au- 
gust; and from thence he proceeded to Yakutz, where he 
was kindly received by Mr. Billings, whom he recollected 
on board captain Cook's ship, in the situation of the astro- 
nomer's servant, but who was now entrusted by the empress 
in accomplishing her schemes of discovery. He returned- 
to Irkutsk, uiiere he spent part of the winter ; and in the 
spring proceeded to Oczakow, on the coast of the Kamt- 
schatkan sea, intending, in the spring, to have passed over 
to that peninsula, and to have embarked on the eastern 
side in one of the Russian vessels that trade to the western 
shores of America ; but, finding that the navigation was 
completely obstructed, he returned to Yakutz, in order 
to wait for the teripination of the winter. But lyhilst he 
WAS amusing himself with these prospects, an express ar« 
rived) in January 1788, from the empress, and he was 
seized, for reasons that have not been explained, by twa 
Russian soldiers, who conveyed him in a sledge through 
the deserts of Northern Tartary to Moscow, without his 
clothes, money, and papers. From Moscow he was re- 
moved to the city of Moialoff, in White Russia, and from 
thence to the town of Tolochin, on the frontiers of the 
Polish dominions. As his conductors parted with him, they 
informed him, th^t if he returned to Russia he would be 
banged, but that if he chose to go back to England, they 
wished him a pleasant journey. Distressed by poverty, 
covered with rags, infested with the usual accompani- 
ments of such clothing, harassed with continual hardships^ 
^^Jiftast^d by ^ease, without friendsA without creditj 


L E D Y A R D. 

UnknowDi and reduced to the most wretched state, he found 
bis way to Konigsberg. In this hour of deep distress, be 
resolved once more to have recourse to his former bene« 
fector, and fortunately found a person who was willing to 
take his draft for five guineas on the. president of the royal 
society. With this assistance he arrived in England, and 
immediately waited on sir Joseph Banks. Sir Joseph* 
knowing his disposition, and conceiving, as we may well 
iipagine, that he would be gratified by the information^ 
told him, that he could recommend. him, as he believed, to 
atn adventure almost as perilous as that from which be bad 
just returned ; and then communicated to him the wishes 
q{ the Association for discovering the Inland Countries of 
Africa, Mr. Ledyard replied, that be had always deter* 
mined to traverse the continent of Africa, as soon as hQ 
bad explored the interior of North America, and with a 
letter of introduction by sir Joseph Banks, be waited on 
Henry Beaufoy, esq. an active member of the fore-menr 
tioned association. Mr. Beaufoy spread before him a map 
of Africa^ and tracing a line from Cairo to Sennar, and 
from thence westward in the latitude and supposed direct 
tion of the Niger, informed him that this was the route by 
which be was anxious that Africa might, if possible, be 
explored. Mr. Ledyard expressed great pleasure in the 
hope of being employed in this adventure; Being askecil 
when he would set out ? ^^ To-morrow morning^* was his 
answer. The committee of the iM>ciety assigned to him, 
ait his own desire, as an enterprise of obvious peril and of 
difficult success, the task of traversing from east to west, 
in the latitude attributed to the Niger, the widest part of 
the continent of Africa. On the 30th of June .17.88, Mr« 
Ledyard left London ; and after a journey of tbirty*six 
days, seven of which were consumecf at Paris, and two at 
]yiarseilles, he arrived in the city of Alexandria. On the 
14th of August, at midnight, he left Alexandria, .and sail- 
ing up the Nile, arrived at Cairo on the 19th. From Cairo 
be communicated to the committee of the society all the 
information which he was able to collect during his stay 
there ; and they were thus sufficiently apprised of tbo 
ardent spirit of inquiry, the unwearied attiention, the per** 
severing research, and the laborious, indefatigable* apxiomi 
:ceal, with which be pursued the object of his mission. Tb9 
next dispatch which they were led to expect, was to b9 
date4 (^t Senqar ; the teroifl of bis passage bad b§e9 vst^ 

L E D Y A R D. ii» 

ded^ and the day of his departure was appointed, 
committee^ however, after haying expected with impa* 
tieuce the description of his jonrney^ received with great 
concern and grievous disappointment, by letters froor 
Egypt, the melanx^holy tidings of his death. By a bilious 
complaint, occasioned probably by vexatious delay at 
Cairo, and by too free an use of the acid of vitriol and 
tartar emetic, the termination of his life was hastened. He 
was decently interred in the neighbourhood of such of the 
English as had ended their days in the capital of Egypt. 

Mr. Ledyard, as to his person, scarcely exceeded the 
ttiiddle size, but he manifested very remarkable activity 
and strength : and as to his manners, though they were 
unpolished, they were neither uncivil nor unpleasing, 
** Little attentive to difference of rank,^' says his bio» 
grapher, ** he seemed to consider all men as his equals^ 
and as such he respected them. His genius, though uri^ 
cultivated and irregular, was original and comprehensive^ 
Ardent in his wishes, yet calm in his deliberations ; daring, 
in his purposes, but guarded in his measures; impatient of 
controul, yet capable of strong endurance; adventurous 
beyond the conception of ordinary men, yet wary and cou'* 
siderate, and attentive to all precautions, he appeared to 
be formed by mature for achievements of hardihood and 
peril.'' » 

LEE (Edward), archbishop of York, was born in 1482^ 
and was the son of Richard Lee, of Lee Magna in Ken^ 
esq. and grandson of sir Richard Lee, knt. twice lord* 
mayor of London. He was partly educated in both uni- 
versities, being admitted of Magdalen college, Oxford^ 
about 1499^ where he took his degrees in arts, and then 
rettioved to Cambridge, and completed his studies. He 
was accounted a man of great learning and talents, which 
recommended him to the court of Henry VIH. in which, 
among others, he acquired the esteem of sir Thomas More* 
The king likewise conceived so high an opinion of his po«» 
litical abilities, that he sent him on several embassies to the 
continent. In 1^29 he was made chancellor of Sarum, and 
in 1531 was incorporated in the degree of D. D. at Oxford, 
which he bad previously taken at some foreign uuiversi^r* 
The same year he was consecrated archbishop of Yoik, but 

i ^ Prooee&gt of Oie Atiomitiov for prpmotmr «h« diioorwy sf Um mikkt 
parUofikfrica, 1790. 

120 LEE. 

enj6yed this high station a very short time, djing at York^ 
Sept. 13, 1544. He was buried in the cathedral. He lived 
to witness the dawn of the reformation, but adhered to the 
popish system in all its plenitude, except, says his popish 
biographer, that he ^^ was carried away with the stream as 
to the article of the king^s supremacy.'' He was a zealous 
opponent of Luther, and had a controversy with Erasmus, 
respecting his annotations on the New Testament. This 
somewhat displeased sir Thomas More, who was greatly 
attached to Erasmus, but it did not lessen his friendship 
for Lee. Wood says, " he was a very great divine, and 
very well seen in all kinds of learning, famous as well for 
his wisdom as virtue, and holiness of life; a continual 
preacher of the gospel, a man very liberal to the poor, and 
exceedingly beloved by all sorts of men." His works 
were, 1. " Comment, in universum Pentateuchum," MS, 
2. *^ Apologia contra quorundam calumnias," Lovan, 1520, 
4to. 3* ^Mndex annotationum prioris libri," ibid. 1520, 

4. ^^Epistola nuncupatoriaad Desid. Erasmum," ibid. 1520, 

5. ^' Annot. lib. duo in annotationes Novi Test. ErasmL'* 

6. ^' Epistola apologetica, qua respondet D. Erasmi epis-< 
tolis." , 7. ^* Epistolss sexcents." 8. ^^ Epicedia clarorum 
Tirorum." The two last articles are in MS. or partially 
printed. Some of his MSS. arc; in the Harleian,. ^nd some 
in the Cotton liWary." * 

LEE (Nathaniel), an English dramatic poet, was the 
son of Dh Richard Lee, who had the, living of Hatfield, in 
Hertfordshire, where he died in 1684. He was bred at 
Westminster-school under Dr. Busby, whence he removed 
to Trinity- college, in Cambridge, and became scholar upon 
that foundation in 1668. He proceeded B. A. the samQ 
year; but, not succeeding to a fellowship, quitted the 
university, and came to London, where be made an un- 
successful attempt to become an actor in 1672. The part 
lie performed was Duncan in sir William Davenant^s altera- 
tion of Macbeth. Gibber says that Lee /^ was so pathetic 
a reader of his own scenes, that I have been informed by 
an actor who was present, that while Lee was reading to 
major Mohun at a rehearsal, Mohun^ in the warcath of bis 
admiration, threw down his part, and said. Unless I were 
able to play it as wall as you read it, to what purpose 

1 Atk Ox. Yol. I. new odit— Dodd's Ch. Hist.-.Mpre's life of lirT. Uf^A^ 
. D. 69.— Sti7pe'9 Life ofCranmeo f* % m^> V* . ' 

L E E. 121 

sbould I undertake it! And yet (continues the laureat) 
this yery author, whose elocution raised such admiration 
in so capital an actor, when he attempted to be an actor 
himself, soon quitted the stage in an honest despair of ever 
making any profitable figure there." Failing, therefore, ia- 
tfais design, he had recourse to his pen for support ; and 
composed a tragedy, called *^ Nero Emperor of Rome,'* 
in 1675; which being well Veceiyed, he produced nine 
plays, besides two in conjunction with Dryden, between 
that period and 1684, when his habits of dissipation, aided 
probably by a hereditary taint, brought on insanity, and 
in November he was taken into Bedlam, where he con- 
tinued four years under care of the physicians. In April 
1688, he was discharged, being so much recovered as to 
be able to return to bis occupation of writing for the stage ; 
and he produced two plays afterwards, ^^ The Princess of 
Cleve," in 1689, and " The Massacre of Paris,*' in 1690, 
but, notwithstanding the profits arising from these per- 
formances, he was this year reduced to so low an ebb, that 
|L weekly stipend of ten shillings from the theatre royal was 
bis chief dependence. Nor was he so free -from his 
phrenzy as not to suffer some temporary relapses; and 
perhaps his untimely end might be occasioned by one. He 
died in 1691 or 1692^ in consequence of a drunken froUc^^ 
by night, in the street; and was interred in the parish of 
Clement Danes, near Temple- Bar. He is the author of 
eleven plays, all acted with applause, and printed as soon 
as finished, with dedications of most of them to the earls of 
Porset, Mulgrave, Pembroke, the duchesses of Ports- 
mouth and Richmond, as his patrons. Addison declares, 
that among our modern English poets there was none better 
turned for tragedy than Lee, if, instead of favouring bis 
impetuosity of genrius, he had restrained and kept it within 
proper bounds. His thoughts are wonderfully suited to 
tragedy, but frequently lost in such -a cloud of words, that 
it is hard to see the beauty of them. There is infinite 
jSre in bis works, but so involved in smoke, that it does 
not appear in half its lustre. He frequently succeeds in ^ 
the passionate parts of the tragedy, but more particularly 
where he slackens his efforts, and eases the style of- those 
epithets and metaphors with which he so much abounds. 
His ^< Riviil Queens** and ^< Theodosius** stilLkeep pos^^ 
session of the stage. None ever felt the passion of love 
pore truly ; nor could any one describe it with more ten** 

122 LEE. 

derness ; and. for this reason he has been compared to Qrid 
among the ancients, and to Otway among the moderns. 
Dryden * prefixed a copy of commendatory verses to the 
^< Rival Queens ;'^ and Lee joined with that laureat in 
writing the tragedies of '^The duke of Guise*' and *^Q£di* 
pub." Notwithstanding Lee^s imprudence and eccen* 
tricities, no man could be more respected by his contem* 
poraries. In Spen 00*^^8 *^ Anecdotes*' we are told that Vii- 
Iters, duke of Buckingham, brought him up to town, where 
he never did any thing for hioi ; and this is said to have 
contributed to bring on insanity. ^ 

LEE (Samuel), an English nonconformist divine, was 
the son of an eminent citizen of London, from whom he 
inherited some property, and was born in 1625. ' He was 
educated under Dr. Gale at St. Paul's scliool, and after- 
wards entered a commoner of Magdalen->hail about the 
year 1647. The following year be was created M. A. 
by the parliamentary visitors, and was made fellow of 
Wadbani college. In the latter end of 1650 he was elected 
by his society one of the proctors, although he was not 
of sufficient standing as master; but this the visitors, with 
^hpm he appears to have been a favourite, dispensed with. 
About that time he became a frequent preacher in or near 
Oxford, and was preferred by Cromwell to the living of St; 
Botolph's, Bishopsgate-street, but ejected by the rump par«* 
liament. Afterwards he was icbosen lecturer of Great St« 
Helen's church in Bisbopsgate-street According tO'Wood, 
he was iK)t in possession of either of these preferments at 
the restoration, but Calamy says he was ejected from St. 
Botolph's. His friend Dr. Wiikins, of Wadham college^ 
afterwards bishop of Chester, urged him much to conform, 
bat he was inflexible. He then lived for some time on an 
estate he had near Bisseter in Oxfordshire, and preached 
o<;casionally. About 1678 he removed to Newingtoii 
Green near London, where he was for many years minis- 
ter of a congregation of independents. In 1686, being 
dissatisfied with the times, be went over to New England^ 
and became pastor of a church at Bristol. The revohiUon 
in 1688 affording brighter prospects, he determined to 
revisit his own country, but in his passage home, with hit 
femily, the ship was captured by a French privateer, and 
carried into St. Malo, where be died a few weeks after, in 

iCibber'6 Livefl.«-]{ioy. Pram.— Censun Ut vol. I.wSpea«e'9.Amo49li(»fi M4 

LEE. \2i 

Kov. 1691. His dMUb is said to have been hastened bj 
bis losses in this capture, and especially by bis being kept 
in oonfioemeBt while his wife and children were permitted 
to go to England. He was at one time a great dabbler in 
astrology, but, disapproving of this study aftej^wards, he b 
said to have burnt many books and manuscripts which he 
bad collected on that subject. It was probably when ad^ 
dieted to astrology, that he informed his wife of his having 
seen a sUmt, which, according to all the rules of astrology, 
predicted that . he should be taken captive. Mr. Lee*a 
other studies were more creditable. He' was a very eou'^ 
siderable scholar ; understood the learned languages well, 
and spoke Latin fluently and eloquently. He was also a 
good antiquary. He wrote *^ Chronicoo Caatrense," a 
chronology of all the rulers and governors of Cheshire and 
Chester, which is added to King's << Vale Royal.'* Wood 
suspects that he was of the family of Lee in Cbethice. Hia 
other works are : 1. ^^ Orbis Miraculum ; or the Temple of 
Solomon portrayed by Scripture light,'' Lond. 1659, folio* 

2. << Contemplations on Mortality, &c." ibid. 166$, Svo» 

3. ^< Dissertation" on the probable conversion and restora- 
tion of the Jews, prints with Giles Fletcher's << Israel 
Redux." 4. «< The Joy of Faith," 1689, 8vo. He pub-* 
lisbed also various sermons preached on public occasions^ 
or prescribed subjects; and had a considerable hand in 
Helvicus's <<Theatrum Historicum," the edition of 1662.^ 

LEECHMAN (Wu^liam), a learned Scotch divine, was 
bom at Dolphinston, in Lanerkshire, in 1706. He re- 
eeived his academical education at the university of Edin« 
burgh, where he ^tinguished himself by his great pro«« 
ficiency in different branches of learning. He began hia 
theological studies in 1724, and in 1727 he undertook the 
education of a young gentleman at Caldwell, in Renfrew^ 
ahire, where he resided in the summer months, but during 
the remainder of the year he lived at Glasgow, and was 
honoured with the friendship of professors Hutcheson and 
Duolop. About the beginning of 1731 he was licensed as 
a preacher, but it 'was not till 17S6 that he was ordained 
minister of Beith, on which charg^ he continued seven 
years^ In 1 740 he was elected moderator of a meeting of 
^e synod at Irvine, and opened the assembly at Glasgoir 

* Ath. Ox. Tol. lL-«C«aaiB^.^DiGL Hist. Suppl«a<Bifci^»NeaI'a Hiatary of 
New Englaiid. 

124 L E E C H M A N. 

on the 7th of April 1741, with a sermon to the clergy "On 
the temper, character, and duty, of a minister of the gos<* 
pel," which has passed through many editions, and is still 
in high reputation. In 1743 he published a much longer 
discourse on " The nature, reasonableness, and advan- 
tages of Prayer ; with an attempt to answer the objections 
against it." This, likewise, added much to his reputation, 
and has been frequently reprinted. He was shortly after 
elected to the professorship of theology at the university of 
Glasgow ; an honour which he obtained only by the cast-* 
kig vote of the president, owing to some suspicions enter- 
tained of the orthodoxy of his sentiments, founded on his 
sermon on prayer, in which he was thought to have laid 
too little stress on the atonement and intercession of Chri t.- 
A prosecution for heresy was the consequence, which was 
ultimately decided in bis favour by the synod, the members 
of which almost unanimously determined, that there was 
no reason to charge him with any unsoundness in the pas« 
sages of the sermon complained against. After this the 
prejudices against him appear to have subsided, and his 
character becaine very generally and highly respected, 
even by some who had thought it their duty to promote the 
prosecution. Soon after he had been established in the 
professorship, he took the degree of doctor in divinity ; and 
continued in the .theological chair seventeen years, vindi- 
cating and establishing the grand truths of natural and re- 
vealed religion, in answer to the principal objectiops made 
to them by Mr. Hume, lord Bolingbroke, and other scep- 
tical writers. He had, in his lectures, a remarkable talent 
of selecting what was most important and striking on every 
subject that he handled : his arguments were solid, found- 
ed on indisputable facts ; and they were urged with a de-^, 
gree of warmth which carried his auditors along with him t 
for they were addressed equally to the judgment and the 
heart. Dr. Leechman^s fame extended far and wide, the 
divinity-ball at Glasgow 'was crowded, in his time, with a 
greater number of scholars than any other in Scotland : 
and his numerous scholars, however they might differ in 
their sentiments on speculative theology and church go- 
vernment, were all cordially united in their affection and 
veneration. for their master. In 1761, Dr. Leechman was 
raised to the office of principal of the university of Glas- 
gow by a presentation from the king. He had previously 
to this been in a very bad stat^ of health; and this cbangQ 

L E E C H M A N. 125 

in his avocations was probably the means of prolonging his 
life ; yet, though released from the more fatiguing* part of 
his duties, be gave a lecture, for some time, once a week, 
to the students in divinity, and weekly lectures to the 
whole university. Dr. Leechman^s faculties remained in 
full vigour amidst the increasing infirmities of old age, and 
his taste for knowledge continued as acute as ever. Ii^ 
September and October 1785, he experienced two violent 
paralytic strokes, from which he partially recovered ; but 
a third attack carried him ofiPon the 3d of December, 1785, 
when he was almost eighty years of age. Dr. Leechman 
committed nothing to the press, except nine sermons, 
which went through several editions during his life-time. 
These were republished, with others, forming together two 
volumes, in 1789. To the first of these volumes is pre- 
fixed an account of the author, by Dr. Wodrow, from which 
the preceding particulars are taken.^ 
^ LEGER (Anthony), a learned Protestant divine, was 
born in 1594, at Ville Seiche, in the valley of St. Martin 
in Piedmont. Going to Constantinople as chaplain to the 
ambassador from the States-general, he formed a friend-' 
ship in that city with the famous Cyrillus Locar, and ob« 
tained from him a confession of the faith of the Greek and 
Eastern churches. On his return to the Vallies he. was ap- 
pointed minister there ; but being condemned to death by 
the duke of Savoy, took refuge in Geneva^ where he was 
made professor of divinity, and died in 1661. He left an 
edition of the New Testament in the original Greek, and 
vulgar Greek, 2 volsi 4to. His son, Anthony L£6ERy 
born 1652, at Geneva, was a celebrated preacher, and 
five volumes of his sermons have been published since his 
death, which happened at Geneva, in 1719.' 

LEGER (John), a learned protestant divine, born in 1615,' 
at Ville-Seiche, in the valley of St. Martin, in Piedmont, 
was nephew of Anthony Leger the elder. He was> mi- 
nister of several churches, particularly that at St. Jean, 
and escaped from the massacre of the Waldenses in 165J». 
Having been deputed to several protestant powers in 1661, 
the court of Turin ordered bis Jiiouse at St. Jean to be the ground, and declared him guilty of high trea- 
son. He became pastor afterwards of the Walloon church 
at Leyden, in which city he Was living in 1665, and there 

^ Lift as nbove, > Moreri.— Pict. Hist. 

12& L £6 G E. : 

publisbjed his ^ Hist, des Eglises Evangeliqu^s det Vall^as^ 
de Pi^mont^" foL The year of bis death is unknQimJ 

LEGGE (Georgb), baron of Dartmouth, an eminent; 
naval commander, was the eldest son of colonel Williaai' 
I'^gg^y groom of the bed-chamber to king Charles I. and 
brought up under the bi'aTe admiral sir Edward Spragge. 
He entered the navy at seventeen years of age, and, before 
be was twenty, bis gallant behaviour recommended him so 
effectually to king Charles IL that in 1667, he promoted 
bim to the command of the Pembroke. In 1671, be wa^ 
appointed captain of ikbe Fairfax, and the next year xe- 
moved to the Royal Catharine, in which $hip he obtained 
high reputation, by beating off the Dutch after tbey had 
boarded her, though the ship seemed on the point of sink* 
ing ; and then finding the means of stopping her leaks, he 
carried her safe into port. In 1673, he was made goveraoi^ 
of Porbmouth, m'aster of the horse, and gentleman to the 
duke of York. Several other posts were successively 
conferred upon bim, and in December 1682, he was created 
baron of Dartmouth. The port, of Tangier having been at-< 
tended with great expence to keep the fortifications in re^' 
pair, and to maintain in it a numerous garrison to protect 
it from the Moors, who watched every opportunity of seizing 
it, the king determined to demolish the fortifications, and 
bring the garrison to England ; but the difficulty was to 
perform it without the Moors having any suspicion of the 
design. Lord Dartmouth was appointed to manage thii 
difficult affair, and, for that purpose, was, in 1683, made* 
governor of Tangier, general of his majesty's forces * in 
Africa, and admiral of the fleet. At his arrival he prepared 
every thing necessary for putting bis design in execution, 
blew up all the fortifications, and returned to England with 
the garrison ; soon after which, the king made him a pre** 
sent of ten thousand pounds. When James II. ascended 
the throne, his lordship was created master of the boiwe, 
general of the ordnance, constable of the tower of London, 
, Gi^tain of an independent company of foot, and one of the 
privy -council. That monarch placed the highest confidence 
in his friendship; and, on his being thoroughly convinced 
that the prince of Orange intended to land in England, he 
i^pliointed him commander of the fleet ; and, bad be not 
been prevented by the wind and other accidents from com-*^ 

r Morcri.— Diet. Hilt. 

L E G G E- 12T 

iog up with the prince of Orange, a bloadj engagem^^t 
would doubtless have endued. 

. After the prince landed, lord Dartttouth returned to 
Spithead, in November, with forty-three ships of war, the 
rest of the fleet being put into other ports. Yet, notwith* 
standing be brought the fleet safe home, and bad acted 
by order of king James when in power, h^ was deprived 
of all -his employments at the revolution ; and in 1691 
committed prisoner to the Tower of London, where, after 
three months imprisonment, he died suddenly of an apo- 
plexy, Oct. 25 of that year, in the forty-fourth year of hifl 
age^ When he was dead, lord Lucas, who was constable 
of the Tower, made some difficulty of permitting his body 
to be removed without order ; On which, application being 
made to king William, he was pleased to direct that the 
same respect should be paid at his funeral, that would 
have been due to him if he had died possessed of all his^ 
employments in that place ; and accordingly, the Tower-^ 
gUns were fired when he was carried out to be interred 
near his fitther, in the vault of the church in the Minories, 
where a monument of white marble is erectled to bis me*- 


LEIBNITZ (Godfrey William de), a very eminent 
mathematician and philosopher, was born at Leipsic, July 
4,1646. His father, Frederic Leibnitz, was professor of 
moral philosophy, and secretary to that university ; but 
did, not survive the birth of his s^on above six years. Hisi 
mother put him under messieurs Homschucius and Bachu- 
chius, to teach him Greek and* Latin ; and he made so 
quick a progress as to surpass the expectations of his 
master; and not content with their tasks', when at home, 
wh(N«e there was a well-chosen library left by his father, 
he read with attention the ancient authors, and 'especially 
Livy. The poets also had a share in his studies, particu- 
larly Virgil, many of whose verses he could repeat in his 
old age, with fluency and accuracy. He had himself also 
a trient for versifying, and is said to have composed in one 
day's time, a poem of three hundred lines, without an 
elision. This early and' assiduous attention to classical 
learning laid the foundation of that correct and elegant 
taste which appears in all his writings. At the age of 

^ CoHio9'f Peereg«, by Sir £. Brydgtt. 

12S L fe t B N t t Z. 

fifteen, he blscame a student in the university of Leipskfy 
and to polite literature joining philosophy and the mathe-^ 
matics, he studied the former, under' James Thomasius, 
mnd the latter under John Kuhnius, at Leipsic. He after^ 
w.ards went to Jena, where he heard the lectures of pro- 
fessor Bohnius . upon polite learning and history, and 
those of Falcknerjus in the law. At his return to Leipsic,: 
in 1663, he maintained, under Thomasius, a thesis, *M3e 
Principiis Individuationis." In 1664, he was admitted 
M.A. ; and observing how useful philosophy might be in 
illustrating the law, he iuaintained several philosophical 
questions taken put of the ^* Corpus Juris." At the same 
time he applied himself particularly to the study of the 
Greek philosophers, and engaged in the task of reconciling 
Plato with Aristotle ; as he afterwards attempted a like 
reconciliation between Aristotle and Des Cartes. He. was 
so intent on these studies, that he spent whole days in me« 
dilating upon them, in a forest near Leipsic. 

His views being at this time chiefly fixed upon the law, 
he commenced bachelor in that faculty in 1665, and the 
year after supplicated for his doctor's degree ; but was 
denied, as not being of sufficient standing, that is, not^ 
quite twenty ; but the real cause of the demur was his 
rejecting the principles of Aristotle and the schoolmen, 
against the received doctrine of that time. Resenting the 
affront, he went to Altorf, where he maintained a thesis, 
^^ De Casibus perplexis," with so much reputation, that 
he not only obtained his doctor's degree, but bad an offer 
of being made professor of law extraordinary. This, how- 
ever, was declined; and he went from Altorf to Nurem- 
berg, to visit the learned in that university. He had 
beard of some literati there who were engaged in the pur-< 
suit of the philosopher's ston^; and his curiosity was raised 
to be initiated into their mysteries. For this purpose he 
drew up a letter full of abstruse terms, extracted out of 
books of chemistry; and, unintelligible as it was to him- 
self, addressed it to th<s director of that society, desiring, 
to be admitted a member. They were satisfied of bis me- 
rit, from the proofs given in his letter ; and not only ad- 
mitted him into their laboratory, but even requested hiio> 
to accept the secretaryship, with a stipend. His office- 
was, to register their processes and experiments, and to* 
extract from the books of the best chemists such things as 
might be of use to thetn in their pursuits. 


About this tittie, baron Boinebourg, first miDister of the 
elector of MeiUz, passing through Nuremberg, met Leib- 
liitz at a common entertainment ; and conceived so great 
lan opinion of his parts and learning from his conversation, 
that he advised him to apply himself wholly to law and his- 
^^y 9 giving him at the same time the strongest assurances, 
that be would engage the elector, John Philip of Schon- 
bom, to send for him to bis court. Leibnitz accepted' the 
Icindness^ promising to do his utmost to render himself 
worthy of such a patronage ; and, to be more within' the 
reach of its happy effects, he repaired to Francfart upon 
the Maine, in the neighbourhood of Mentz. In 1668, 
John Casimir, king of Poland, resignhig his crown, the 
^rlector pafatine, among others, became a competitor for 
that dignity; and, while baron Boinebourg went into Po- 
land to manage the etector^s interests, Leibnitz wrote a 
treatise to shew that the Polonnois could not make choice 
i^ a better person for their king. With this piece the 
elector palatine was extremely pleased, and invited our 
author to his court. But baron Boinebourg, resolving to 
provJd!e for him at the court of Mentz, would not suffer him 
CO accept this tast offer from the palatine ; and immediately 
obtained for him the post of counsellor of tbe chamber of 
review to tbe elector of Mentz. Baron Boinebourg had 
some connexions at the French court ; and as his son, who 
was at Paris, was not of years to be trusted with the ma* 
nagement of bis affairs, he begged Mr. Leibnitz to under* 
take that charge* 

Leibnitz, charmed with this opportunity of shewing his 
gratitude to so zealous a patron, set out for Paris in 1672. 
He also proposed several other advantages to himself in this 
tour, and his views were not disappointed. He saw all the 
literati in that metropolis, made an acquaintance with tbe 
greatest part of them, and, besides, applied himself with 
vigour to the mathematics, in which stiJNjly he had not yet 
made any considerable progress. He tells us himself, that 
he owed his advancement in it principally to the works of 
Pascal, Gregory, St. Vincent, and above all, to the ex« 
cellent treatise of Huygens '^ De Horplogio oiscillatorioJ* 
In this course, having observed the imperfection of Pascal's 
arithmetical machine, which, however, Pascal did not live 
to finish, he invented a new one, as he called it ; the use 
of which be explained to Mr. Colbert, who was extremely 
pleased with it ; and, the invention being approved like- 

Vol. XX. K 

130 L E I B N IT Z. 

wise by the Academy of sciences, he was offered a ieat 
there as pensionary member. With such encouragement 
he might have settled very advantageously at Paris if he 
would have turned Roman catholic ; but he chose to ad- 
here to the Lutheran religion, in which he was born. In 
1673, he lost his patron, M. de Boinebourg; and, being 
at liberty by his death, took a tour to England, where he* 
became acquainted with Oldenburg, the secretary, and 
John Collins, fellow of the royal society, from whom he 
received some hints of the invention of the method of 
fluxions, which had been discovered in 1664 or. 1665, by 
Mr. (afterwards) sir Isaac Newton *. 

While be was in England he received an account of the. 
death of the elector of Mentz, by which he lost his pen- 
sion. He then returned to France, whence he wrote to the 
duke of Brunswick Lunenburg, to inform him of his cir* 
cumstances. That prince sent him a very gracious answer^ 
assuring him of his &vour, and, for the present, appointed 
him counsellor of hfs court, with a salary ; but gave himt. 
leave to st^y at Paris, in order to complete his arithmetical 
machine, which, however, was not completed until after 
bis death. In 1674 he went again to England, whence he 
passed, through Holland, to Hanover, and from his first 

* Tlie right to this invention is so and sometimes the Infinitesimal me- 
interesting to oar cooatrf , that we tbod, in the ** Acta Eruditorum Lipsise, 
must not omit this occasion of assert- for the yearl684." And, asi he still per* 
lag it. The state of the dispute between fisted in bis claim to the invention, sir 
the competitors^ Leibnitz and Newton, Isaac, at the request of George 1. gave 
is as follows : Newton discovered it in his majesty an account of the whole 
1663 and .1666, and communicated it affiiir, and sent Leibnitz a defiance ia 
to Dr. Barrow in 1669. Leibnitz said express terms/ to prove his assertion, 
he bad some glimpses of it in 1672, This was amwered by Leibnitz, in a 
before he had seen any hint of New- letter wbi(;b he sent by Mr. Kemobd, 
ton's prior discovery, which was com- at Paris, to be communicated to air 
municated by Mr. Collins to several Isaac, after he had shewn it in France: 
foreigners in 1673; in the beginning of declaring that he took this niethod in 
which year Leibnitz was in England, order to have indifferent and intelligent 
and eemmenced an acquaintance with witnesses. That method being dis- 
Collins^ but at that time only claimed liked by sir Isaac, who thought that 
the invention -of another differential London, as well a« Paris, might fur- 
method, properly so called, which in- nish such witnesses, Ibe resolved to 
deed was Newton's invention; men- carry the dispute no farther; and, 
tioning no other till June 1677 : and when Leibnitz's letter came frolii, 
this was a year after a letter of New- France, he refuted it, by remarks which 
ton's, containing a sufficient descrip- he communicated only to some of his 
tion of the nature of the method, had friends ; but, as soon as he heard of 
been sent to Paris, to be communi- Leibiiita's death, which happened six 
cated to him. However, nothing of it months after, he published Leibnitz^s 
was printed by snr Isaac ; which being letter, with his own remarks, by way 
observed by the other, he first printed of supplement to Ralpbson^s "History 
it, under the name of the Differential, of Fluxions." 


Arrival there made it his business to enrich the library of 
that prince with the best books of all kinds. That duke 
dying in 1679, his successor, Ernest Augustus, then bishop 
of Osnabrug, aftervvards George I. extended the same pa- 
tronage to Leibnitz, and directed him to write the history 
of the house of Brunswick. Leibnitz undertook the task ; 
and, travelling through Germany and Italy to collect ma* 
terials, returned to Hanover in 1690, with an ample store. 
While he was in Italy he met with a singular instance of 
bigotry, which, but for his happy presence of mind, might 
have proved fatal. Passing in a small bark from Venice 
to'Mesola, a storm arose, during which the pilot, imagin- 
ing' he was not understood by a German, whom being ^ 
heretic he looked on as the cause of the tempest, proposed 
to'strip him of his cloaths and money, and throw him over- 
board. Leibnitz hearing this, without discovering the least 
emotion, pulled out a set of beads, and turned them over 
mtb a.seeming devotion. The artifice succeeded ; one of 
the sailors observing to the pilot, that, since the man was 
no heretic, it would be of no use to drown him. In 1700 
he was admitted a member of the royal academy of sciences 
at Paris. The same year the elector of Brandenburg, af- 
terwards king of Prussia, founded an academy at Berlin, 
by the advice, of Leibnitz, who was appointed perpetual 
president of it ; and, though his other affairs did not per- 
mit him ta reside constantly upon the spot) yet he made 
ample ainends by the treasures with which he enriched 
their memoirs, in several dissertations upon geometry, po* 
lite learning, natural philosophy, and physic. He also 
projected to establish at Dresden another academy like 
that at Berlin. He communicated his design to the king 
of Poland in 1703, who was inclined to promote it ; but the 
troubles which arose shortly after in that kingdom, hin- 
dered it from being carried into execution. 

Besides these projects to promote learning, there is 
another still behind of a more extensive view, both in its 
nature and use; he sec himself to invent a language: so 
e^y and so perspicuous, as to become the common lan- 
guage of all nations of the world. This is what is called 
" The Universal Language," and the design occupied the 
thoughts of our philosopher, a long time.. The thing had 
been attempted before by d'Algarme, and Dr. WiTkins, 
bishop of Chester ; but Leibnitz did not approve of their 
lA^tbod^ and therefore attempted a new one. His pre- 

K 2 


d^ce$9Qrs in bU opinion h^d not reached the point ; tb^jr 
might indeed enable nations who did not understand eacb 
Other, to correspond easily together ; but they had not at- 
tained the true real characters, which would be the best 
iQ^truments of the human mind, and extremely assist both 
the reason and memory. These characters, he thought, 
ought to resemble as much as possible those of algebra, 
which are simple and expressive, and never superfluous 
^nd equivocal, but whose varieties are grounded on , rea-> 
son. In order to hasten the execution of this vast project, 
he employed a young person to put into a regular oirdqr the 
definitions of all things whatsoever ; but, though he la- 
boured in it from 1703, yet his life did not prove sufficient 
to Complete it*. In the mean time, his name became Ca- 
mous over Europe; and his merit was rewarded by^other 
princes, besides the elector of Hanover. In 1711, he was 
made aulic counsellor to the emperor; and the czar of 
Moscovy appointed him privy-counsellor of justice, with 
a pension of a thousand ducats f. Leibnitz undertook at 
the same time to establish an academy of sciences at Vi- 
enna ; but that project miscarried ; a disappointment which 
som^ have ascribed to the plague. However that be, it is 
certain he only had the honour of attempting it, and the 
emperor rewarded him for it with a pension of 2000 
florins, promising him to double the sum, if he would 
come and reside at Vienna, which his death prevented. 
In the mean time, the History of Brunswick being inter- 
rupted by other works which he wrote occasionally, he 
found at his return to Hanover, in 1714, that the elector 
bad appointed Mr. Eckard for his colleague in that history. 
The elector was then raised to the throne of Great Britain ; 
and soon after his arrival, the electoral princess, then 
prineess of Wales, and after<irards queen Cau'oline, en« 
gaged Leibnitz in a dispute with Dr. Samuel Clarke upon 
the subject of free*will, the reality of space, and other 
philosophical subjects. This controversy was carried on 
by letters which passed through her royal highnesses hands, 
and ended only with the death of Leibnitz, Nov. 14, 1716, 
occasioned by the gout and stone, at the age of seventy. 

• He speaks ia some places of an ** Recueil de Literature," printed at 

alphabet of human thoughts, which Amsterdam, in 1140, which also sayv 

he was contriving, which, it is rery that Leibnits refused the place of 

probable, b»4 «ome relation to his keeper of the Vatican library, ofTered 

yniTerttal language. him by cardinal Casanata» while he 

f The particulars we bare in the was at Rome. 


Leibnite wa« in person of n middle stature, Und of a thin 
habit/ He had a studious air, and a sweet aspect, though 
short-sighted. He was indefatigably 'industrious, atid sO 
continued to the end of his life. He ate find drank little. 
Hunger alone marked the time of his itieals,- and his diet 
was plain and strong. He loted tratelling, and different 
climiites never affected his health. In ordet to impress 
lipon his memory what he bad a mind to remember, he 
wrote it down, and never read it afterwards. His temper 
«^as naturally choleric, but on most occasions he had the 
art to restrain it. As he bad thd honour of passing for 
bne of the greatest men Jn Europe, he. was sufficrentljr 
iensible of it He was sblicitous in procuring the favotrr 
6f princes, which he turned to his own advantage, as well 
as to the semce of learning. He was affable and polite ih 
conver^tion^ and averse to disputes. He was thought to 
ieve money, and is said to have left sixty thoussind crowns, 
'yet nd mbre tbiln fifteen or twenty thousand out at interest; 
the risst being found in crown-()iece^ and 6ther specie, 
ifoarded in corn-sacks. He always professed himself a Lu- 
tbeMin, but never joined in public wor^i^; and in bis 
last sickness, being desired by his coachman; who was his 
fiivourite servant, to send for a minister, hie would not 
hear of it, saying be had no occasibn for one. He was 
never married, atifd never attempted it but once, when he 
ivais about fifty years old; and the lady destring time to 
consider of it, gave him an opportunity of doing the same ; 
which produced this conclusion, ** that marriage was a 
good thing, but a wise man ought to consider of it all his 
life." Mr. Loefler, son of his sister, was his sole heir, 
whose Mfe died suddenly with joy at the sight of so much 
AHoBey left them by their uncle. It is said he had a na- 
total son in his youth, who afterwards Kved with him, was 
serviteable to hrm in many ways, and had a considerable 
share \h his confidence. He went by the name of William 
Dioninger, and extremely resembled his father. 

The following particulars i^Jating to M. Leibnitz are 
^exf ract^d from the works of the abb^ Conti, as given in 
the Gazette Litteraire for 1765 : 

" This great nlan,'* says the abb^, " owed his death to 
a medicine given him by a jestrit at Vienna, which he 
tobk ffom ft diisire to obtain a too speedy cure for the 
gout This removed the disorder suddenly from his foot 
to bis atomach, and killed hhn. At the time of his ddatb, 


he was sitting on the side of his bed, with an ink-stand ^nd 
Barclay's Argenis beside him. They say that he was con- 
tinually reading this book, the style of which pleased him 
exceedingly ; and that it was from this taste he intended 
to form his history. 

^^ He left behind him twelve or thirteen thousand crowns 
in specie, and a bag full of gold medals. Among his 
papers was found a manuscript on the Cartesian method, 
which has not yet appeared ; a political tract of Bud^, the 
letters of pope Sylvester II. and Spinoza's letters..; His 
awn manuscripts were in great disorder. There . were 
found many papers filled with his thoughts, and with bon 
mots either his own, or collected by hiip. Leibnitz had 
passed part of his life with almost all the sovereigns of 
Europe, -and expressed himself with much spirit and ele- 
gance. He left behind him poems, epigrams, and love-* 
letters. He was connected with the learned c^f ail coun- 
tries ; and carefully preserved all the letters he wrote and 
received. M. Eckard says, there were found in his letters 
the history of the inventions, discoveries, and literary 
disputes during the space of forty years. He applied ^him- 
self to. every thing ; having left behind him a book of ety- 
mologies in the German language, and he laboured at an 
universal language to the time of his death. He loved 
chemistry ; and to acquire the secrets of that art, he con- 
trived a language chiefly composed of foreign words, which 
procured him the acquaintance of several chemists. 

" He read all books without exception ; the more odd 
and whimsical the title was, the more curious he was to 
examine the contents. He found a romance written in 
German by Mr. Eckard: thi^ romance contained the his- 
tory of a father, who having consulted an astrologer about 
the future destiny of his son, learnt that to preserve him 
from death, there was no other method than to make him 
pass for the son of a hangman. Leibnitz found this ro- 
mance so excellent that he read it through at one sitting. 

" The first time he visited Hanover, he never went out 
of his study. He never spoke of the sacred Scriptures 
without reverence ; they are full, he would say, of lessons 
useful to mankind. . He was unwilling to engage in religi- 
ous disputes, but when his own principles were attacked, 
he defended himself with much warmth. He was fond ,of 
the Estern manners, bad a great esteem for the Arabic 
and Chinese languages, and recommended the study of 

! > 


them. He formed a project for making a voyage to China, 
and the Czar promised to fit him out ; but on reflexion, he 
found himself too far advanced in life to undertake it. He 
collected many Chinese books in which were contained the 
antiquities of that empire." ' 

Leibnitz was author of a great multitude of writings; 
several of which were published separately, and many 
others in the memoirs of different academies. He invented 
a binary arkhmetic, and many other ingenious matters. 
His claim to the invention of Fluxiiiiis, we have already 
noticed. Hanschius collected, with great care, every thing 
that Leibnitz had^ said, in different passages of his works, 
upon the principles of philosophy ; and formed of them a 
complete system, under the title of " G. G. Leibnitaii 
Principia Philosophic more geometrico demonstrata,*' &ۥ 
1728,^ 4to. There came out a collection of our author's 
letters in 1734 and 1735, entitled, " Epistolse ad di versos 
theologici, juridici, tnedici, philosophic!, mathematici, his- 
torici, & philologici argument! e MSS. auctores: cum an- 
fiotationibus suis primum divulgavit Christian Cortholtus," 
^nd another collection of his letters was published in 1805 
at Hanover, by M. Feder, under the title of " Commercii 
epistolici Leibnitziani^ typis nondun) vulgati selecta speci- 
roina," 8vo. Of his collected works, the best edition, dis- 
tributed into classes by M. Dutens, v^as published at Ge- 
neva in six large volumes 4to, in 1768, entitled, ^^ Gothos- 
fredi Guillelmi Leibnitzii Opera omnia," &c. 

As Leibnitz was long the successful teacher of a new 
system of philosophy, it may be now necessary to give 
some account of it, which was formed partly in emenda* 
tion of the Cartesian, and partly in opposition to the New* 
tonian philosophy. In this philosophy, the author retained 
the Cartesian subtile matter, with the vortices and univer- 
sal planum ; and he represented the universe as a machine 
that should proceed for ever, by the laws of mechanism, in 
the most perfect state, by an absolute inviolable necessity. 
After Newton's philosophy was published, in 1687, Leib- 
nitz printed an essay on the celestial motions in the Act 
Erud. 1689, where he admits the circulation of the ether 
with Des Cartes, and of gravity with Newton; thoqgh he 
has not reconciled these principles, nor shewn how gravity 
arose from the impulse of this ether, nor how to account 
for the planetary revolutions in their respective orbits. His 
system is also defective, as it does not reconc^ile the cirgu- 


Utioa of tl^ eth^ with the free motions of the cotnet» i» 
mil directions, or with the obliquity of the planes of the 
planetary orbits ; nor does it resolve other objections to 
which the hypothesis of the vortices and plenum is liable. 

Soon after the period just mentioned, the dispute coqa^ 
menoed concerning the invention of the method of fluxions, 
which led Mr. Leibnitz to take a very decided part in op'f 
position to the philosophy of Newton. From the goodness 
and wisdom of the Deity, and his principle of a sufficient 
teasofij he concluded, that the universe was a perfect work, 
or the best that could possibly have been made ; and thai 
Other things, which are evil or incommodious, were per-r 
mitted as necessary consequences of what was best : thai 
the material system, considered as a perfect machine, can 
never fall into disorder, or require to be set right ; and to 
suppose that God interposes in it, is to lessen the skill of 
the author^ and the perfection of his work. He expressly 
charges an impious tendency on the philosophy of Newton, 
because he asserts, that the fabric of the universe and 
course of nature could not continue for ever in its present 
stat^ but in process of time would require to be re-esta« 
blished or renewed by the hand of its first framer. Tim 
perfection of the universe, in consequence of which it is 
capable of continuing for ever by mechanical laws in its 
present state, led Mr. Leibnitz to distinguish between the 
quantity of motion and the force of bodies ; and, whilst he 
owns in opposition to Des Cartes, that the former varies, 
to maintain^ that the quantity of force is for ever the same 
in the universe ; and to measure the forces of bodies by the 
squares of their velocities. 

Mr. Leibnitz proposes two principles as the foundation 
of all our knowledge ; the first, that it is impossible Ibf a 
thing to be, and not to be, at the same time, which, he says 
is the foundation of speculative truth ; and secondly, thai 
nothing is without a student reason why it should be so, 
rather than otherwise ; and by this principle he says we 
make a- transit^n from abstracted truths to natural philo* 
sophy. Hence he coacludea that the mind is naturally 
determined, in its volitions and elections, by the greatest 
apparent good, and that it is impossible to make a choice 
between things perfectly like, which he calls indiscemi-' 
Ues; from whence he infers, that two things perfectly like 
could not have been produced even by the Deity himself : 
and one reason why he rejects a vacuum, is because the 


ppcM 9f it must be sitpposed perfectly like to eftcfa other. 
For the 8ame reason too, he rcjecu atoms, and all 'timilar 
parts of matter, to each of which, though divisible ad tnfi*' 
mium, he asoribes a monad, or active kind of principle^ 
endued with perception and appetite. The essence of sub* 
stance be places in action or activity, or, as he expresses 
it, in something that is between acting and the faculty of 
acting. He affirms that absolute rest is impossible, and 
holds that motion, or a sort of nisvis, is essential to all ma* 
terial substances. Each monad he describes as represent* 
I9tive of the whole universe from its point of sight; and 
yet he tells us, in one of his letters, that matter is not a 
substance, but a substantiaium, or phenomena Hen/andf^ 
From this metaphysical theory, Which must be confessed 
too hypothetical to afford satisfaction,. Leibnitz deduced 
luany dogmas respecting the divine nature and operations^ 
the nature of human actions, good and evil, natural and 
moral, and other subjects which he treats with great sub- 
tlety, and in a connected train of reasoning. 

The translator of Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History ob*- 
serves, that the progress of Arminianism haa declined in 
Germany and several parts of Switzerland, in conseqiaence 
of the influence of the Letbnitzian and Woliian philosophy. 
Leibnitz and Wolf, by attacking that liberty of indif* 
ference, which is supposed to imply the power of acting 
noft only without, but against motives, struck, he says, at 
the very foundation of the Arminian system. He adds, 
that the greatest possible perfection of the universe, con« 
sidered as the ultimate end of creating goodness, removes 
from the doctrine of predestination those arbitrary proce-^ 
dures and narrow views, with which the Calvinists are sup* 
posed to have loaded it, and gives it a new, a more pleas*- 
ing, and a more philosophical aspect. As the Leibnitzians 
laid down this great end as the supreme object of God's 
iinivefsal dominion, and the scope to which all his dispen- 
sations are directed^ so they concluded, that, if this end 
was pvoposed, it must be accomplished. Hence the doc- 
trine of necessiQr, to fulfil the purposes of a predestination 
founded in wisdom and goodness; a necessity, physical 
and mechanieal, in the motions of material and inanimate 
things ) bat a necessity, moral and spiritual, in the volun- 
tary determinations of intelligent beings, in consequence 
of pvepollent moti?ves, which produce their effects with 
eenaioty, though, these effects be contingent, and by ho 

138 L E I B N I T. Z. 

means the offspring of aii absolute and essentially imn>uta<* 
bie fatality. These principles, says the same writer, are 
evidently applicable to> the main doctrines of Calvinism ; 
by them predestination is confirmed, though modified with 
respect to its reasons and its end ; by them irresistible grace . 
(irresistible in a moral sense) is maintained upon the hypo* 
thesis of propellent motives^ and a moral necessity; the 
perseverance of the saintsMs also explicable upon the same 
system, by a series of moral causes producing a series of 
moral ef&cts. But Maclaine adds, that ihe Leibnitzian 
system has scarcely been embraced by any of the English 
Calvinists, because, as he supposes, they adhere firmly to 
their theology, and blend no philosophical principles with 
their system. 

. Gibbon has drawn the character of Leibnitz with great 
force and precision, as a man whose genius and studies 
have ranked his name with the first philosophic names of 
bis age and country ; but be thinks bis reputation, per- 
haps, would have been more pure and permanent, if he 
bad not ambitiously grasped the whole circle of human 
science. As a theologian, says Gibbon (who is not, per-> 
•haps, the most impartial judge of this subject), be succes- 
sively contended with the sceptics, who believe too little, 
■and with the papists; who believe too. much ; and With the 
heretics, wlio believe otherwise than is inculcated by the 
Lutheran confession, of Augsburgb. Yet the pbilosc^ber 
betrayed his love of union and toleration.; bis faith in re- 
velation was accused, while he proved the Trinity by the* 
•principles of logic ; and in the defence of the attributes 
and providence of the Deity, he was suspected of a secret 
correspondence with his adversary. Bay le. The metaphy- 
sician expatiated in the fields of air; his pre-established 
.harmony of the soul and body might have provoked the 
jealousy of Plato; and his optimism, the best of all possi^ 
ble worlds, seems an idea too vast for a mortal mind. He 
was a physician, in the large and genuine sense of the 
word ; like his brethren, he amused him with creating a 
globe ; and his Protogaa^ or primitive earth, has not been 
useless to the last hypothesis of Buffon, which prefers the 
agency to that of water. ^' I am not worthy,^' adds 
Gibbon, ^^ to . praise the mathematician ; but his name is 
mingled in all the problems and discoveries of 'the times ; 
the masters of the art were his rivals or disciples ; and if 
he borrowed from sir Isaac Newton> the sublime method of 


iloxioDs, Leibnitz was at least the Prometheus who impart-« 
ed to mankind the sacred fire which he had stolen from the 
gods. His curiosity extended to every branch of che-» 
mistr)', mechanics^ and the arts ; and the thirst of know* 
ledge was always accompanied with the spirit of improve* 
ment. The vigour of his youth had been exercised in the 
schools of jurisprudence ; and while he taught, he aspired 
to reform the laws of nature and nations, of Rome and 
Germany. The annals of Brunswick, and of the empire, 
t)f the ancient and modern world, were presented to the 
mind of the historian ; and he could turn from the solution 
of a problem, to the dusty parchments and barbarous style 
of the records of the middle age. His genius was mare 
nobly directed to investigate the origin of languages and 
nations ; nor could he assume the character of a gram- 
marian, without forming the project of an universal idiom 
and alphabet. These various studies were often interrupted 
by the occasional politics of the times ; and his pen was 
always ready in the cause of the princes and patrons to 
whose service he was attached ; many hours were consumed 
in a learned correspondence with all Europe ; and the phi* 
losopher amused bis leisure in the composition of French 
and Latin poetry. Such an example may display the ex^ 
teat and powers of the human understanding, but even his 
powers were dissipated by the multiplicity of his pursuits. 
He attempted more than he could finish ; he designed more 
than he could execute : his imagination was too easily sa- 
tisfied with a bold and rapid glance on the subject, which 
he was impatient to leave ; and Leibnitz may be compared 
to those heroes, whose empire has been lost in the ambi^ 
tion of universal conquest."* 

LEIGH (Charles), a naturalist and physician of the 
seventeenth century, was born at Grange, in Lancashire. 
He entered in 1679, of Brazen-nose college, Oxford, and 
took a bachelor's degree in arts, whence he removed to 
Cambridge, and proceeding in the faculty of medicine, 
afterwards practised in London with considerable reputa- 
tion. He was admitted a member of the royal society in 
May 1685. He left the following works: "The Natural 
History of the Counties of Lancashire, Cheshire, and Der- 
byshire, &c." London, 1700, folio, with plates. Into this 

^ G«n. Diet. — Eloge by Fonteoelle.— Brucker.<! — Hutton't Dictionary.— Gib. 
boa's MifceUaneous Works. — Diet. Hist.-«SaYii Onomast. 



HO t-JE I G a 

is incorporated the best part of the following pubUcatioUt : 
'' Piitbtsiologia Lancastriensis, cum teiitamine. pbilosQ- 
pbico de Mineralibus Aquis in eodem comitatu observatis/* 
London, 1694, 8vo. <^ Exercitationes quinqoe de Aquis 
Mineralibus, Thermis calidis, Morbis acutis, Morbis inter^ 
mittentibus, Hydrope," ibid. 1697. " History of Virginia/* 
drawn up from observations made during a residence ia 
that country, London, 1705, 12dio, Of bis ^^ Na,tural Hisr 
tory of Lancashire,*' bishop Nicolson speaks with gjreat^ 
and, as Mr. Gough thinks, deserved contempt. The cpii^ 
described in this book were left to Mr. Prescot of Catb^rinQ* 
hall, Cambridge. The time of his death is not mentioned 
in any of the accounts we have seen of bim.^ 

LEIGH (Edward), a learned theological writer of thip 
seventeenth century, the son of Henry Leigh^ esq. wa^ 
born at Shawell in Leicestershire^ March 24, 1602*3. H^ 
bad his grammatical learning under a Mr. Lee of WaJ^ 
shall in Staffordshire j and when removed to Oxfordj beh 
came a conmjoner of Magdalen-ball, in 1616, under Mt^. 
William Pemble, a very celebrated tutor of that society. 
After completing his degrees in arts in 1623^ be removed 
lo the Middle Temple for the study of the law^ During 
the violence of the plague in 1625, he took thctt opportu^ 
nity to visit France ; and on his return to the Temple^ 
added to his law studies those of divinity and history^ in 
both which he attained a great stock of knowledge. He 
was in fact a sort of lay divine, and superior to many of the 
profession. About 1636, we find him representing tb0 
borough of Stafford in parliament, when some of tbe memr^ 
bers of tiiat, which was called tbe Long pafliameii.t« .hs^d 
withdrawn to the king at Oxford. Mr. Leigh's sentiment 
inclining, him to refmainand to support the measures of the 
party in opposition to the c()urt^ he was afterwards ap:^ 
pointed to a seat in the assembly of divines^ and pertainly 
sat with no little propriety in one respect, being as ably 
skilled in matters of divinity and ecclesiastical history ^a 
most of them. He was also a colonel of a regiment ip the 
parliamentary service, and custos rotulorum for the county 
of Stafford. He was not, however, prepared to approve of 
all the proceedings of the parliament and army ; ami bett- 
ing, in Dec. 1648, voted that his majesty's concessions were 
satisfactory, he and some others, who held the same opi- 

1 Aitu Ox. vol. If (-tonsil's Topogr»phy.<i«-PatteDey'8 3ketcfaes of Botany. 

LEIGH. 141 

(tfkxby were turned out of parliament. Fron that time he 
tppears to have retired from public life, and to have eaw 
played his time in study. He died June 2, 1671, at Rus* 
baU Hall in Staffordshire, and way buried in the chancel of 
that church. His works, which afford abundant proofs of 
his learning and industry, are, 1 . ** Select and choice Ob- 
servations concerning the first twelve Cesars," Oson. 1631, 
8vo. Additions were made to this work both by himself and 
his son Henry, who published an enlarged edition in 1657, 
8vo, with the title of ^* Anaieota Caesarum Romanorum.** 
Two other editions, with farther improvements and plates 
of coins, &c. appeared in 1664 and 1670) 8vo. 2. ^^ Trea* 
tise of Divine promises," Lond. 163^3, often reprinted, and 
waathe model of Clarke*^ '* Scripture Promises,'' and other 
collections of the same kind. 3. *^ Critica Sacra, or the 
Hebrew words of the Old, and of the Greek of the New 
Testament," Lond. 16^9, and 1646, 4to, afterwards en^ 
larged with a supplement, to 2 vols, folio. This was one 
bf the books on which the late learned Mr. Bowyer bestow- 
ed great pains, and had filled it with critical notes. 4. 
'* A Treatise of Divinity," ibid. 1648, 1651, 8vo. 5. "The 
Saint^s encouragement in evil times ; or observations con- 
Qeruing the martyrs in general," ibid. 1648, 8vo. 6. " An« 
notations on all the New Testament," ibid. 1650, folio. 
7« **. A philological Commentary ; or, an illustration of 
the most obvious and usefol words in the Law, &c." ibid. 
1652, &c. 8. " A System or Body of Divinity," 1654, 
Md 1669, folio. 9. " Treatise of Religion and Learning," 
ibid. 1656, folio, which not succeeding, was republished 
in 1663^ with only the new title of "Fcelix consortium, or 
a fit conjuncture of Religion and Learning." 10. '< Choice 
French Proverbs," ibid. 1657, 1664, 8vo. 11. " AnnoU- 
tions on the five poetical books of the Old Testament, viz. 
Job, Psalms, P<roverbs, Ecclesiastes, and Canticles," ibid. 
}$57^ folio. 12; ^< Second considerations of the high court 
of Chancery," 1658, 4to. 13. *< England described," 1659, 
8vo^ mostly.firom Camden. 14. " Choice observations on 
ail (be kings of England, from the Saxons to the death of 
Cbarle$^L" 166i, avo. 15. '< Three Diatribes, or Dis* 
courses, of travel, moneys and measuring;, &c." 1671, 8vo; 
in another edition it is calied the '^ Gentleman's Guide." 
1:6. ^^ Two Ser^npns," on the magistrate's authority, by 
Christ. Cartwright, B. D. To these sir Edward prefixed a 
preface in vindication of his own character for appearing 

142 LEIGH. 

in the assembly of dirines. — ^This gentleman la by some 
writers called Sir Edward Leigh, but not ^o by Wood, nor 
can we find any information respecting his being knighted. 
In all his works^ tbat we have seen, be is styled Edward 
Leigh, Esq.^ 

LEIGHTON (Alexander), a Scotch divine, was born 
at Edinburgh, in 1568, and educated in the university of 
that city, under the direction of the pious and learned 
Mr. Rollock. In 1603 he took the degree of M. A. and 
was appointed professor of moral philosophy in his own 
college, a place which he enjoyed till the laureation of his 
class, in 1613. At tbat time he came to London, and 
procured a lectureship, which he enjoyed till 1629, when 
he wrote two books, the one entitled " Zion's Plea," and 
the other, " The Looking-glass of the Holy War." In 
the former of these books, he spoke not only with free- 
dom, but with rudeness and indecency against bishops, 
calling them ^'men of blood," and saying tbat we do not read 
of a greater persecution and higher indignities done towards 
God'si people in any nation than in this, since the death of 
queen Elizabeth. He called the prelacy of the church 
anti-cbristian^ and declaimed vehemently against the ca- 
nons and ceremonies. He styled the queen a daughter of 
Heth, and concluded with expressiag bis pity that so in* 
genuous and tractable a king should be so monstrously 
abused by the bishops, to the undoing of himself and his 
subjects. This brought him under the vengeance of the 
star-chamber, and a more cruel sentence, was jprobably 
never pronounced or executed. After receiving sentence, 
he made his escape, but was soon re-taken and brought 
back to London. Historians have recorded the manner of 
his shocking punishment in these words t ^^ He was se- 
verely whipped before he was'f^ut in the pillory. 2. Being 
set in the pillory, he had one of his ears cut off. 3. One . 
side of his nose slit. 4. Branded on the cheek with a red 
hot iron with the letters 8S (a sower of sedition). On 
that day seven*night, his sores upon his back, ear,v nose,' 
and face, being not yet cured, he was whipped again at 
the pillory in Cheapside, and had the renuunder of his sen- 
tence executed upon bim^ by cutting off the other ear, 
slitting the other side of his nose, and branding the other 
cheek." This happened in 1630. Granger has recovered 

I Ath. Ox. vol. II.— Faller's Worlbies.-^Nicfaolt'i Bowyer. 

L E I G H T O N. 145 

SI memoir of hitn by which it appears that he practisedias 
a physiciati in the reign of James I. and that he was inter- 
dicted the practice of physic by the college of physicians, 
as .a disqualified person. He alledged in bar to this pro-^ '- 
hibition, that he had taken his doctor's de;L;ree at Leyden,. 
under professor Heurnius. It was then objected to him|. 
that he had taken priest's orders, and being asked why he 
did not adhere to the profession to which he had been or* 
dained, he excepted against the ceremonies, but owned 
himself to be a clergyman. Still persisting to practise in 
London, or within seven miles of that city, he was cen* 
sured " tanqiuim infamis^^^ he having before been sentenced 
in tbe star-chamber to lose his ears. But in this accouftc 
there is some inaccuracy. He did not lose his ears until 
1630, and then underwent his long imprisonment*. 
. Be this as it may, after eleven years imprisonment in 
the Fleet, be was set at liberty by the parliament, 1640, 
and appointed keeper of Lambeth-palace, which at that 
time was made use of as a state-prison. There be re- 
mained till 1644, when he died rather insane of mind from 
the hardships he had suffered. He has no works extant, 
except those already mentioned. He was the father of 
archbishop Leighton, the subject of the next article.' 

LEIGHTON (Robert), some time bishop of Dunblane, 
and afterwards archbishop of Glasgow, squ to the pre- 
ceding, was born at London in 1613, but educated at the 
university of Edinburgh, where his talents were not mor^e 
conspicuous than his piety and humble temper. He after-i 
wards spent some time in France, particularly at Dowaj, 
where some of his relations lived. Our accpunts, however, 
of his early years, are very imperfect. All we know with 
certainty of the period before us is, that when he bad 
reached his thirtieth year, in 1643, he was settled in Scot- 
land, according to the presbyterian form,^ as minister of . 
tfa^ parish of Newbottle, near Edinburgh. Here^ be 

^ It tras when Dr. Leighton received popularity. The sentence itself, bow. 

sentence that archbishop Laud, then ever, could not fail to make a deep 

in tourt, ie said to hare takes off his impression on the minds of a people 

cap, and returned thanks to God. already taught to be dissatisfied with 

This story bas'been repeated in all the the government, and to thirst for that 

histories of the tiiiie, and whether vengeance which fell upon Strafford, 

true or not, must have, if only a cur- Laud, and lastly on the king himself, 
rent report^ added heavily to his un- 

1 Brook's Lives of the Puritans.— Kushworth and Nalson's Collections.— 

144 L K I G ft T ON. 

. iPtmained severali years, and vmn most a«idiioua in Ag^ 
cbargiQg the varibus duties of his office. He did not^ bow«« 
(^er, conceive it to be any part of that office to add to 
the distractions of that uivbappy period, by naking the 
pulpit the vehicle of political opinions. Hia object wae 
to exhort his parishioners to live in charity, and not t«i 
double tbeinselves with religious and political disputes^ 
But such was not the common practice ; and it being the 
custom of the presbytery to inquire of the several brethven^ 
, twice a year, '< whether they had preached to the tifoes ?*'* 
'' For God's sake/' answefed Leigbton, *^ when all titf 
brethren preach to the times, sumr one poor priest to 
preach about eternity." Such moderation could not hAl 
to give offence ; and finding his labours of no service, be 
retired to a life of privacy. His miud was not, however,- 
indi&iient to what was passing in the political worM, and 
he was one of those who dreaded the downfall of the mo^ 
narcfay, and the subsequent evils of a republican tyranny, 
and having probably declared his sentiments on these sub- 
jects, he was solicited by bis friends, and particularly by- 
his brother, sir Elisba L^gblon, to change his connexions. 
For this he was denounced by the presbyterians as an apos- 
tate, and welcomed by the episcopalians as a conirert; lit 
lus first outset, however, it is denied that he was a thorough 
presbyteriaa^ or in bis second, entirely an episcopalian ; 
and it is certain that his becoming the latter could not be: 
imputed to motives of ambition or interest, for episcopacy 
was at this time the profession of the minority, atid ex-*' 
tremely unpopular. His design, however, of retirifn^ to- 
a life of privacy, was prevented l^ a circumstance w^^ich 
proved the high opinion entertained of his int^rity, learn^^ 
iAg, and piety. The office of principal in the university* 
of Edinburgh becoming vacant soon after Leighton's re^* 
signation of bis ministerial charge, the- magistrates^ wha* 
bad the gift of presentation, unanimously chose him to* 
fill the chair, and pressed^ his acceptance of it by urging 
that he might thereby be of great service to the churcl\, 
without taking any part in public measures. Such a mo- 
tive to a man of his moderation, was irresistible; and ac* 
cordingly he accepted the offer, and executed the dutiea 
of his office for ten years with great reputation. It waa 
the custom then for the principal to lecture to the students 
of theology in the Latin tongue ; and Leighton^s lectures 
delivered at this period, which are extant both in Latia 

L £ I G H T O N. 14< 

Aod Englisli, ate ymty slrflting proofs of the abffity tnd M« 
«iduity with wUeb he dhcharged this paact of his doty. 

After the death of the king,/ Dr. LeightOB sometimes 
-niited London during the vacations^ but was disgusted 
with the pfToceedings there, and particntavly conceived a 
dislike to the eondoct of the independents as well as to 
their form' of charch'^governnent. He made several ex- 
cursions, likewise, to FJandciv, that he might observe the 
actoal state of the Romish church on the spot, and carried 
on a correspondence with some of his rebMions at Doway, 
who were in popish ard&rs} bat with the exeeption of 
some Jansemsts, of whom be . entenained a favourable 
opinion, hifr genial avevsioii to popish divines and po- 
pery appeara to have been increased by his experience 
I abroad. 

When Cfaavlea II. after the reatomtion decemined to 
ttfablish episeopaey in Svotlaiid, Dr. Leighton was per* 
siiaded to accept a bishopric. This his presbyterian 
biographers seem to consider as a part of his conduct 
wUph is4iot to be lecoaiciled with bis gjieneral character 
for wiadoiii and caution. They deduce, bowevier, from 
. dieXMlowittg circumstances, that he did not enter cordially 
into the plan, and waa even somewhat averse to it. ^^ He 
chose tb«r most obsenre and least lucrative see^ tfaatof 
Donfaj^flfie ; he diaapprofed of the feasting at the time> of 
coDsiter^ion, and plainly testified against it ; be objected 
iw the title of Lord; be refused to accompany the other 
Scotch bishops in their pMipoiis entry into Edinburgh. 
He hastened to Dunblane; did not accept of the invitation 
to pa|f]^a■lent, and almost the only time he took hfs seat 
there wasfor the purpose of urging lenity toward the pres*^ 
foyterians; be dc^sted all violent measures; persecuted 
no oian^ upbraided no man; t)ad tittle correspondence 
smfa his brethren, and incurved l^ir ^eep resentm^ent by 
. bis resorts and strictness ; acknowiedged that Providence 
frowned both on the scheme and the instruments ;. aiid 
confined himself to his diocese**' 

All this ttigbt be true, and yet not interfere with the 
conclusion, that Br: l^ighton saijir nothing in the charac-' 
ter and office of a bishop which coold hinder the success 
of the gospel; on the contrary, bishop as he was, for 
which these bic«raphers cannot forgive, him,- he exhibited 
such an exaropkB of ptons diligence as could not be est- 
4Eeeded hf tiM divines of any church ; and although during 

VeL. XX. L 

Ue L E I G H T O N. 

. his holdiog this see, tbe presbyterisn^ were persecuted 
with the greatest severity, in other dioceses, not one indt*- 
vidual wasfliolested in Dunblane on account of hisreligiouis 
principles. But as he had no power beyond his own bound- 
aries, and could not approve the conduct of Sharp and others 
of his brethren, he certainly became in time dissatisfied 
with his situation, and it is possible he might be^so with 
himself for accepting it. In an address to his clergy, in 
1665, not four years after his settlement at Dunblane, he 
intimated to them that it was his intention to resign, as- 
signing as a reason, that be was weary of contentions* 

Before taking this step, however, he had the courage to 
try the effect of a fair representation of the state of matters 
to the king, and notwithstanding his natural diffidence^ 
went to London, and being graciously received by Cbaries, 
detailed to him the violent and cruel proceedings in Scot- 
land ; protested against any concurrence in such raeasurefr; 
declared that being a bishop he was in some degree ac- 
cessary to tbe rigorous deeds of others in supporting epis- 
copacy, and requested permission to resign his bishopric. 
The king heard him with at^tention, and with apparent sor-* . 
row for the state of Scotland ; assured him that lenieftt 
measures should be adopted, but positively refused to : ac- 
cept his resignation. Leigbton appears to have credited 
his majesty^s professions, and returned home in hopes that 
the violence of peraecution was over ; but, finding himself 
disappointed, be made a second attempt in 1667, and waa 
more urgent with tbe king than before, although still with- 
out effect. 

It may seem strange that Leigbton, who was so disgusted 
with tbe proceedings of bis brethren as now to think it a 
misfortune tp belong to tbe order, and who had so earnestly 
tendered his resignation, should at no great distance of 
time (in 1670) be persuaded to remove from his sequestered 
diocese of Dunblane, to the more important' province of 
Glasgow. This, however, may be accounted for (o bis 
honour, and not to the discredit of the court which urged 
him to accept tbe archbishopric. Tbe motive of the king 
and bis ministers was, that Leigbton was tbe only man 
qualified to allay the discontents which prevailed in. the 
west of Scotland; and Leigbton now thought be might 
have an opportunity to bring forward a scheme of accom- 
modation between tbe Episcopalians and Presbyterians, 
which had been for years the object of his study^ and the 

t E I G H T O N. 147 

iriib of his bean. The king bad examined this scbeme/ 
and promised his aid. It had all the features of mode- 
ration ; and if moderation had been the characteristic of 
either party, might have been successful. Leighton wished 
that each party, for the sake of peace, should abate some* 
what of its opinions, as to the mode of church-government: 
and worship ; that the power of the bishops should be re- 
duced considerably, and that few of the ceremonies of 
public worship should be retained; that the bishop should 
ooiy be perpetual moderator, or president in clerical as- 
semblies; and should have no negative voice; and that 
every question should be determined by the majority of 
presbyters. Both parties, however, were too much exas* 
peiated, and too jealous of each other to yield a single 
poiot, and the scheme came to nothing, for which various 
reasons may be seen in the history of the times. The 
only circumstance not so well accounted for, is that 
Cbarleip II. and his ministers should still persist in retaining 
a man in the high office of bishop, whose plans they dis- 
liked, atid who formed a striking contrast to his brethVen 
whom they supported; 

Disappeinted in his scheme of comprehension, arch- 
bishop Leighton endeavoured to execute his office with his 
usual care, doing all in his power to reform the clergy, to 
promote piety among the people, to suppress violence, and 
to soothe the minds of the presbyterians. For this last 
purpose be held conferences with them at Glasgow, Paisley, 
and Sdinburgh, on their principles, and on his scheme of 
accommodation, but without effect. The parties could not 
be brought to mutual indulgence, and far less to religious 
coacord. Finding his new situation therefore more and 
more disagreeable, he again determined to resign his dig- 
nity, and went to London for that purpose in the summer 
of- 1-678. The' king, although he still refused to accept his 
i«signation, gave a written engagement to allow him to 
retire, after the trial of another year ; and that time being 
expiced^ and all hope of uniting the different parties having 
Yaiiisbed, his resignation was accepted.- He now retired 
to Broadfaurst, in Sussex, where his sister resided, the wi- 
do<^ of Edward Lightmaker, esq. and here he lived in 
great, privacy, dividing his time between study, devotion, 
and acts of benevolence, with occasional preaching. In 
1679 ht very unexpectedly received a letter, written iti 
the king's own hand, requesting him to go to Scotland and 

L 2 

148 I. E I (J H T O N- 


pi^oiApjte co^potd ainong tbi^ toqiK^nding paitieis, but it does 
opt ^pp^iir il^t b<e eaqipUed with his nuijesty's pie&sune. 
It is cert^aip that h^ nev^sr agaij) visited Scotland, nor inter-^* 
ipeddled with ecple^iasiticai it09if«, but remained quietly in 
bi3 retirement jijiiuil near his death. This event, however, 
did not ta{^e pia^e at Broadhiir^t. /Although be had ei!i«< 
joyed this retirement aluiost wkbout interruption fer tea 
years, be w/a^ unexpectedly brought to London to see ht» ' 
friends. Thef reason of this vi$tt is not very clearly ex*. 
plained, nor is it of great i&iportanee, but it appean that 
be bad been accqstomed to express a wish that be xnigbt 
die frppa home, and at an iiio ; and tbiB wish was gratified, 
fpr be died at the Bell-ion, in Warwick^lane, far apart 
from bis rieUtions, whose concern, bethought, might dti-> 
compose his noind. He was confined to his room about a 
week, and to bis bed only three days. Bishop Burnet, and 
Qtber friends, attended him constantly during tUs iilnt^s, 
and witnessed his tranquil departure* He expired Feb. 1^ 
16S4, in the seventy-fif^t year of bia age. By his «xpresa 
'(^sire, bi9 remains were conveyed to Broadhnr^, and in- 
terred in the church ; and a monument of plain marble^ 
inscribed with his name, office, and age, was erected at 
tbi? ^jcpence of his sifter. 

Archbishop Leighton is celebrated by all wbo have wiit- 
ten his lifci or incidentally noticed him, as a striking ex«» 
ampl^ of unfeigned piety, extensive learning, and nn-* 
bounded liberality. Every period of his life was marked 
with sqbstantial, prudent, unostentatious charity ; and tfaafc 
hp might be enabled to employ bis H'ealtb in this way^ 
be practised the arts of frugality in' his own concerns. He 
enjpyed some property from bis father, but his income as 
bishop of Dunblane was only 200/., and as archbishop o€ 
Glasgow about 400/. ; yet, besides his gifts of charity du* 
ring his life, he founded an exhibition in the collie of 
Edinburgh at the expence of 150/. ami three more in the 
cpllege of Glasgow, at the expence of 400/. ; and gave 
3po/. fpr the maintenance of four panpers in St. Nichdaa^a 
hospits^l. He also bequeathed at last the whole of his 
remaining property to charitable purposes. His Kfatarjr 
>pd MSS. he left to the see of Dunblalie. His love for 
retifement we have often mentioned ; ■ be carried it perhaps 
to an excess, and it certainly unfitted him fi>r the o^orft. 
s^ptive dutie9 of bis high station. Although a pvelaiie^, lie 
i)$ver seemed to have coixaidered hia\seif as wotq than % 

L B I O B T O N; 149 

par^b pritst) and hi^ diocese k Ivrge pwrith. He wfta^ riot 
Bnade for the times in.vrbicb be lived, ik a public cbardCter. 
They were too yi^lent for bu gentle spirit, and impressed / 
bim leith a melancholy that cbec)ied the natural cheerf\il- 
sess of bis temper and conversation. As a prea^ber^ be 
was admired beyond all bis contemporaries, ai^ bis wotin 
have niot yet lost their popalarity« Sofne of them, ts his 
*^ Commentary on St. Peter," hdive been dfien reprifritedi 
but.tbe most complete edition, inetuding many pieces ne« 
yer before poblisbed, is that which appeared in t80S, fiy 6 
vols. Svo, with a life of the aothor by the Rev. G. Jtt^ 
ment. Of this last we have availed ourselves in the pire^ 
ceding s&etcb, but most refer io it for a nfore Mkpte acf^ 
count of tbe character and actions of thi& revere^^ preialtd/^ ' 
LE1.AND, ov LAYLONDE (John), sin emiiMent En^Ks^ 
aDtiqfli^yi was born in Loiulon, in the legfAfiing of tbe 
sixtetntb cenCury^ bot in what parish at year is Mk:ertain'. 
He #aa bred^at Su Paofs^efaoo^, tfnder the famous WvlKam 
Lilly, Having lost both bis parerMs in his infancy, he 
fotacid a foster^'faiber in one Mr; Tbomas Myles^^ who botb 
nKMntained ]^\tn at school,^ and sent hiM tAenee to Chriye' J 
college, hir Cambridge^ Of this sd^eiety, it is saiid, be be« 
came fellow ; yet, it isi certarin' (tait be afterwards renfioved 
to Oxford, and spent ^erevai yeafs^^ in Allf Souls Cottege^ 
wbece be pmiebiMed hiiTRiUdiie^ wiub great as^idiril^)^,' not 
cmiy, in tbe- Greek and Latm se^goes^ bait in ibel^Mt>H 
4oid Welcfa^ tile adcievvt la:ngnage9i of hM country. fo# 
^MTtber impvofttment be travelled to Paris, wh^re- be bad 
the coaviers^tion and instfiM^tioii pf Budseus, Pab^, I'aiulil^ 
wlgmUitta^ BueliiuS) and Francis Syt>vttti» ; by whose assibt4 
toce be m>t oo^ perfected himself in die Latin and* Gr^B 
toogues^ but learned French, Italian, ai|d Spanish. H^ 
also. improved his iiatun^l diposition to poe^.- On. bis 
return brnme heeolered intio holy ordiers^ ai^d beingiesteemed 
aik accomplished scholar, king Heevy Vl'tl. ma^de hitts enW 
of bia ehafJatos, gave him tbe rectory of Popeb^ig, Po^ 
peiung, or . Pepling^ in^ the marches: it Calsws, appointed 
bim? his: liihndry-keeper, and by a commission dated 1 $^% 
digoified^ hiin witb the tithe of his' antiquary. By thist com^ 
mssaioa his mi^esty laid hia commands on' bint' to miAe 
seatcb after ^ EngUaldi^s antic^ies,' and pemise ti})^ lifolE^^ 
xiea o£ all cathedrals^ abbiesi priories, eollc^ge», &ic. at)dF 

1 I4fe,.w mbore,— Buf net'i Oi«o Tlaw^;— taiuf »a Hi^t; of SJciiUaiidi Ac. 

» 4 

150 . L E L A N D. 

places where recordsi writings, and secrets of antiqnity 
.w^re reposited.^' For this purpose he had an honourable 
;5tipend allotted him> and obtained, in 1536, a dispensa- 
Uon for non-residence upon his living at Popeling. Being 
•now at full liberty, he spent above six years in travelling 
About Eogl^jid and Wales, and collecting materials for the 
liistory and antiquities of the nation. He entered opoci 
bis journey with the greatest eagerness; and, in the exe* 
eutioo of his design was so inquisitive, that, not content 
with what the libraries of the respective houses afibrded^ 
nor with what was recorded in the windows and other mo* 
numents belonging to cathedrals and monasteries, &c. he 
wandered from place to place where he thought there were 
any footsteps of Roman, Saxon, or Danish buildings, and 
took particular notice of all the tumuli, coin$> inscriptions, 
&c. In short, he travelled every where, both by the sea- 
cQasts and the midland parts, sparing neither 'paind nor 
qost ; insomuch that there was scarcely either cape or bay, 
haven, creek, or pier, river, or confluence of rivers, 
breaches, washes, lakes, meres, fenny waters, mountains, 
yalleys, moors, heaths, forests, chaces, woods, cities, bo<> 
roughs, castles, principal manor- places, monasteries, and 
colleges, which he bad not seen, and noted, as he says, a 
whole world of things very memorable. 
. Leland not only sought out and rescued antique monu- 
inents of literature from the destructive hands of time, by 
a faithful copy and register of them, but likewise saved 
many from being despoiled by the hands of men. In those 
days the English were very indifferent and negligent in this 
particular : they took little heed and less care about these 
precious monuments of learning; which, being perceived 
by foreigners, especially in Germany, young students were 
frequently sent thence, who cut them out of the bocdcs in 
the libraries ; and, then, returning home, published them 
at the press of Frobenius, and other printers. This pil« 
ferage^ together with the havock made of them at the ais«> 
solution of the monasteries,^ was observed by our antiquary 
with great regret ; and he wrote a letter to Cromwell, then 
secretary of state, begging his assistance to bring to light 
many ancient authors buried in dust, and sending them ta 
the king^s library. His majesty was truly sensible of the 
indefatigable industry and labour of his antiquary, and^on 
bis return from his travels in 1 542, presented him to the 
rich rectory of Hasely, in Oxfordshire, and the year foU 

L £ L A N D. 151 

lowing gave kim, by the name of John Leland, scholar, 
and king's chaplain, a canonry of King^s college, now 
Christ Church, in Oxford ; and, about the same time, the 
prebend of East and West Knowle, in the church of 
Sarum. In } 545 he lost the canonry pf Christ Church, 
upon the surrendry of that college to the king, and had 
no pension allowed him in the lieu of it, as other canons 
had, yet as he is said to have been '* otherwise provided 
for,'' it was probably at this time that the prebend of East 
and West Knowle was given him. In 1545, havino; digested 
into four books that part of his collections which contains 
an account of the illustrious writers in the realm, with their 
lives and monuments of literature, he presented it to his 
mayesty, under th^ title of ** A Newe Year's Gifte ;" with 
a scheme of what he intended to do farther *, For that 
purpose he retired to a house of his own, in the parish of 
St Michael le Querne, London ; where he spent near six 
years in digesting and bringing into form and order, the 
immense collections he had with so great assiduity amassed 
together. It appears by a letter of his published by 
Hearne, that he was desirous af procuring an able assistant, 
but we are not informed whether he succeeded. I^ is cer- 
tain that some assistance was necessary ; for though he ivas 
a person of a clear judgment, and of great insight, to dis- 
cern the difference ** between substantial and superstitious 
learning," notwithstanding these and other natural endow- 
ments of his mind, it is no wonder this double labour, this 
augsean task, to realize these undigested heaps, should 
overpower the strength of his constitution, and the spirits 
submit to what nature could no longer support. This was 
the fate of Leiaud ; and by this unfortunate event an end 
vras put to his labours, ^<^a fatal stop tp the satisfaction he 
vyas anxious to give to his king and country." 
. King Henry died Jan. 28, 1547, and probably the great 
concerns of state had for some time slackened the attention 
of the court to his labours. Bay)e suggests that the court 
did not pay Iceland his stipend, ^nd gives this as a plausible 
reason for bis misfprtune ; but as we are told by his con- 
temporary, bisi^op Bale, who had a better opportunity to 

* This, was, to give a map of Eng- books as there are shires in E^ogland 

Und on a siver plate ; a description of and Walev^ viz. fifty ; a sarvey of the 

the same within twelvemonths; where- British isles, id six boohs ; and, finally, 

in would' be restored the ancient naipes nn account of the nobility of En^l;|nd, 

of places in Britain ; with the antiqui- in three books, 
ties or civil bistocy of it ; in as ipAnjr 

IM L E L A N D. 

know Ills history^ tfaoit be was « man entiirelf abslratsted front 
the world, peeuoiary considerations eoald scarce b^ thd 
object of his T4dwt. Hovire^er^ to wbat^fer ^{^ritiiar^ ut se- 
condary cause his disorder thay be assigned^ he fdl into a 
deep melancholy^ and, in a short time after^ was totally 
(deprived of his ^enfi^* 

His distemper being made known to Edward YL his oa^ 
jesty^ by leuei's patents^ daited March 5, iSSO, granted 
the eu^ody of him, by the name cf John Laylond^ juhior^ 
of St. Michael's parish in le Querae, eterk, to his brother 
John Layiond/ senior ; and, for his tnaintenanbe, to receive 
the pmfitft of Hasely, Popeling, and bis Salisbury prebea4 
srbove-m^ntioned. In this distraction be contiasea, with^ 
out ever teco^^ering bis senses/ two yeaard, when the A^q»^ 
der put a period to his life, April 13, 15S2. He was in* 
terred in the church of St, Michael le Qiieme, wbidi stood 
at tbe weyt tsAd of Cheapside, between tbe conduit there 
and Patemoster-row ; but, being burnt in the great fire of 
1666, the site of it was laid out to enlarge tbe street. 

This events as his illuesi; before had, was ddemed a na- 
tional misfortuUle, g^ready lamented by conteeiporaries^ 
and by succeeding ages. On his demise^ Lefhnid^s papers 
wete soagbt after by persons of the fim rank and learning 
in the kingdom. Kiug Edward, aware of their value, eoih^ 
mitted tbm to'tbe custody of sir John Cheke, his tiit^^ 
who probably Wotild hkre made simie importahtusejE^f them 
bad be hot beeU bihdei^d by tbe^oonfu^ipns which feiUowed 
the de&th 4jf bis sovereign. Sir John,, being then sfeliged 
to go abroaH^ leftfoiir folio^ volumes of Leland's coUec^i^s 
to Humphrey Purefoy, iesq. and these descended to Butlioii^ 
^author of the History of Leicestershire, who obtained 
possession also of eight othfer volumes ef Lels^d^s MS6«- 
called his ^Mtinerary,^ all which he deposifleil, in l^S^^i 
in the Bodleian library. The only other portion of Le« 
land's MSS. is in the Cdttoman collection. Of all tbese^ 
Holin^hed, Drayton, Camden, Dugdale, Stohve, Lam^^ 
bard, Battdy, Wood, &b. &c. have made muibb «se in. 
their historical researches; but ^e oatonottoo deejply !«•* 
gret that the author did not live to -execute his own plams^ 
His collections were in truth but labares incepHy begun, not 
completed. In that light be mentions them himself in an 
address to archbishop Cranmer, intreating the favour of 
that prelate's protection of his indigested papers. Yet in 
this imperfect state they have been JiM»tLy deeioed&natiaiud 

L E L A N D. 153 

tressdre, b«re alws^s been consulted by our best antt- 
qasrie», aiid their autbortty is eked as equal, if not su^ 
perior to any, iii points tifaat concern antiquiiies* Dr. Tan^ 
ner bad once fdrmed a plan for ppblisbing Leland's papers^ 
but i^airioQs afocatious pr^ented him : at length Heame 
undertook the task, and produced those two invaluable 
coUectiont, the '* Itinerary/' and ^ Collectanea,'' both too 
w<eU known to require a more tbihdte description. To 
these may be added a work not so well edited, *^ Coni<- 
tnentarit de sCriptortbus Bntannlcis," Oxon. 1709, 2 vols. 
^o. (See Anthony Hall.) Soiiie unpublished MSS« still 
remain, and it appears that Leland had prepared a large 
work entitled ** De Antiquitate Britannica, sive^ Historia 
Civilts.'* It altfo appears that he had made large collect* 
tioiis towards the antiquities df London, but these have . 
k^ng been lost to the public, as well as bis quadrate table 
on silver, mentioned in the {ireceding note, and the ** De^ 
scription of England,** which he said would be publkbed 
in twelve months. * 

LELAND (John), an eminent writer in defence of 
Cht^sUantty, ' was bt)rn at Wigan^ in Lancashire, Oct. 18^, 
1081. Boon after, his father, who had lived in good re« 
ptite for many years, being involved in pecunislry diffi^t^ 
eulties^ ^ave up bis effects tdhis creditors, and removed to 
Dublin. Finding here an opportunity for settling in busi^ 
ness^ he sent over for his wife and family of three sons, 
and was enabled to support them in a decent manner. 
Miny thefitlbje^^t of this memoir, was his second son, and 
vdieii in his aixtfa yeilr, whi<!fh was before they left Eng^ 
hfnA, as our aecoont states, he met with a singular misforf 
iiine. He Wtts seized with the small pox, which proved of so 
sralignantsl bind that hts life was despaired of ; and when^ 
eontrary to all expectation, he recovered, be was found 
t6 be deprived of his understanding and' memory^ which 
last retairiied no traces ofwhat he had been taught* In this 
atate he remained a yeary when his facnities returned ; but 
intving^tiil mo remembranee df the past^ he began ane^ 
to learn his letters, aiiditi this his second edueation, made 
so quid! a pro^r^ss, and gate such prodfe of sliperior me* 
Itldry «nd understandifvg, that hi^psirents r^Ol^d to br^ed 
Itkn iip to one of th^ learned professioiiai In this, fi^om 

4ejrf9rd| )»ef€r of U^e ^sbviole^o library. 

154 ^ L E L A N D. 

their situation in Hie, they probably had not much cfaoiee^ 
from 'the great expenses necessary to law or physic ; and 
tbis| with their religious, principles^ induced them to de«- 
.eide in favour pf divinity. He was therefore educated for 
the. ministry among the dissenters ; and having first ex« 
hibited his talents to advantage in a congregation of dis-r 
centers in New-row, Dublin, was, in a few n^onths^ in- 
cited to become joint-pastor wi|;h the Rev. Mr. Weld, to 
which office he was ordained in 1716. As he entered upon 
this station from the best and purest motives, he discharged 
the duties of it with the utmost fidelity ; and, by indefa-^ 
tigable application to his studies, he made at the same 
time such improvements in every branch of useful know- 
ledge, that be soon acquired a distinguished reputation in 
the learned world. In 1730 Tindal published his << Chris- 
tianity as old as the Creation,'* and although several excel- 
lent answers appeared to that impious work, Mn L^land 
was of opinion that much refnain^d to be said, in order to 
expose its fallacious reasonings and inconsistencies* Acr 
cordingly he first appeared as an author in 1733, by pub- 
lishing <^ An Answer to a late book entitled ' Christianity 
as old as the Creation, &c.^'* in 2 vols. In 1737 he em^ 
barked in a controversy with another of the same clasa of , 
writers, Dr. Morgan, by publishing " The Divine Autho-^ 
rity of the Old and New Testament asserted s^ainst the 
unjust aspersions and false reasonings of a Book eptitled 
^ The Moral Philosopher.' " . The learning and abilities 
displayed by Mr. Leiand in these publications,, and the. 
service which he rendered by them to the Christian cause^ 
procured him many marks of respect and esteem from per*^ 
sons of the highest rank in the established church, as. well 
as from the most eminent of his disfepting brethren ; and 
from the university of Aberdeen he received, in the most 
honourable manner, the degree of D. D. In 1742 Dr. 
Leiand published an answer to a pamphlet entitled ^* Chris-i 
tianity not founded on Argument;'* and in 1753 he dis- 
tinguished himself still further as an advocate in behalf of 
Christianity, by* publishing ** Reflections on the late Iptd 
Bolingbroke's Letters on the study and use of History ; 
especially so far as they relate to Christianity and th<^ Holy 
Scriptures.'* It i9 said to have been with sQnit*^ reluctance 
that be was persuaded to exert himself upon this occasion ; 
for although, as he himself observes^ no man needs mak^ 
an apology for using his best endeavours in defence of. 

L £ L A N D. ISB 

Cbristianity when it is openly attacked, yet he was appre,^ 
hensive that his engaging again in this cause, after having 
done so on some former occasions, might have an appear- 
ance of too much forwardness. But these apprehension^ 
gave way to the judgment and advice of his friend, the late 
Dr. Thomas Wilson, rector of St Stephen*s, Waibrook; and 
in complying with his recommendation, he performed an 
acceptable service to the Christian world, and added not a 
little to the reputation he had already acquired. 

Dn Leland being now justly considered a master in this 
branch of controversy, at the desire of some valuable friends 
he sent to the press, in 1754, '^ A View of the principal 
Deistical Writers that have appeared in England, in the 
last and present century, with observations upon them, 
&c. In several letters to a friend.*' This friend was Dr. 
Wilson, to whom the letters were sent by the author, in 
the form in which they appear. When the work was ready 
for the press, the copy was so little esteemed that no book- 
seller would give more than 50/. for it; on which Dr. Wil- 
son generously printed a numerous edition at his own 
risque, and the subsequent editions sold with great rapidity 
and profit The design of this work was to give some idea 
of the productions of the deistical writers, and of the seve- 
ral schemes which they have advanced, as far as the cause 
of revealed religion is concerned. He afterwards published 
a supplement relating to the works of Mr. Hume and lord 
Bolingbroke, and this was followed by a third volume, com- 
prehending the author's additions and illustrations, with a 
new edition of ^* Reflections upon lord Bolingbr6ke*s Let- 
ters,** &c. Tlie uriiole of this work is now comprised in 
two volumes; it secured the author general public appro- 
bation, and encouraged him to continue his exertions to a 
very advanced age. Accordingly, when he was upwards 
of seventy years old, he published, in 2 vols. 4to, '* The 
advantage and necessity of the Christian Revelation, shewn 
from the state of religion in the ancient heathen world, 
especially with respect to the knowledge and worship of 
liie one true God ; a rule of moral duty, and a state of 
fiiture rewards and punishments," &c- This work was af- 
terwards reprinted in two volumes, 3vo. Dr. Lelatid died- 
in bis seventy -fifth year, on the l^th of January 1766'; he 
was distinguished by considerable. abilities, and very exten- 
sive learning; he had a memory so tenacious^ that he was 
often called <' the walking library.** After his d ea th a collec- 

156 L E L A N D. 



tion of bis sermons wim pdblisrbe<i in four volumes oetsivo^ 
with a. preface cootaining some account of tb4^ life, ebtfrtfd-^ 
ter, and writings of the aathory by the Rev. Dr. Isaac 
Weld, who preacbkl bis funeral frermon at the meeting iff 
Eustace-streetf Dublin, of which Dr. Leiand had for man]^ 
years been the^ pattot; The extensire circulation of iofidel 
writings about twenty years ago^ induced the Rev. Dr. 
W. L. Brown, principal of Marithal college, Aberd^enf, to 
superintend a new edition of the *^ View of the Deis^ical 
writer^/' 1798^ 2 rols. 8vo, to which he added an excel- 
lent ** View of the Present Times, with regard to religion 
and morals, and other inaportstnt subjects.*^' 

LELAND (Thomas), a learned ditine and translatof^ 
the sqn of a citizen of Dub Ho, was bom in that city in 1722, 
iTbe first rudiments of classical education he received at 
the school kept by the celebrated Dr. I^eridan, whose ta« 
lents and success in forming excellent sthoiart, were thenf 
well f(nown« In 17:57 he entered a pensioner in Trinity 
college; and in 1741 was elected a scholar; commCDced 
bachelor of arts in 174*2, and was a candidate for a fellow- 
ship in 1 745, in which he failed at this time, bot succeeded 
the following year by the unanimous voice of the electors. 
On being tbi^s placed in a state of independence, he did 
not resign himself to ease aiid indolence, but was conspif- 
euous for the same ardent We of knowledge which apU 
peared in the comme^ement of his studies, and was pre- 
dominant throughout bis whole life. In 174S he entered 
into hply orders, and from 'a deep sense of the importance 
of Us profession, drew up a dtsconrse '^ On the hh^ps.and 
impediniQnts to the acqcHaition of knowledge iu religians 
and moral subjects,'' which was mucbadBiired at that time, 
butino Qopy is nctwto be foMd. In 1754, in conjunction 
with Dr^ iohfi Stokes^ he published, at the desire of the' 
uniyersitjFf an edition of the ** Orations of Demosthenes,'^ 
with a Latin version and notesy which we do not find men- 
tioned by any of ovr dassica) bibiiogiraphers^ excejpic Har- 
wood, who say» it is im a vols. ISoio; Iw 1756 Dry Lel^nd 
published the first vohtne of his English '* Translation of 
Demostbenes/' 4to, with' notes criticid a^d hiistorical ; the 
second volusae of which sq^peared in i761, and the third in 
1770. This rsAsad his repnfefttion i«ry high as a ciassittaA 

1 tCeTd't preTace, ms above, snd funeral sermoD.-^Life,i 19 Biitish Biognu 

ftfSfftiyi vdKjt. 

L E L A M D. 157 

* • 

bcbolar and critic, and public expectation was farther gra« 
tified in 1758 by his <f History of the Life and lUign of 
PfaUip king of Macedon, the fother of Alexander/* 2 vol§. 
4to. His attention to the orations of Demosthenes and 
^Eschines, and to Grecian politics, eminently qualified 
him for treating the life of Philip with copiousness and ac« 
curacy. After this he proceeded with translations of JEn* 
chines, and the other orations of Demosthenes. In 1762, 
he is supposed to have written, although he never formallj 
avowed it, the ingenious historical romance of *iLong«* 
sword, earl of Salisbury/* 

In 1763, he was appointed by the board of senior fellows 
of Trinity college, professor of oratory. His course of ^ 
study, and the labour he had bestowed on his translations^ 
bad furnished him with a perspicuous and energetic style> 
which he displayed both in the profes8or*s chair and in the 
pulpit, being the most admired preacher of bis time in 
Dublin ; nor was he less esteemed for bis talents as a con- 
troversial writer, of which . he now afforded a specimen. 
Bishop Warburton having noticed in his ** Doctrine of 
Grace,*' the argumtnt used by infidel writers against the 
divine inspiration of the New Testament, from its want of 
purity, elegance, &c. opposed this opinion by some of hie 
own which appeared equally untenable; namely,' 1. That 
the evangelists and apostles, writing in a language, the 
knowledge of which had been miraculously inftised, coutd 
he masters of the words only, and not of the idioms ; and 
therefore must write barbarously. 2. That eloquence was 
not any real quality; but something merely fantastical 
' and arbitrary, an accidental abuse of human speech. S. 
That it had no end but to deceive by the appearance of 
vehement inward persuasion, and to pervert the judgment 
by inflaming the passions ; and that being a deviation from 
the principles of logic and metaphysics, it was frequently^ 
vicious. Dr. Lelaod quickly perceived the danger of thesei 
positions, and in 1764 published *' A Dissertation on the 
priocipl«i of human Eloquence ; vrith particular regard to 
the s^ie and composition of the New Testament ; in which 
the observations on this subject by the lord bishop of Glo«« 
cester, in hit discourse on the Doctrine of Grace, are dis* 
tiactly considered ; being the substance of several lectures 
read in the oratory school of Trinity college, DuUin,'* 4to. 
la thia be refuted Warburton's positions in a candid and 
liberal aMUMier, but was attempted tQ be answered by Dn 

15» L ELAN D. 

Hurd (without bis name), in a manner grossly illiberal 
and unmanly^ from wbicb Dr. Hurd could derive no bthef 
advantage than that of flattering Warburton ; and (tdui 
the manner in which he notices his controversial tracts 
(See HuRDy vol. XVIII. p. 342) in the latter part of his 
life, it would appear that be was himself of this opinion* 
Bn Leiand published a reply to Dr.. Hurd, in which, by 
jBtill preserving the dignity of the literary character, be 
gained, in manners as well as argument, a complete vic«* 
tory over his antagonist. 

In 1765, through the suggestion of Dr. Leiand, the uni- 
versity of Dublin bestowed on Dr. Johnson their highest 
honour, by creating him doctor of laws, a favour which he* 
ficknowledged in a letter to Dr. Leiand, which may be 
seen in the last edition of BoswelFs Life. In 1768, Dr. 
Leiand was appointed chaplain to lord Townsend^ lord lieu*- 
tenant of Ireland ; and his friends entertained hopes that 
his merits would have raised him to the episcopal bench ; 
but he obtained only in that year the prebend of Rath"- 
michael, in the cathedral church of St. Patrick^ Dublin, 
united with the vicarage of Bray, both of small value, but 
tenable with his fellowship. In 1773, appeared his ^^ His* 
tory of Ireland, from the invasion of Henry II. with a pre* 
liminary ^discourse, on the ancient state of that kingdom,'^ 
3 vols. 4to. The merit of this work has been disputed by 
critics. , It may be pronounced, however, an el^ant sketch 
of Insjx history, and calculated for common use ; but he 
appears to have taken no pains to consult original materials^ 
and therefore has brought very little accession to our know* 
ledge.of Irish affairs. . , 

Dr. Leland's other publications in his life- time were 
only a few occasional sermons, of greater merit as to man* 
ner and matter than the three volumes of sermons printed 
after bis death, which have the disadvantage of not being 
prepared for the press. 'He died in 1785. His fame rests 
on his '^ Life of Philip," his "Demosthepes,'' and his ^'Dis* 
aertation upon Eloquence.*' The ^^ Life of Philip," says 
an eminent living scholar, '< contains many curious re* 
searches into the principles of government established 
among the leading states of Greece; many sagacious re-- 
marks on their intestine discords ; many exact descriptions 
of ^heir most celebrated charaoters; together with an ex* 
tensive and correct view of those subtle intrigues, and those 
ambitious projects, by which Philip, at a favourable crisis^. 

L E L A N D. 159 

• t • T 

gradually obtained an unexampled and fatal mastery over 
the Grecian republics. In the translation of ** Demo^* 
thenes/* Leiand unites the man of taste and the man of 
learning ; and shews himself to have possessed, not only 
a competent knowledge of the Greek language, but that 
clearness in bis own conceptions, and that animation in 
hb feelings, which enabled him to catch the real meaning, 
imd to preserve the genuine spirit of the most perfect 
orator that Athens ever produced. Through the ** Disser- 
tation upon Eloquence,^' and the *^ Defence" of it, we see 
great accuracy of erudition ; great perspicuity and strength 
of style; and above all, a stoutness of judgment, which, 
in traversing tbe^open and spacious walks of literature, dis- 
dained to be led captive." ' 


LELY (Sir Peter), a most capital painter of the reign 
of Charles IL was bom at Soest, in Westphalia, in 1617. 
His family name waa Vander Vaas ; but from the circum- 
stance bf his father, who was a captain of foot, being born 
in a perfumer's shop, whose sign was a lily, and receiving 
the appeliatk)h of captain Du Lys, or Leiy, our artist ob- 
tained it as a proper name. He was first instructed in the 
art by Peter Grebber, at Haerlem ; and having acquired a 
very considerable degree of skill in execution, he came 
to England in 1641, and commenced portrait-painter. 
After the restoration he was appointed state-painter to 
Charles II. and continued to hold that office with great re- 
putation till his death, which happened in 1680. He was 
seized by an apoplexy while painting a portrait of the 
duchess of Somerset, and died instantly, at the age of 
•ixty- three. 

Though Leiy's talents, as an artist, do tiot entitle him 
to bold a rank equal to that filled by his great predecessor, 
Vandyke, yet they justly claim very great respect and ad- 
miration. He fell short of Vandyke in two very essential 
parts of portraiture, viz. taste and expression. It is ia 
parts only that he wrought with taste : in the ringlets of the 
hair, for instance ; seldom in the actions of his figures, 
and scarcely ever in the tout- ensemble of his pictures. As 
to the expression of his portraits, it is almost entirely 

1 Lif« prefixed to his « Sermons."— Enrop. Ma^^. for August J799,r— Nichols't 
Bow jer.— Warburton's Letters to Hurd. — BosweU's Life of J^hnsoo* 

160 L E L y. 

d^crib^d, 9,t leas^ in those of his fipinales, by what tb(? poet 
h^ said, th^t he 

ie , OQ animated canvas stde 

The sleepjr eye that sppke the n^elting soul," 

The consequence vis, that individual expression, the vety 
(essence of poruait^painting, is lost sight of ; and a certain 
air of general resemblance is seen in them ail. Yet Leiy'a 
pictures, by the mastery of his execution, and hjs skill q£ 
imitation, where he pleased to employ it, will ever com- 
•jnand admiration. He possessed the art of flattery more 
than most aitists ; and no doubt by that secured the appn>- 
liation of his contemporaries, and consequently great prac- 
tice. He acquired a very considerable fortune, of which 
he employed a large portion to furnish himself with a col« 
lection of pictures and drawings. These, at kis death, 
were sold by auction, and were sp numerous, that forty 
days were consumedin the sale ; and the product amounted 
to 26,000/. ; besides which, he left an estate he had pur- 
chased, of 900/. per annum. Among )m niore celebrated 
pictures in this country, are the series of beauties at Wind- 
sor ; a remarkable picture of Charles L and heads of the 
duke of York, and lady Elizabeth, at Sion-bouse ; ^veial 
portraits in the gallery at Altliorp ; the duke of Devon*- 
shire's, lord Pcmifiret's, &c. ^ 

LEMERY (Nicolas), a celebrated chemist, was born 
Nor. 17, 1645, at Rouen in Normandy, of which pariia« 
ment his father was a proctor, and of the reformed reli- 
gion. Having received a suitable edpcajtion at the place of 
his birth, he was pi|t apprentice to an apothecary, who was 
a relation ; but, finding in a short ^me that his master 
knew little of chemistry, he left him in 1666, and went to 
improve himself in that art at P9m, where he applied to 
jMr. Giazer, then demonstrator of chemistry in the royoi 
gardens ; but as Mr. Giazer was one pf those professors 
who ^are full of obscure ideas, and was also fiar from being 
communicative, Lemery stayed with him only two months,, 
and thea proceeded to travel through France in quest of some 
better masters. In this resolution he wen>t to Montpeiier,. 
where he continued three years with Mr. Vernaut, an apothe- 
cary, whogavehinsi an oppartunijty of performing several che^ 
mical operations, and of reading lectures also to some of 
his scholars. By these means he made such advances iv^ 

* Walpole'f Anecdotei.— Dechamps and D'Argenville. — Piikington. 

L E M E R Y. l^i 

ifiiemistfy, that in a Iittl« time he drew alf (he ptott^soti 
of physic^ as well as other curious persons at Monfpeliet^ 
to bear him ; having alwtiyd some new discoveries, whrch 
raised bis reputation so high, that he practised physic iii 
(hat nmversity without a doctor's degree. 
' . In 1672, baring made the tour of France, be returki^d 
to Paris, where be commenced an acquaintance with Mf. 
Martyn, aipothecary to monsieur the prince ; and mak- 
ing use of the laboratory which this apothecary had in the 
hotel de Cond^, he performed several courses of chemistry^ 
Wiiich brought him into the knowledge and esteem of the 
prince. At length he provided himself with a laboratory 
of bid own, and might have been <nade a doctor of ph'ysic^ 
but hi^ attachment to chemistry induced him to rietd^ain an 
apothecary, and his lectures were frequented by scr great 
a number of scholars, that he bad scarce room t6 penbrrii 
his' operations. Chemistry was then coming iritd great 
irogue in that metropolis ; and Lemery contributed greatly 
10 its advancement, by treating it in a simple aiid perspi- 
cuous mi^nner, divesting it of the jargon of mysticism i^ 
which it bad been hitherto obscured, and, by the dexterity 
tt his experiments, exhibiting the facts which it discloses 
to the comprehension of every understanding. !By these 
means be established such a character for superior che- 
mical skill, as enabled him to make a fortune by the sale of 
his preparations, which were in great request both in Paris 
und the provinces. One article in particular was the source 
of great profit, namely,, the oxyd,or, as it was then called, 
(he magistery of bismuth, and known as a cosmetic by the 
name of Spanish white, which no other persoq in Paris 
knew how to prepare. In 1675 he published his <^ Cours 
de Chymie,*'' which was received with general approbation 
imd applause, and passed through numerous editions : in- 
deed seldom has a work on a subject of science been so po- 
pular. It sold, says Pont^nelle, like a novel or a satire; new 
editions followed year after year ; and it was translated into 
l.atin, and into various modern languages. Its chief value 
Consisted in the clearness and accuracy with which the pro- 
cesses and operations were detailed : the science was not 
yet sufficiently advanced for a rational theory of them. 
Indexed he seems to have worked rather with the view of 
directing apothecaries how to multiply their preparations, 
than' aS a pbilqsophical chemist ; and his materials are not 
arranged in the most favourable manner for the instruction 
Vol. XX. M 

162 L E M E R Y. 

of beginners in the science. Nor did he divulge tbe wfaok^ 
of bis pharmaceutical knowledge in this treatise ; be kep^ 
the preparation of several of bis chemical remedies -secrety 
in order to obtain tbe greater profit by their sale* 

In 1681 bis tranquillity began to be disturbed on account 
of bis religion ; and he received orders to quit his employ. 
At this time the elector of Brandenburgh, by Mr. Span** 
heim, bis envoy in France, made him a proposal to go to 
Berlin, with a promise of founding a professorship in .cher 
mistry' for him there; but tbe trouble of transporting his. 
family to such a distance, added to the hopes of some ex- 
ception that would be obtained in his favour, hindered bim 
from accepting that offer, and he was indulged to read 
some courses after the time limited ,by the order was ex« 
pired ; but at length, this not being suffered, he came to 
England m 1683, where Charles II. gave him great encou- 
jagement. Yet, as .the face of the public affairs here ap-* ' 
peared not more promising of quiet than in France, be re- 
solved, to return thither, though without being ^ble to 
determine what course he should then take. 

In this dilemma, imagining that tbe title of doctor of . 
physic might procure bim some tranquillity, be took that 
degree at Caen about the end of tbe year; and, repair- 
ing to Paris, had a great deal of business for a while, 
Wt the edict of Nantz being revoked in 1685, he was for- 
bid to practise his profession, as well as other protest^nts^. 
He read, however, two courses of chemistry afterwards, . 
under some powerful protections; and having no longer 
.courage to support his religious principles, entered into 
the Romish church, in the beginning of 1686. This change . 
procured him a full right to practise phy^c, and haying 
obtained xhe kind's letters for holding his course of che- 
tnisiry, and for the sale of his medicines, although not uo«f : 
an pipbtUecary, what with his pupils, his patients, and tbe v 
sale j6f his pbemical secrets, he made considerable gaios^ 

UpoQ the revival of the, royal academy of sciences, in- 
1699,1)0 was made associate chemist, and at the end of 
the y£8r became a pensionary. In 1707 be began to feel :. 
the infirmities of age,, and had a slight attack of apoplexy, : 
which not being so severe as to hinder bim from going . 
abroad, be attended tbe academy for a considerable time, 
bttt.utjie.ngth being confined to bis house, he resigned his 
pensionary'^ place. Another stroke of apoplexy in 1715, 
after seven days, put a period to his life June 19^ >t the 

age of seventy* Hh priocipal works are, 1. The '* Couds 
de Chymie^' before meotioned. 2. f^ An universal Pbar->. 
maeopceia.'' 3. << Diet. Uoirersel des Drogues sifuples,'* 
a very useful work. 4. " A Treatise of Antituony ; con- 
taiuing the chemical analysis of that n)ineral/' which inn 
voiced him in a controversy with an anonymous critic, ia 
which he was not very successful. ^ 

LEMERY (Louis), son of the preceding, w^a bom- at 
Paris in January 1677, and was intended for the profession 
of the* law; but^ he had imbibed from the pifirsuits of his 
father so great a taste fon those sciences, that he entered 
the faculty of medicine of his native city, and received the 
d^ree of doctor in 1698. Two years afterwards he wa9 
admitted into the academy of sciences, and in 1708 he 
delivered lectures on chemistry in the royal garden. In 
171.0 be was appointed physician to the Hotel-Dieu, a post 
which he occupied during the remainder of his life. In 
J17 12 be obtained the rank of associate in the academy, and 
succeeded his father as pensionary in 1715. He purchased 
the oj£ce of king's physician in 1722 ; and in that capacity 
he accompanied the infanta of Spain on her return from 
France, whither she had gone with the view of being mar- 
ried to Xouis XV. Soon after his return to Paris he was 
honoured by the queen of Spain with the title of her con- 
sulting physician. In 1731 he was appointed professor of 
chemistry in the royal garden, in the place of Gboffroy. 
At'a subsequent period he became particularly attached to 
the establishment of the duchess of Brunswick, whom he 
frequently visited in the palace of Luxembourg ; and he 
Jikewise obtained the patronage of the princess of Contt, 
in whose hotel he regularly passed a part of every day, and 
there composed several of the chemical papers which he 
read before the academy of sciences. These papers treat ' 
of the subjects of iron, of nitre, and some other salts, of 
vegetable and animal analyses, of the origin and formatioa 
of monsters, &c. He died on June 9, 1743, and the loss 
of him was much regretted ; for to the mild and polished 
manners of the gentleman, he united great sincerity and 
constancy in his attachments, and sentiments of liberality 
jand generosity in all bis proceedings. 

In addition to the papers published in the Memoirs of 
the academy^ he left the following works : I. '* Trait6 des 

^ ^kms, Tols, JhT. and X.— Morcri..— llMi't Cycloptiduu 

M 2 

ie4 LtU fe Ry. " 

*HtMns,*» Pafisj iVC^^ #Hkh wis frequency i*|>ife£ed, 
and greatly augmented by Bfuhierj Jnf theeditibti of lr755, 
2 tols; l^mo. 2. " DMseftatibn sur te Noutritiirt dCi Os,** ' 
Parity ' 1704, 12tno: He Kkev^ise publtshed thre^ letters 
Cti the generatidn of trorms in^ the buthiltv body, in oppo- 
sition to this trtfatr^ of Anrdrj) \tith iVtiom a nharp contro- 
versy was carried on upon this topic. * 



LEM'OS (Thomas dk), a cetebrated Spanish Dominican/ 
^sis born abont 155€^, of &n illuilHou^ fnnily at Rivadavia, 
in Gallicia. He defended s6 forcibly the doctrine of thd 
Thorn ists, on grace, in opposition to the opit^torts of Mb- 
lina, that he was sent with Alvarez, by the general chap- 
ter of his order, held at Naples, 1600, to support this doc- 
trine against the Jesuits at Rome, and excited the famous' 
disputes held in the congregations de AuxiKit, assembled 
in that city under pope Clement VIII. and Paul V. iti 
<^hich he had the principal part. This made him so cete- 
brated, that the king of Spain offered him a bishopric ; but 
he refnsed it^ being contented With a p<inidbn^ and dl^ ai 
Rottie, August 23, 162&, aged eighty-four, in the conf ebt 
de la Minervfe. He tost his sight three yeart before. 
' Many of his writings on the subject 6f gi-ace rettiairt, com- 
posed' during th6 congregation de Auxiiiis j artJ li very 
minute journal of What passed there, printed at Rh^ms, 
tinder the nate6 of Louvaiu, 1702, fol. He also coibpited 
a large work, (etititlted ," Panofpfia Gratias,** ^ vols, fbl, 
printed at Beziers-, tmder the naitie of Lerge, lelQ.'* 

LENT ANT (James), a learned Ertnch writfer Itf tfttt 
^iglitteehth century, was bohl at Ba«dch6?, iti Beausse, 
April 1 ?, 1 6 6 1 ; He was son of Piul Litifarjt, totri?ster at 
ChatiHoti^ who died at MaAotfrg, ifi Jime 1686. He Sttidted 
divrrt?tjr at Satinrtir, wh^« he Ibdged at thetiouse Of 'Jibed 
Cappel, profe^or of Hebrew, by ^hottt he was alwayi 
highly esteemed ; and afterwards went to ©feneva, to con- 
tinue hife studies there. Leading Genevk toward^ the fend 
of 1683, be went to Heidelberg, where he Wte drdafned 
in Atign^t, 1684. He discharged the duties of his fhnetioil 
there witU great. i;eptitation as eliapl^m of tb'i^ ^tecttes^ 
dow^^ of Palatine, and {iaStor in* otdlnai^y te the IfreAch 
chnrdi. The-deiScent of the EIrettch itltd th^ Pklatfnate, 

• JStore^l-^i^eiH CycTo|>tedla. « Morer}.— Diet fiist. 

L E N F A N T. «f 

boi^reTiec^ obliged bim io dep^( fjxupi Heiilelbei;g in 168$. 
Two letters wbicb be bad written f gainst ^ha ^^^uits, anfl 
wbich are in3erted at tbe (end of ^is " Presfirvi^uf," ren- 
det^ed 1% soinewbat hazardous to copiinue .at i^^ mercjr of 
a sQ(;i{ety whQse pQwer w^ then io its p^pitfide* ^e Jl^ft 
the Palatinate, therefore, in Octpbpr 1.683* with the conr 
tent f){ his church and superior^, and arrived. at Berliri ip. 
Kovember following. Tbongb the Fc^ch cbiirch of Ber?- 
lin bad alre^y a sufficient nuniber of minist^r% the ^lectof 
Frederic, afterivards king of Prussia, appointed IVIr. I^enr 
jfai^t 9ue of tbei% w1;i,q began bis functions on Easter-d^ay, 
March the ^]l«ty lj689, and continued t^m t^irtjr-fiinp , 
yf^^xs and j(6ur ^Qnt|)«y and during thi^ time j^dded greatly 
to bis^ reputation by \f}f writings. His merit wa# so fvlly 
ackqoY^dedgf^d, as to be rewarded with eve^y mark of d^* 
tu^ction suitable to hi^ profession. He w^ prefchiepr.tQ t^e 
qt^een of ,Prns^^. CharlpjbtaT Sophia, who wu» eminent for 
Aex^ senjse a^d exten^nre knowledge, and after her death he 
became chaplain to the king of Prussia. lie w^s cou^- 
l^ellor.of the siuperior copsistory, and member of th^ French 
cQjancil, ^hiph w^i;e form^ to direct the general fi,ffairs of 
that nation. Iq 1710 he yviis c^osep a member of the so<- 
piety for propagating ^e gospel established in England j 
^\kd A{arch the Sd, 1724» was elept^d member of the ^^^' 
de^y of sciences at B/^rlin. in 1707 he took a journey to 
Qolland and Enghmd, where he bad the h^nonr to preach 
before queen Anne ; and if he bad thougJit proper to leave 
)}i,s chnrcb at Berlin, for which he bad a great respect, he 
^migbt haye had a settlemeijLt at JUmdon, ^witih the rank of 
(ch^lainto her majesty. In 1712, he went to Helmstad; 
10 1715 to Leipsic; and ^ 172^$^ tp 3re$Ja,w, to searcii 
foff rare books an,d mj^ru^s^ipts i)€;cf»i^i»aqr ^ot the biscocie^ 
vfhif^ be w^ writing.. Jp tpp^ pjicnrh^f^^ he was ho- 
j^r^d. iji^jith several Valiffjbk materials frpni the elec tress 
pj^.Br,u9^wic-Ljjin^ufj|^ pr^icess Pala^ne; the prinee^ 
pf >Valp^, aftertfardr Cf^o|ine qneeii of ^reat J^riit^in-; 
the coi^nt ie Fleming; 4dw^ Pagn^s^au, obaoQellorof 
|';t^^c/9 i ffjfA a gref^t, nnqaber of Iw^nH men, boih FOr 
t/^i)^ iaitd p^p^„aipQng4J}e l^ter of wbpm tyas the Abb^ 

^%W-r u^^ i?4io); pf;c^i^. i^^et^er b§ ftcat.fqrmed ihe 4er 
j^^ '^ ,tbe " BvbJiio^^que ,f^eri|ianinsLefeV wi^eh ^ begpn 
^p.l^^O ; qr. whetl>er jf. w^» fuggfasfted ^o him hy one of *he 
abci^^y of learn^ed nien, which to^k th^ ,name, of Anopyr 
mpus ; but tiiey ordvaarily inet at hi^ 'hou^e, find tiei wa^ 9^ 


L E N F A N 1*. 

freqaent-cbtitribiitor to that journal. When the king of 
■"Poland was at Beilin, in the end of May and beginning 6f 
Jutie 1728; 'Mr. Lenfant, we are told, dreatnt that he was 
ordered to preach. He excused himself that he was not 
prepared ; and not knowing what subject he should pitch 
tip6n, was directed to preach upon these words, Isaiah 
xxxviii 1. " Set thine house in order, for thou shalt die, 
and not live." He related this dream to some of his 
fViends, and although not a credulous man, it is thought 
to have made some impression 'on' him, for he applied with 
additional vigour to finish h\i *^ History of the War of the 
Hdishes and 'the Council of Basil.^' On Sunday July the 
25th following, he had preached in his turn at hiis church ; 
biSit on Thursday, July the 29'th, he had a slight attadk 
of the palsy, which was followed by one more violent, of 
which be died on the 7th of the next month, in. his sixty- 
eigfith year. He was interred at Berlin, at the foot of the pul- 
pit of the French church, where he ordinarily preached since 
1715, 'When his Prussian majesty appointed particular mi- 
Disters to every church,* which before were served by the 
same ministers in their turnd. His stature was a little be- 
low the common height. His eye wks very lively and pe- 
netrating. He did not talk much, but always well. When- 
lever any dispute arose in conversation^ he spoke Without 
any heat; a proper and delicate irony was the only weapon 
be made use of on such occasions. * He loved company, 
and passed but few days without seeing some of his frienck. 
He was a sincere friend, and remarkable for a disinterested 
and generous disposition. In preaching, his voice was 
good ; his pronunciation distinct and varied ; his style 
clear, grave, atid elegant without affectation ; and he en- 
tered into the true sense of a text with great force. His 
-publications were numerous in divinity, ecclesiastical his- 
tory, ctiticism, and polite literature. Those which itfe 
held inf the highest estimation, are his Histories of the 
Councils of Pisa, Constance, and Basils each in 2" vols. 
4to. These ai^e written with great ability and impartiality, 
and they abound with interesting facts and curious re- 
searches. Lenfant, in Conjunction virith M. Beausclbre, 
published ** The New Testament', translated from the ori- 
ginal Greek into Fl^nchi^* in 2 vols. 4to, with notes, and 
a general preface, or introduction to the reading of the 
Holy Scriptures,. useful for students in divinity. 'He Ms 
known also by his " De iuquirenda Veritate/* which is a 

L E N F A N T. 167 

Craiislation of Malebrancbe's " Search after Truth ;" 
** ThiB History of Pope Joan ;" " Poggiana ; or, the life, 
character/ opinions, &€. of Poggio the Florentine, with 
the History of the Republic of Florence,'* and the above-' 
fiieniioned " History of the Wars of the Hussites," Utrecht, 
J 731, 2 vols, in 4to, dedicated by his widow to the prince 
Toyal of Prussia. This was the last work in which our 
author was engaged. He had revised the copy of the first 
volume, and was reading over that of the second, when he 
was seized with the apoplexy.. But for this it appears to' 
have been his intention to continue his History to about 
1^60.. To this History is added monsieur Beausobre^s 
** Dissertation upon the Adamites of Bohemia."" ' 

LENG (John), a learned English prelate, was born at 
Norwich in 1665, and educated at St. Paul's school, Lon- 
don, whence be removed to Catherine-hall, Cambridge; 
and took his degrees of A. B. in 1686, A.M. 1690, and 
B. D. 1698.' He was, in 1708, presented to the rectory of 
Beddington in Surrey, by sir Nicholas Carew, bart. who 
-bad been his pupil ; and he was appointed chaplain to king 
George I. who also promoted him to the see of Norwich 
in 1723. He died Oct. 26, 1727, of the small-pox, which 
be caught at the coronation of George II. He lies buriefl 
in the church of St. Margaret, Westminster, where is a 
monument to bis memory. Richardson, in his continuation 
of Godwin, calls him a man of the first-rate genius and 
abilities. In 1695, he published two of the comedies of 
Aristophanes, the " Plutus'* and " Nubes," Gr. & Lat. 
.8vo, with notes; and in 1719 preached the sermbns at 
Boyle^s lecture, which are printed, as are a set of his ser* 
inoRs preached at Tunbridge, and a few others upon occa- 
liional subjects. He was editor also of one of the most 
magnificent and correct editions of '^Terence," that printed 
at Cambridge in 1701, 4to. For this he consulted thirteen 
manuscripts, and many ancient editions, and enriched the 

, work with critical notes, and a dissertation '^ De ration'e 
«t licentia metri Terentiani." It was reprinted at Cam- 
bridge, in octavo, 1701 and 1723, Which last Dr. Harwood 
thinks the best editon. Dr. Leng coinrect^d and revisecl 
the sixth edition of sir Roger L'Estrange^s traiislation of 

; Cicero de Officiis, an employment which we are surprized 
he should have undertaken, who could with more ease and 

. elegance have given a new one.* 

' ^ Bibl. Gemuuuque, vol. XVL «od XXI.-^Niceron, vols. IX. and X««-*GeQ* 
Diet* I Nichols^! Bowyer.^Lysuns's £iirirons. 

170 L E N G L E TV 

having dined with his sister, be fell asleep, while reading a 
new book which had been sent him, and fell into the fire. 
The neighbours went to his assistance, but too Itite, his head 
being almost entirely burnt. He had attained the * age of 
eighty-two. The abb€ Lenglet^s works are numerous ; their 
subjects extremely various, and many of them very extrava-* 
gant. Those which are most likely to live are his, •' M^-?- 
thode pour 6tudier THistoire, avec un Catalogue des prin-» 
cipaux Historiens,** 12 vols. ; " M^thode pour 6tudier la 
G^ographie," . with maps ; **^ Histoire de la Philosophic 
Hermetique," and " Tablettes Chronologiques de THis* 
toire Universelle,*' 1744, two vols. An enlarged edition 
of this work was published in 1777. His " Chronological 
Tables" were published in English, in Svo. It is a work of 
great accuracy, and of some whim, for he lays down ^ 
calculation according to which a reader may go uirough an 
entire coarse of universal history, sacred and profane^ in 
the space of ten years and six months at the rate of six 
hours per day, * 

LENNARD (Sampson), an English writer, was related 
to Sampsoii Lennard, who married Margaret baronet 
Dacre, and of whom honourable mention is made in Cam- 
den\s Britannia. In early Ufe he followed the profession of 
arms, and was attached to sir Philip Sidney, with whom 
he fought at the battle of Zutphen. He was afterwards 
distinguished as a man of letters, and published various 
translations from, the Latin and French, particularly Pe^ 
rin's " History of the Waldenses;'* Du Plessis Momay^s 
" History of Papacie ;'* and Cbarron ** On Wisdom."- Uf 
was of some note as a topographer, and of considerable 
eminence as a herald, having been, in the latter part df 
his life, a member of the college of arms. Some of his 
heraldical compilations, which are justly esteemed, (see 
** Catalogue of the Harleian MSS.") are among the manc»- 
scripts in the British Museum. He died in August 1689, 
and was buried at St. Bennetts, Paul's Wharf. Mr! Gran- 
ger received this brief memoir of Lennard, from Thomas 
the late lord Dacre.* 

LENNOX (Charlotte), a lady long distinguished for 
her genius and literary merit, and highly respected by 
Johnson and Richardson, was born in 17^0. Her father, 
colonel James Ramsay, was a field-officer, and lieutenant* 

. ^ Moreri.— Diet. Hiat.-^NicerQi), toU XVII* ia art. Dofresnojs 
• Granger,— Noble's College of Ar'ins, 



governor of New- York, who sent her over, at the age of 
fifteen, to England, to an opulent aunt, but whom, on her 
arrtvai, she found incurably insane. The father died soon 
after, leaving his widow (who died at New York in Aug', 
1765), and thij daughter, without any provision. Who 
Mr. Lennox was, or when she married, we have not been 
able to learn, and, indeed, very little is known of her 
early history t>y her few surviving friends, who became ac- 
quainted with her only in her latter days. We are told, 
riiat fi*om the death of her father she supported herself 
by her literary talents, which she always employed use* 
fully. * 

She published, in 1751, "The Memoirs of Harriot 
fittiart,'' andj in 1752, <* The Female Quixote.** In the 
latter of these novels, the character of Arabella is the 
counter-part of Don Quixote; and the work was veiy 
favourably received. Dr. Johnson wrote the dedication to 
the earl of Middlesex. In the following year she published 
" Shakespeare illustrated," in 2 vols. 12rao, to which she 
afterwards added a third. This work consists of the novels 
and histories on which the plays of Shakspeare are founded^ 
collected and translated ft'om the original authors : to which 
are added critical notes, censuring the liberties which 
Shakspeare has generally taken with the stories on which 
his plays are founded. In 1756, Mrs. Lennox published, 
^' The. Memoirs of the Couiitess of Berci, taken from the 
French," 2 vols. 12mo; and, ** Sully's Memoirs/' trans- 
llited, 3 vols. 4to ; which have since been frequently re- 
printed in 8vo, and are executed with no small ability* 
In 1757, she translated ^^ The Memoirs of Madame Main- 
tenon." In 1758, she produced ** Philander, a Dramatic 
Pastoral," and ^* Henrietta," a novel of considerable merit, 
2 vols. 12mo; and, in 1760, with the assistance of the 
earl of Cork and Orrery, and Dr. Johnson, she publish- 
ed a translation of " Father Brumoy*s Greek Theatre,*' 3 
vols. 4to ; the merit of which varies materially in different 
fmrts Y>f the work. In 1760-1, she published a kind of 
Magazine, under the name of the ** Ladies Museum/* 
which' extended to two volumes, octavo, and seems to have 
been rather an undertaking of necessity than choice. Two 
years after, she published *^ Sophia, a Novel," 2 vols. 
]2mo, which is inferior to her. earlier performances; and, 
after an interval of seven years, she brought out, at Co^ 
vent-garden theatre, "The Sisters, a Comedy," taken 

17^ L E N N O 3f . 

from her navjel of Henrietta, which w^s concLemned on th^ 
fir»t night of its appearance. In 1773, she furnished Druryi- 
jlane theatre with a cooiecly, entitled, ^^ Old City Maix* 
i^eri.'' Her last perfornaance, not inferior to any of bp[r 
former in that species of composition, was ^* Eophemia, a 
Kovel, 17yo," 4 vols. 12mo. lo 1775, we find Dr. John- 
^n assisting her in drawing up proposals for an edition gf 
her work9> in 3 voU. 4to ; but it doefs Aoi appear to hav^ 
b«en published. Dr. Johnson had such an opinion of Mr^ 
^iinox that, on one occasion, not Ipng before hb death, 
})^ went so far as to pronounce her superior to Mrs. Car^ 
ter, miss Hannah Moore, and miss Burney. Sir Jobi^ 
Hawkins has given a ludicrous a^Goni^t of the 4octorU ce- 
lebration of the bi^th of Mrs. Lennox's lir^ lite|rary chiM^ 
** The Life of Harriot Stjuart.'' This, however, was cer* 
iaij^y not her first pcoductipn^ for in 174,7, she published 
*^ Poems on several occasions/* printed for S^un. PatersoiK 
(She was then Miss liarosay. 

It is to be regretted, that the latter days of this ingeoiowr 
lady were clouded by penury and sickness; calamities whie)^ 
were in a considerable degree alleviated by the kindness of 
^me friends, who revered alike her literary and her mora) 
fcbarajct^r. Among thesfs it would be unjust not to mentioQ 
^fae naootes of the rifht bon. Cneorge Rose, and ttie rev. W. 
Beloe. 3ut the most effectual aid s«he received was frogs 
The Literary Fund society, in consequence of which her 
pnly «on was, a few years since, enabled to fit himself ou^ 
for an employm.ent in the Anglo* Anjteriean States ; and from 
the same source the means of decient subsistence were, for 
the kist twelvenionth of her life^ afforded to the mother, i^h^ 
died Jan. 4, 1804.^ 

LEO L (St.) ^urnfu;n(&d THE GREAT, axloctor of the churcfai, 
and ode of the niosjt en^inent popes who have filled the Ro- 
laan^see, was born iin Tuscany, or rather at Roi^e. flemad^ 
Ibimself very useful ;,o the cbuurch under pope St. Cel^s^it^i^ 
and Sixtus IIL and was concerned iu all importaiit .affipirii 
fvhiie kmi a cleacpn. The Roman pl^rgy recalled hi^ froi^ 
Gaul, wbiiherfae was gocve ILo reconcile Al^biiiu^ and jEetiujs^* 
gf^raU of the army, and raised hi^ to the papal ^:^r SepiU 
jl>440. He^i>^eaii>e4^tbe Mj^nichQanai ip^iCQuncll h^d ji^ 
S^oqae in tbe j^ar 444, ^^4 *c<^£^lete}y e^tirp^at^d the rer 
p^ips ^ .^h^ F^^^au biei^y in My : ** Let ji^ose P^b^gi- 
-..■•• . . 

1 Kicl^d^'8'$owye)r. — Boswell's and HawKios's Ufe of Johnson.— -•Biographka 1 

LEO. 17$ 

itw/' ^A he, ** who return to the church, declare by a csleat 
and public profession, that they condemn the authors of their 
htteajf that they detest that part of their doctrine whi<!:h 
the universal church has beheld with horror, and that they 
receive all such decrees of the councils as have been passed 
for eiterminating the Pelagian heresy, and are confirmed 
by the authority of the apostolical see, acknowledging by 
k clear and full declaration, signed by their hand, that tbt^y 
admit these decrees, and approve them in every thing.** 
Leo ilso condetnned the Priscillianists, and annulled all 
the proceedings in the council of Ephesus, which Wa4 
called " the band of Ephestan robbers," in the year 44f . 
He presided by his legates at the general council of Cbal- 
eedon, in the year 451, but opposed the canon made ther^ 
ih favonr of the church of Constantinople,, which gave it 
the second rank, to the prejudice of that at Alexandriil. 
The letter which Leo had written to Fiavianus on the niy^- 
tery of the Incarnation, was received with acclamations in 
this council, and the errors of Eutyches and Dioscorus 
condemned. The following year he went to mteet Attila; 
king of the Huns, who was advancing to Rome, and ad- 
dressed him with so much eloquence that he was prevailed 
tep6n to returt) home. Genseric having taken Rome, iti 
t^ year 455, Leo obtained from that barbarous prince, that 
his soldiers should liot set fire to the city, ana saved the 
three gtand chutches (which Const^ntine had enricbed with 
fiiagnificettt gifts) flroui being plundered. He was a strict 
ebseryer of ecctesiastic^l discipline. He died November 3^ 
in the year 461, at Rome. Never has the Romish church 
appeaiied with more true grandeur, or less pomp, than iu 
this pontiff's time ; no pope was ever more honoured, es- 
teem^, and respected ; no pope ever displayed more hu« 
iliiiity, wisdom, mildness, and charity. Leo left ninety -six 
• Settnotts," on the principal festivals throughout the year, 
Md one hundred and forty-one Letter^, which may bd 
Ibtfnd in tfce library of the fathers. The best edition ot 
his w^o^ks is that by Pei'e Queshel, Lyons, 1700, fol. They 
f Iiav% wen printed at Rome, by father Cacciaci, 3 vols. 
fbl. >nd at-Venice, by Messns. Ballarimi, ^ vols, fol.; but 
Atts^ editions have not souk the credit of QuesnePs. P. 
Maifnbourg has vnritten a history of his pontificate, 4to, or 

LEO'X. Was a pontiff whose history is so connected with 
^t ^ literature and the reformation, that more notice 

t Cave, ToK I.— Milner's Church Hist. toI. II. p. 539.— Diet. Hist. 

174 L E O. 

' of him becomes necessary than we usually allot to tub; 
brethren^ although scarce any abridgment of his life will 
be thought satisfactory, after the very luminous and in-^ 
teresting work of Mr. Roscoe. Leo was born at Florence 
in December 1475, the second son of Lorenzo de Medici, 
the Magnificent, and was christened John. Being ori- 
ginally destined by his father for the church, he was pro- 
moted before he knew what it meant, received the tonsure 
at the age of seven years, two rich abbacies, and before 
be ceased to be a boy, received other preferments t6 the 
number of twenty-nine, and thus early imbibed a taste for: 
aggrandizement which never left him. Upon the acces- 
sion of Innocent VIIL to the pontificate, John, then thirf 
teen years of age only, was nominated to the dignity of 
cardinal; Having now secured his promotion, his fadier 
began to think of his education, and when he was nomi- 
nated to the cardinalate, it wsis made a condition that he 
should spend three years at the university of Pisa, in pro^ 
fessional studies, before he was invested formally with the 
purple. In 1492 this solemn act took place, and heim-.. 
mediately went to reside at Rome as one of the sacrfd 
college. His father soon after died, and was succeeded 
in his honours in the Florentine republic by his eldest s<^ 
'Peter. The young cardinal's opposition to the election of 
pope Alexander VI. rendered it expedient for him to with- 
draw to Florence, and at the invasion of Italy by Cbarlesr 
VIII. he and the whole family were, obliged to take refuge 
in Bologna. About 1500 he again fixed his residence at 
Home, where he resided during the remainder of Alexan- 
der's pontificate, and likewise in the early part of that p£ 
Julius n. cultivating polite literature, and the pleasures o£ 
elegant society, and indulging his taste for the fine arts^ 
for music, and the chase, to which latter amusement he 
was much addicted. In 1 505 he began to take an .active 
part in public affairs, and was appointed by Julius to the 
government of Perugia. By his firm adherence to the 
interest of the pope, the cardinal acquired the most un- 
limited confidence of his holiness, and was entrusted with 
the supreme direction of the papal army in the Holj 
League against the French in 1511, with the title of le- 
gate of Bologna. At the bloody battle of Ravenna, in 
1512, be was made prisoner, and was conveyed to Milang 
but afterwards effected his escape. About this time be 
contributed to the restoration of his family at Floren^, by 
overthrowing the popular constitution of that republic> 

LEO. 17« 

And there he remained ontil the death of Julius IL in 1513^ 
when he was elected pope in his stead, in the thirty-eighth 
^ear of his age. * He assumed the name of Leo X. and 
ascended the throne with greater manifestations of good- 
will, both from Italians and foreigners, than most of his 
predecessors had enjoyed. One of his first acts was to in- 
terpose in favour of some conspirators against the house of 
M'edic], at Florence, and he treated with great kindness 
the family of Sodorini, which bad long been at the head 
of the opposite party in that republic* He exhibited bis 
taste for literature by the appointment of two of the most 
elegant scholars of the age, Bembo and Sadoleti, to the 
€>ffice of papal secretaries. With regard to foreign politics, 
h^ pursued the system of his predecessor, in attempting 
to^ free Italy from the dominion of foreign powers : and 
in order to counteract the antipapal council of Pisa, which 
wa's assembled at Lyons, he renewed the meetings of 
the council of Lateran, which Julius II. had begun, and 
he had the good fortune to terminate a division which 
threatened a schism in the church. Lewis XII. who had 
incurred ecclesiastical censtlre, made a formal submission, 
and received absolution. Having secured external tran- 
quillity, Leo did not delay to consult the interests of litera- 
ture by an ample patronage of learned studies. He re- 
stored to its former splenoour the Roman gymnasium or 
university, which he effected by new grants of its revenues 
and privileges, and by filling its professorships with eminent 
men invited from all quarters. The study of the Greek 
language was a very particular object of his encourage- 
ment. Under the direction of Lascaris a college of noble 
Grecian youths was founded at Rome for the purpose of 
editing Greek authors ; and a Greek press was established 
in that city. Public notice was circulated throughout Eu- 
rope, that all persons who possessed MSS. of ancient au- 
thors wb'uld be liberally rewarded on bringing or sending 
theea'to the pope. Leo founded the first professorship in 
Italy bf the Syriac andChaldaic languages in the university 
of Bdlo^na. With regard to the politics of the times, the 
pope had two leading objects in view, viz. the maintenance 
of that balance of power which might protect Italy from 
thi6" over-bearing influence of any foreign potentate ; and 
the aggrandizement of thie house of Medici. When Fran- 
cis I. ^cceeded to the throne of France, it was soon ap- 
parent that there would necessarily be a new war in the 
ntNTth of' Italy, Leo attempted to remain neuter, which 

176 LEO. 

beingr found to be impracticacbley he joined ttre empetof, 
the Swisd, and othef sovereigns agaiiAst the French Uti^ 
and rbe state of Venice. The rapid successes of the French 
artns s6on brought him to hesitate, and after the Swisi 
army had been defeated, the pope thought it expedient to 
abandon his allied, and form ail unioit with the king ot 
France, These two sovereigns^ in the close of 1 5 1 5^ had 
an interview at Bologna, when the famous Pragmatic 
Sanction was abolished, and a concordat established in its 
stead. The death of Leo's brother left his nephew Ld« 
rensio the principal object of that passion for aggrandizing 
his family, which this pontiff fell full as strongly as aiw 
one of his predecessors, and to gratify which he scrupled 
no acts of injustice and tyranny. In 1516 he issued a knd- 
tiitory against the duke of Urbino, and upon his non»ap- 
peairance, an excommunication, and then seized his whole 
territory, with which, together with the ducal title, he 
irivested his nephew. In the same year a general pacifica* 
tion took place, though all the efforts of the pope were 
tnad^ to prevent it. In 1517 the expelled duke of Urbinp 
collepted an army, and, by rapid movements, completely 
regained his capital and dominions. Leo, excessive! j.char- 
grined at this event, would gladly have engaged a crusade 
of all Christian princes against nim. By an application^ 
which nothing could justify, of the treasures of the church* 
he raised a considerable army, under the command of his 
Nephew, and compelled the duke to resign his dominion^ 
Upon what were callea honourable terms. The" violation of 
the safe conduct, granted by Lorenzo to the duke's secre- 
tary, who was seized at Roitte, and put to torture, in order 
to oblige him to reveal his master's secrets, imprints on the 
memOty of Leo X. an indelible staiti. In the same year 
his life was endangered by a conspiracy fortned against 
him, in which the chief actor was cardinal Petrucci. The 

filan failed, and the cardinal, being, decoyed to Rome^ 
roiA whence he had escaped, was put to death ; and hia 
agents, as many as were discovered, were executed with 
horrid tortures. The conduct of Leo on this occasion was 
little honourable to his fortitude or clemency, and it waA 
believed that several persons suffered as guilty who were 
wholijr innocent of the crimes laid to their charge. To 
secure himself for the future, the pope, by a great stretch 
of his high authority, Created in one day thirty-one new 
Cardinals, many of them his relations and friends, who had 
not even risen in the church t^ thei dignity of the episcopal 


L K 0. 177 

office ; but many persons also, who, from their taletitt and 
▼iittiiEWy were well worthy of bis choice. He bestow^ 
upon them rich benefices and preferments, as well in the 
remote parts of Christendom^ as in Italy, and thus formed 
a numerous and splendid court attached to his person, and 
adding to the p6mp and grandeur of the capital. During 
the pontificate of Leo X. the reformation under Luther 
took its rise, humanly speaking, from the following circuni- 
stances. The unbounded profusion of this pope had red* 
dered it necessary to devise^ means for replenishing his ei^ 
faausted treasury ; and one of those which occurred was the 
sale of indulgences, which were sold in Germany with 

:SUch ridiculous parade of their efficacy, as to rouse the 

' spirit of Luther, who warmly protested against this abuse 
in his discourses, and in a letter addressed to the elector 
of Mentz. He likewise published a set of propositions, in 
which he called in question the authority of the pope to 
remit sins, and made some very severe strictures on this 
method of raising money. His remonstrances produced 
considerable effect, and several of his cloth undertook to 
refute him. Leo probably regarded theological quarrels 
with contempt, and from his pontifical tl rone looked down 

. upon the efforts of a German doctor with scorn ; even 
when his interference was deemed necessary, he was in- 
clined to lenient measures. At length, at the express de- 
sire of the emperor Maximilian, be summoned Luther to 
appear before the court of Rome. Permission was, how-« 

. ever, granted for the cardinal of Gseta to hear his defence at 
.Augsburg. Nothing satisfactory was determined, and the 
pope, in 1518, published a bull, asserting his authority to 
grant indulgences, which would avail both the living, and 
the dead in purgatory. Upon this, the reformer appealed 
to a general council, and thus open war was declared, in 
which the abettors of Luther appeared with a strength 
litUe calculated upon by the court of Rome. The senti- 
ments of the Christian world were not at all favourable to 
that court. ^'The scandal,^* says the biographer, ^< in- 
curred by the infamy of Alexander VI., and the violence 

^of Julius Jl.f was not much alleviated in the reign of a 
pontiff who was characterized by an inordinate love of 
pomp and pleasure, and wliose classical taste even caused 
him to be regarded by many as more' of a heiathen than a 
Christian. ^^ 
The warlike disposition of Selim, the reigning Turkish 
Vol. XX. N 

»T8 LEO. 

enaperof, excited great alarms in Europe, and giave ocea« 
sion to Leo to attempt a revival of the aocient crusades, by 
means of an alliance between all Christian princes ; he pro- 
bably hoped, by this show of zeal for the Christian cause, 
^ that he should recover some of his lost credit as head of 
the church. He had, likewise, another object iii view, 
viz. tha^t of recruiting his finances, by the contributions 
. which his emissaries levied upon the devotees in different 
.countries. By the death of Maximilian in 1519, a compe- 
. tition for the imperial crown between Charles V. and Fran^ 
. cis I* took place. Leo was decidedly against the claims of 
both the rival candidates, and attempted to raise a com- 
petitor in one of the German princes, but he was unable 
to resist the fortune of Charles. At this period he incurt^d 
a very severe domestic misfortune in the death of his ne- 
phew Lorenzo, who left an infant daughter, afterwards the 
celebrated Catherine de Medicis^ the queen and regent of 
France. The death of Lorenzo led to the immediate an- 
nexation of the duchy of Urbino, with its dependencies, 
to the Roman see, and to the appointment of Julius, Leo^s 
cousin, to the supreme direction of the state.of Floretice. 
The issue of his contest with Luther will occur hereafter 
in our account of that reformer. It may here, however, 
be noticed that Leo conferred on Henry V HL of finglaiid, 
the title ot " Defender of the Faith,'* for his appearance pn 
the side of the church as a controversial writer. The tran- 
quir state of Italy, at this period, allowed the pope to 
indulge his taste for magnificence in shows and spectacles. 
. His private hours were chiefly devoted to indolence, or to 
amusements, frequently of a kind little suited to the dig-* 
nity of his high station. He was not, however, so much 
absorbed in them as to neglect the aggrandizement of bis 
family and see. Several cities and districts in the vicinity 
of the papal territories, and to which the church had 
claims, had been seized by powerful citizens, or military 
. adventurers ; some of these the pope summoned to his 
court to answer for their conduct ; which not being abl« to 
do, be caused them to be put to death. Having next set 
his heart an the possession of the territory of Ferrara, he 
had recourse to treachery, and is thought to have even 
meditated the assassination of the duke,^ but his plot being 
discovered by the treachery of dne whom he had bribed, 
- he was disappointed in his plans. Another of bis designs 
was thei expiilsion of the French from Italy, and be bad 

LEO. 17» 

inflid^ some progress in this when he was seized with an 
iUness which put an end to his life in a few days. He died 
Dec. ly 1521, in the forty-sixth year of his aige. 

From the preceding circumstances, gleaned fromMr.Ros*- 
coe*s elaborate account of Leo, a judgment may be formed 
of his character, in which, although some things may have 
been exaggerated by the enemies of the Romish cburcbji 
enough remains uncontested to prove that he had many of 
the worst vices, and, when it became necessary to his ag<^ 
grandizement, practised the worst crimes of his prede-, 
cessors. His biographer, by embodying the history of li- 
terature and the arts in the life of Leo, one of the most 
pleasing and truly valuable parts of the work, has, we 
think, failed, in attributing much of their advancement to 
Leo. And indeed it has been too much a fashion to speak 
of the ** age of Leo" as of a glorious period which his 
patronage created. Too much stress, perhaps, is fre- 
quently laid on patronage ; and we ought to hesitate in 
declaring bow much it has produced, when we consider 
how m.uch in all ages has been produced without it. But 
Leo^s patronage was not general, for it excluded Ariosto 
and Erasmus, two of the greatest men of the age ; nor was 
it judicious in selection, for he bestowed it on such worth- 
less characters as Aretin and Niso, not to speak of a num- 
ber of less known characters, whose merit rises no higher 
tiian that of being able to write amorous Italiaa sonnets, 
and panegyrical Latin verses. With respect to the arts, it 
has been justly remarked, that when he ascended the throne 
they were at their meridian. He found greater talents thaa 
be employed, and greater works commenced than he com- 
pleted. Leonard Da Vinci, Michael Angelo, and Raf- 
faello, performed their greatest works before the accession 
of Leo X.; Bramante, the architect of St. Peter's, died in 
the second year of his pontificate ; and Da Vinci and Mi- 
chael Angelo shared none of his favours. It is fi^om his 
attachment to RafFaello that he derives his strongest claims 
8^ a patron of art ; yet a part of his conduct to this grea.t 
artist makes us question whether Leo had a refined taster 
Haflaello made thirteen cartoons of religious subjects to 
complete the decoration of the hall of Constantine, and 
had sent them into Flanders, to be returned in worsted 
bopies, without any care to preserve the originals, nor any 
itiquiry made Concerning them after the subjects were ma- 
nufactured into tapestry. By accident| seten of the&e are 

■ \ N 2 ' 


L E O. 

yet to be s^eh in this country, and. may enable us to est^ 
.mate the taste of the pontiff who could so easily forget 
them. Yet Leo must not be deprived of the merit that 
justly belongs to him. He drew together the learned men, 
of his time, and formed eminent schools, and he did much 
in promoting the art of printing, then of incalculable im- 
portance to literature. In these respects, and upon ac- 
count of the share he had in precipitating the reformation^ 
his short pontificate of eight years and eight mpnths must 
be allowed to form one of the most interesting periods iu 
papal history, and worthy of the illustration it has received.^ 

LEO VL emperor of the East, surnamed The Wise, and 
the Philosopher, succeeded his father Basilius the Mace- 
donian, March 1, 886. He drove Photius from the see of 
Constantinople, fought with success against the Hunga- 
rians and Bulgarians, and died June 11^ 911, leaving one 
son, Constantine Porphyrogeneta. This emperor was sur« 
named The Philosopher, from his attachment to learnings 
and not from his manners, which were very irregular. He 
was fond of writing sermons, and there are several of his 
composing in the library of the fathers. The following works 
are also attributed to him ; a treatise on Tactics, a useful 
work for those who would acquire a knowledge of the lower 
empire ; it was printed in German by Bourscheid, at Vi* 
enna, and in French by M. de Maiseroi, 1770, 2 vols, 8vo ; 
•* Novellae Constitutiones," in which several of the novels 
introduced by Justinian are abolished;' ^.^ Opus Basilicon,*' 
where all the laws contained in Justinian's works are ne^ 
jnodelled. This system of law was adopted by the Greeks 
afterwards. In Constantine Manasses, printed at the Louvre^ 
may be found *' Leonis sapientis oracula." ' 

LEO (John), a skilful geographer, born at Grenada, 
retired into Africa when his natiy^ place was taken in 1492, 
whence he had the surname of Africanus. After having 
travelled a considerable time in Europe, Asia, and Afric;^ 
he was taken- at sea by some pirates, and abjured the Ma- 
hometan religion under pope Leo X. He died about 1526. 
He wrote a " Description of Africa,'* in Arabic, which he 
afterwards translated into Italian. Marmot has translated, almost entirely, without mentioning it. There 
is a Latin translation by John Florian, not very accurate, 

^ 1 Roeeocfs life.—- Abridgement in Bees't Qfclopsdia.*— Duppa'i Life of Mh 

chael Angelo, p. 60 et seqq. 
• Diet, Hist— Universal Hist. 

LEO.- isi 

and a French one by John TemporaV Lyons, 1556, folJ 
John Leo also left the <' Lives of the Arabian Philoso* 
phers/* which was printed by Hettinger in Latin, at Zurich, 
J 664, and is in torn. 13 of the Bibliotheca of Fabricius, 
from a copy which Cavalcanti sent from Florence. ' 

native of that city, is satid by some to have been a Francis<» 
can, and by others a Dominican. He left a " Chronicle^* 
of the popes, which ends in 1314, and one of the <* Em-* 
perors," ending 1308, published by father Lamy, at Flo-* 
rence, 1737, 2 vols. 8vo. Hiese chronicles are useful for 
the history of those times, to those who can distinguish the 
fabulous parts. ' 

LEO of MODENA, whose proper name was R. Jehu« 
dab Arie, was bom at Modena about 1574 % was for a con- 
siderable time chief of the synagogue, and esteemed a 
good poet both in Hebrew and Italian. He was author of 
a valuable vjrork oji the ceremonies and customs of the 
Jews, which is held in estimation by the learned of all 
nations. It is entitled '^ Istoria de Riti Hebra'ici vita et 
Osservanze de gti HebreK di questi Tempi ;" the best edition 
of which is that of Venice, 1638. It was translated into the 
French language in 1674, by Richard Simon, with supple* 
ments relating to the sects of the Karaites and Samaritans. 
{le intended to faa<re given an Italian translation of the Old 
Testament, but the inquisition laid its commands on him 
jto desist.. His Hebrew and Italian dictionary, entitled 
f ' The Mouth of the Lion,'' was published at Venice in 
1612, and was afterwards reprinted in fin enlarged form at 
Padua, \xt 164'0. Leo died at Venice in 1654.' 

L^O DE St. JOHN, a French monk, was bom at Rennes 
in the year 1600. Before be entered into tlje religious pro* 
fesston his name was John Mace. He was nominated to 
^11 the honourable and confidential posts of bis order, an4 
for his eloquence had the honour of preaching before 
JLouisTCIII. and Louis XI V^ His early patrontijwere popes 
Xeo XI. and Alexander VIII. ; and in France .cardinal 
Richelieu was his friend. He died in 1671, leaving behind 
Jbim numerous works, the principal of which are, *^ Stu* 
dium Sapientise Universalis," 3 vols. fol. ; A <V History of 
ihe Carmelites ;" ^^ Lives of different Romish Saints;"' and 

"- I Moreri.— Diet Hwt Saxii Onomast. » Moreri,— Diet. Hiat. 

. « Mar(!xi.--Di£t. But. 




^* Joum^ of Wbtt took place during the last Sickness, and 
at the Death of cardinal llichelieu/' ' 

LEONARD of Pisa, an Italian mathematician, whofldu- 
rished at the commencement of the thirteenth century, wa& 
the first person who brought into Europe the knowledge of 
the Arabic cyphers and algebra^ He travelled into the 
East for instruction, and being at Bugia, a town in Africa, 
was taught the Arabic method of keeping accounts, and 
finding it more convenient and preferable to the European 
method, he drew up a treatise for the purpose of intro- 
ducing it. into Italy, where it was cultivated with success', 
and became speedily known to all mathematicians. From 
Italy the knowledge of the Arabic cyphers and algebra was 
afterwards communicated to the other countries of Europe. 
He was author of a treatise on surveying, preserved in the 
Magliabecchi library at Florence. * . 

LEONARDO (Leo), principal organist of the chapel 
royal at Naples, was not only admired and respected by 
his contemporaries, but his memory still continues to be ' 
held in reverence by every professor that is acquainted 
with his works. He was born in 1689. The first opera of 
ia» composition is thought to be " Sofonisba," which was 
performed in Naples in 1718, and the last, " Siface," in 
Bologna, 1737. Between these he produced three operas 
for Venice, and four for Rome. Leo likewise set the 
•* Olimpiade*' of Metastasio. " Dirti ben mio vovice" was 
in extreme high favour, as set by Leo, about the middle 
of the last century, in England, where it was sure to be 
heard at every musical performance, both public and pri- 
vate. Leo likewise set Metastasio*s oratorio of *^ Sl Elen» 
ftl Calvario,'* in which there are some very fine airs. His 
celebrated *• Miserere," in eight real parts, though imper- 
fectly performed in London at the Pantheon, for Ansani*s 
benefit, 1781, convinced real judges that it was of the 
highest class of choral compositions. 

The puiity of his harmony, and elegant simplicity of bis 
melody, are no less remarkable in such of these dramas as 
Dr. Burney examined, than the judicious arrangement of 
the parts. But the masses and motets, which are carefully 
preserved by the curious, and still performed in the 
churches at Naples, have all the choral learning of the 
sixteenth century. There are likewise extant, trios, for 
two violins and a base, superior in correctness of counter* 

I Diet Hist, • JDlct. HUt.— Thomton's Hi»tory of the Itoyal Socief j. 

t E O N A R D O. »8^3 

point and elegance of design to any similar prodactions of 
the $ame period. This complete musician is equally cele- 
brated as an instructor and composer ; and the '^ Solfeggi/* 
i^hicb he composed for the use of the vocal students, in the 
conservatorio over Which he presided at Naples, are still 
eagerly sought aiul studied, not only in Italy, butin every 
part of Europe, where singing is regularly taught, Thia 
great musician died about 1742^ His death was unhappily 
precipitated by an accident which at first was thought 
trivial; fgr, having a tumour, commonly called a bur, on 
bis right cheek, which growing, in process of time, to a 
considerable magnitude, he was advised to have it taken 
pff ; but whett^er from the unskvlfulness of the operator, or 
a bad habit of body, a mortification ensiied, which cost him 
bis life. ' 

LEONICENUS (Nicholas), an eminent Italian phy-» 
$ician, was born in one of the Venetian states in 1428. He 
was professor of medicine at Ferrara during upwards of 
sixty years, a«d was the first person who un(Jertook ta 
translate the works of Galen into Latin. His attachment 
to literary pursuits alienated him from practice ; and in 
(excuse he used to say, '' I do more service to the public 
than if I visited the sick, by instructing those who are 
to cure them*'' Extending his attention also to the belles 
lettres, he wrote some poetry, and translated into Italian 
the history of Dion Cassius, and the dialogues of Lucian» 
Until the age of thirty, Leonicenus was tormented- with 
.frequent attacks of epilepsy, vrhicji reduced him at times 
. to melancholy and despair. This disease, however, after- 
wards left him, and, by means of great regularity and tem« 
perance, he attained the age of ninety-six years, and died 
in 1524, possessed of all his faculties. To one who in- 
quired, with astonishment, by what secret he had preserved 
this entire possession of his faculties, together with an erect 
body and vigorous health, at so great an age, he replied, 
. that it was the effect of innocence of manners, tranquillity 
of mind, and frugality in diet The duke and senate of 
Ferrara erected a monument to his memory. He left se* 
. yeral works, most jof which have been several^ times re- 
. printed, but are not now in request, except perhaps his 
exaniination of the errors of Pliny, &c. ** Plinii et aliorum 
. plurimum auctorum qui de simplicibus medicaminiljus 


I Bumey^i Hist, of Music/ vol. IV. — and the same In Reei*s Cyclopedia. 

184 L E O N I C E N U S. 

•eripseniot, errores notati/' Budei 1 532, folio, which iit- 
Toked him ia a controversy, sustained with his usual 
tranquillity ; and his ^* Liber de Epidemia quam Itali mor- 
Ibum Gallicuni vocant/' Venice, 1497, 4to, a book of great 
rarity. He was the first in Italy who treated of this' dis- 
order. There is an edition of fill his works, printed at 
Bale, 1533, foU 
LEOWITZ (Cyprian), a celebrated astronomer in the 
sixteenth century, was born in Bohemia, and was ap{>ointed 
mathematician to Otho Henry, elector palatine. He ac- 
quired a high reputation by his astronomical productions, 
of which the principal were, '' Ephemerides ab anno 1556 
ad ann.. 1606;" *^ Expedita Ratio constituendi Thematis 
coelestis ;" >' Loca stellarum fixarum ab anno Dom. 1549 
usque in ann. 2029 ;'* and <* De Eclipsibus Liber.'* Ty- 
cho Brahe paid him a visit in 1569, when they had several 
conversatipns on their favourite subjects. Notwithstanding 
thegreat learning of Leowitz, he was weak enough to be- 
come the dupe of judicial astrology. He died in Swabia 
1574. He had predicted that the world would come to an 
end in 1584; and of this prophecy many priests and 
preachers took .advantage as the important period ap- 
proached, and enriched themselves at the expence of the 
fears of their people.* 

LERMONT (Thomas), a poet of Scotland, who flou- 
rished in the thirteenth century, is familiarly known by 
the name of Thomas the Rhymer. The history of his life 
is involved in much obscurity. What has been unravelled 
nuiy be seen in our authority. He was a prophet as well 
as a poet. His merit in the former character may be dis- 
puted, but of his poetical talents, Mr. Walter Scott has 
enabled the public to judge, by giving an^ excellent edition 
pf his metrical romance of '^ Sir Tristrem,^' published in 
1804, and very ably illustrated with notes, &c. by Mr. 
Scott, who has in this work shown that the most arduous 
labours of the antiquary are not incompatible with the 
genius and spirit of the poet.^ 

• ^ 

1 Gen. Diet.— Moreri^vReef's Cyclopsdia. — Sazii OoomasU 
9 Moreri,— *Geii. DicU ' Mr, Soott'f edUioiu 

LE SB ON AX. 185 

. LKROY. See ROY. 

LESBONAX, a native of Mitylenei who (loumlied in 
the grst century of the Christian sera, was a disciple of 
Timo^crates, afterwards became a teacher of philosophy 
in his native city, and obtained a great number of scho- 
lars. He was author of many books of philosophy, and 
Photius says he had read sixteen orations written by 
him. Two of these were first published by Aldus, in 
bis edition of the ancient orators, in 1513 ; afterwards 
by Henry Stephens, with the orations of ^schines, Lysias, 
and others 2 and in 1619, by Gruter. Lesbonax is said 
to have been the author of a treatise *^ De Figuris 
Grammaticis/' printed with Ammonius, Leyden, 1739, 
4to. He left a son named Potamon, an eminent rhe- 
torician at Rome, in the reign of the. emperor Tiberius. 
So sensible were the magistrates of Mitylene of his 
merits^ and of the utility of his labours, that they caused 
a medal to be struck in his honour: one of which was 
discovered in the south of France about 1740,' and an 
engraving of it, with a learned dissertation, . published in 
the year 1744, by M. Cary, of the Academy of Marseilles, 
but there seems some reason to think that Lesbonax the 
philosopher, and Lesbonax the grammarian, were different 

LESCAILLE (James), a celebrated Dutch printer, was 
born in 1610 of an illustrious family at Geneva, which re- 
moved to Holland, where his press became famous for the 
Dumber of beautiful and accurate editions which issued 
from it. He was also esteemed an excellent poet ; and his 
daughter, Catherine Lescaille, who died June 8, 17)1, was 
so much admired for her poetical talents, as to be called 
the Dutch Sappho, and the tenth Muse. A collection of 
her Poems was printed in 17^8, with the following trage- 
dies: Genscric, Wenceslaus, Herod and Mariamne, Her- 
cules *and Deianira, Nicomedes, Ariadne, Cassandra, &c. 
which, although they are not written according to the or- 
dinary rules of the drama, frequently discover marks of 
superior genius. James Lescaille* was honoured , with the 
poetic crown by the emperor Leopold in 1663, and died 
in 1677.' 

LESCHASSIER (James), an able lawyer, and cele^ 
brated advocate of the parliament of Paris, was born ia 

1 Jtf~oreri.«-Saxu Onomait. < Moreri.-«»Dict. Hiit, 


thfti city in ) 550, of a reputable family. When Henry IV. 
to Mpkom he bad remained faithful during the fury of the! 
League, wanted .to support the annuities charged on the- 
H6tel de Ville, Leschassier had influence enough to dis* 
suade him from bis design by two very able petitions. He 
was consulted by the Venetian republic, in 1605, respect- 
ing their disputes with pope Paul V. and replied by^ his 
<' Consultatio Parisini cujusdam,'* printed in 1606, 4tOy 
which proves him to have been a learned and judicious 
canonist. He died April 28, 1625, at Paris, aged seventy- 
five. The. most complete edition of his works is that of 
Paris, 1652, 4to, which contains several curious and inte- 
resting particulars concerning the liberties of the Gallican 
church, and other affairs of great importance. ^ - 

LESDIGUIERES (Francis de Bonne, duke DE),.pecr, 
marecbal, and constable of France, governor of Dauphiny, 
and one of the greatest generals of his age, was born April 
I, 1543, at St. Bonnet de Ciiamsaut, in Dauphiny, off 
noble and ancient family. He was among the chiefs, of the 
protestants, for whom he took several places, and wheii 
Henry iV. ascended the throne, received fresh marks d( 
his esteem, being appointed lieutenant-general of his 
forces in Piedmont, Savoy, and Dauphiny. Lesdiguieres 
defeated the duke of Savoy at the battle of Esparon, April 
15, 1,591, and in several other engagements; and wheu 
the king blamed him for having suffered that prince to build 
Fort Barreaux, he replied, <* Let the duke of Savoy be at 
that expence ; your majesty wants a fortress opposite t6 
Montmelian, and when it is built and stored, we will take 
it," He kept his word, and conquered Savoy. This brave 
man received the marechal's staff in 1607, and his estate 
of Lesdiguieres was made a dukedom, as a reward for his 
services. At length he abjured protestantism at Qrenoble, 
and was afterwards presented by his son-in-law, the mare-* 
chal de CnSqui, with letters, in which the king appointed 
him constable^ July 24, 1622. < He commanded the troops 
in Italy in 1625, and died at Valence it) Dai^phiny, Sept. 
518, 1626, aged eighty-four. His secretary, Lewis Vide), 
has written his life, or rather his eulogy, 1638, folio. There 
were, however, many defects in his moral character^ and 
^is apostacy is said to have been founded in avarice.* 

* Moreri. — ^Nic^ron, vol. XXXIIf.-^Saiiii Ooomasticoiu 

* Moreri.-— Diet. Hist. 



LESLEY. 187 


LESLEY (John), the celebrated bishop of Ross in Scot- 
land, was descended from a very ancient family, and bom 
ill 1527. He had bis education in the university of Aber- 
deen ; and, in 1547, was oiade canon of the cathedral* 
church of Aberdeen and Murray. After this, he travelled 
into France ; and pursued his studies in the universities of 
Thoulouse, Poictiers, and Paris, at which place he took the 
degree of doctor of laws. He continued abroad till 1554, 
when he was commanded home by the queen-regent, and 
made official and vicar-general of the diocese of Aberdeen ; 
ind, eoteringr into the priesthood, became parson of Une, 
or Oyne. About this time the doctrines of the reformation 
having reached Scotland, were zealously opposed by our 
author ; and, a solemn dispute being held between the pro- 
testants and papists in 1560, at Edinburgh, Lesley was a 
principal champion on the side of the latter, and bad Knox 
for one of his antagonists. This, however, was so far from 
|)utting an end to the divisions, that they daily increased ; 
whi(^.h occasioning many disturbances and commotions, both 
parties agreed to send deputations, inviting home the 
queen, who was then absent in France. It was a matter of 
importance to be expeditious in this race of politic cour« 
lesy ; and Lesley, who was employed by the Roman catho- 
lics, made such dispatch, that he arrived several days be- 
fore lord James Stuart, who was sent by the protestaiUs, to 
Vitri, where queen Mary was then lamenting the death of 
ber husband, the king of France. Having delivered to her 
bis credentials, he told her majesty of lord James Stuart's 
(who was ber natural brother) coming from the protestants 
ia Scotland, and of his designs against the Roman catholic 
religion ; and advised her to detain him in France by some 
honourable employment till she could settle her affairs at 
liome ; thus infusin^g suspicions of her protestant subjects 
into the queen's mind, with a xnew that she should throw' 
lierself entirely into the hands of those who were of her own 
religion. The queen, however, not at all distrusting the 
nobility, who had sent lord James, desired Lesley to wait^ 
till she could consult with her friends upon the methods 
most proper for her to take. At first, the court of France 
4^pposed her return home ; but, finding her much inclined 
to it, tbey ordered a fleet to attend her; and Lesley em^ 
barked with her at Calais for Scotland, Aug. 19, 1561. 

Soon after his arrival, he was appointed one of the se« 
nators of the college of justice^ and sworn into the privy* 



council. In 1564, the abbey of Lundores was conferred 
iipon him ; and, upon the death of Sinclair bishop of Ross, 
he was promoted to that see. This advancement was no 
more than he merited from the head of the Roman church 
in Scotland, in whose defence he was always an active and 
a{)le disputant with the reformed party. His learning was 
not inferior to his other attainments ; nor was his attention 
so entirely absorbed in ecclesiastical matters, as to prevent. 
his introducing some important improvements in the civil 
state of the kingdom. To this end, having observed that 
all the ancient laws were growing obsolete, for want of 
beipg collected into a body, he represented this matter to 
the queen, and prevailed with her majesty to appoint 
proper persons for the work. Accordingly, a commission 
was made out, granting to Lesley, and fifteen others, privy- 
counsellors and advocates in the law, authority to print the 
same. Thus it is to the care principally of the bishop of 
Ross, that the Scots owe the first impression of their laws 
at £dinburgh, in 1 566y commonly called the black acts of 
parliament, from their being printed in the black Saxon 
character. Upon the queen^s flying into England from her 
protestant subjects, who had taken lip arms against her, 
queen Elizabeth appointed commissioners at York to .exa« 
mine the case between her and them, and bishop Lesley 
was one pf those chosen by Mary, in 1568, to defend her 
cause, which he did with great vigour and strength of rea- 
soning ; and, when this method proved ineffectual, appeared 
afterwards in the character of an^bassador at the English 
court, to complain of the injustice done to his queen. 
Finding no notice taken of his public solicitations, he be- 
gan to form schemes to procure ber escape privately, and 
at the same time seems to have been concerned with fo- 
reign courts in conspiracies against queen Elizabeth. With 
a view, however, to serve queen Mary, he hit upon the 
unfortunate expedient of negotiating her marriage with the 
duke of Norfolk ; which being discovered, the duke was 
convicted of treason, and executed. Lesley being exa- 
mined upon it, pFeaded the privileges of an ambassador; 
alleging, that he had done nothing but what his place and 
duty demanded for procuring the liberty of his princess; 
and that he came into England with sufficient warrant; and 
authority, which be had produced, and which had been 
admitted. It was answered^ that the privileges of amhas^ 

L E S L E Yrf 180 

tadors conld not protect those wbo offended against the 
majesty of the princes to whom they were sent ; and that 
they were to be considered in no other light than as ener 
inies who practised rebellion against the state. To this 
our prelate replied, that he had ndther raised, nor prac- 
tised rebellion ; but, peroeivinj; the adversaries of queen 
Mary countenanced, and her deprived of all hope of liberty, 
he could not abandon his sovereign in her afflictions, but 
do his best to procure her freedom ; and that Jt would 
never be found that the privileges of ambassadors were 
violated, tm jurisy by course of law, but only via facti^ 
by way of fact, which seldom had good success. 
. At length, ^ after several debates, five civilians, Lewis, 
Dale, Drury, Aubry, and Jones, were appointed to exa^. 
mine the bishop of Ross's case, and to give in answers to 
the following queries. 1. Whether an ambassador^ who 
raises rebellion against the prince to whom he is sent, 
should enjoy the privileges of an ambassador, and not ra-* 
tber be liable to punishment as an enemy ? To this it was 
answered, that such an ambassador, by the laws of nations, 
and the civil law of th(S Romans, has forfeited the privi- 
leges of an ambassador, and is liable to punishment. 2. 
Whether the minister or agent of a prince deposed from 
his public authority, and in whose stead another is substi- 
tuted, may enjoy the privileges of an ambassador ? To this 
it was answered, if such a prince be lawfully deposed, hfs 
agent cannot challenge the privileges of an ambassador, 
since none but absolute prinqes, and such as enjoy a royal 
prerogative, can constitute ambassadors. 3. Whether a 
prince, who comes into another prince's country, and is 
there kept prisoner, can have his agent, and whether thac 
agent can be reputed an ambassador ? To this it was an« 
swered, if such a prince have not lost his sovereignty^ he 
may have an agent; but whether that agent maybe re- 
puted an ambassador, dependeth upoit the authority of his 
commission. 4. Whether if a prince declare to such an 
agent, and his prince in custody, that he shall no longer 
be reputed au ambassador, that agent may, by law, chaF^ 
lenge the privileges of an ambassador? To this it was an- 
swered, that a prince may forbid an ambassador to' enter 
into his kingdom^ and may command him to depart thie 
kingdom^ if he keep himself not within the bounds pre- 
scribed to an ambassador ; yet in the mean while he is to 
enjoy the privileges of art.ambassador 


, Queen Elifzabeth and ber counsel being sattsiied w^th 
these answers of tbe civilians, sent bishop Lesley prisoner 
to the isle of Ely, and afterwards to the Tower of London ; 
but at length he was set at liberty in 1573, and being ba« 
oisbed England, be retired to the Netherlands. Tbe two 
following years he employed in soliciting the kings -of 
France and Spain^ and all the German princes, to interest 
themselves in the deliverance of his mistress. Finding them 
tardy in their proceedings, be went to Rome, tosolicit the 
pope's interference with them, but all his efforts being 
fruitless, he had recourse to his pen, and published several 
pieces to promote the same design. In 1579, he was 
made suffragan and vicar-general of the archbishopric of 
Bouen in Normandy, and, in bis visitation of that diocese, 
was apprehended and thrown into prison, and obliged to 
pay three thousand pistoles for his ransom, to prevent his 
being given up to queen Elizabeth. He then remained 
pnmoiested under the protection of Henry III. of France ; 
but, upon the accession of Henry IV, a protestant, wlio 
was supported in his claim to that crown by queen Eliza* 
beth, be wa^ apprehended, in his visitation through his 
diocese, in 1590 ; and, being thrown into prison, was again 
obliged to pay three thousand pistoles, to save himself from 
being given up to Elizabeth* In 1593, he was declared 
bishop of Constance, with licence to hold the bishopric of 
Ross, till he should obtain peaceable possession of the 
church of Constance and its revenues. Some time after 
this, he went and resided at Brussels ; and when no hopes 
remained of his returning to his bishopric of Koss, by th^ 
establishment of the reformation under king James, he re- 
tired into a monastery at Guirtenburg, about two miles 
from Brussels, where he passed the remainder of his days, 
died May 31, 1596, and lies buried there under a mo- 
Dument erected tobia memory by his nephew and heir, 
J[ofan Lesley. 

His character is represented much to his advantage, by^ 
iMveral writers, both at home and abroad ; and all parties 
agree ia speaking of him as a man of great learning, an 
able statesman, and a zealous churchman. His fidelity to his 
queen was certainly honourable in its motive^ althougfaf it 
\s impossible to defend all his proceedings. Dodd informs 
lis that when at Paris he laid the foundation of three col- 
leges for the education of popish missionaries ; one. Cor.iiis 
couotiymen at Paris^ which was completed ; another at 

L E S L X Y. \n 

Momef which fell into the hands of the Jesuits ; and a third 
,at Do way, the superior of which, for some yearji, was a 
Scotch Jesuit. 

. Bishop Lesley^s writings are, 1. ^* Afflicti Animi Conso- 
Utiones, & tranquilli Animi Conservation* Paris, 1574, 8to. 
il. *^ De Origine, Moribus, & Rebus gestis IScotorum,** 
HomsB, 1578^ 4to. It consists of ten books, of which the 
three last, making half the volume, are dedicated to queen 
Mary ; to whom they had been presented in English, seven 
years before the first publication in Latin. There are se- 
parate copies of them in several libraries. See Catalog. 
MSS. Oxott. This valuable history is carried down to the 
queen's return from France in 156 1. He seems unwilling 
to divulge what he knew of some transactions after that 
period. '^ Some things,'' says he, ^' savoumd so much of 
ingratitude and perfidy, that, although it were very proper 
they should be known, yet it were improper for me to re- 
;cord them, because often, with the danger of my life^ I 
endeavoured to put a stop to them ; and I ought to do all 
that is in me, not to let them be known unto strangers.** 
With this work are published, 3. ^'Parsenesisad Nobilitatem 
Populumque Scotorum :'' and, 4. ^^ Regionum & Insularum 
. Scotiss D'escriptio." 5/ *^ Defence of the Honour of Mary 
Queen of Scotland ; with a Declaration of her right, title, 
.and interest, to the crown of England,'* Liege, 1571, 8vo, 
which was immediately suppressed. 6. ^' A Treatise, shew- 
ing, that the Regimen of Women is conformable to the 
Law of God and Nature.*' These two laat are ascribed, by 
Parsons the Jesuit, to Morgan Philips, but Camden asserts 
them to be our author's, Annal. Eliz. sub. ann. 1569. 7. 
^ De Titulo & Jure Marise Scotorum Reginae, quo Angliss 
Successionem Jure sibi vindicat," Rbeims, 1580, 4to. 8. 
•There is a MS. upon the same subject in French, entitled 
** Remonstrance au Pape," &c. Cotton library, Titus, cxii. 
1, and E. 3. 14. 9. '< An Account of his Embassage in 
England, from 1568 to 1572," MS. in the advocates' li- 
brary in Scotland. Catal. of Oxfoi^d MSS. 10. ^ An Apo- 
logy for the Bishop of Ross, as to what is laid to his Chaise 
concerning ihe Duke of Norfolk,*' MS. in the libtary of 
the lord Longueville. li. *^ Several Letters in the bands 
.#f Dr. George Mackenete," who wrote his life.^ ' 

^ Life by Mackenzie, toI. 1!.— -Spotswood's and Robertsoo^s H'ntory.— 
'• Hiftory.-oDodd't Ch«rch Hitt^ry.— >Strjpe't Lift of Oriidal, p. 150;. 


LESLIE (Dr. John)» bishop of Ologher in Ireland^ 
^deseended froia an ancient famiij, and born at Balquhainre, 
in the north of Scotland. The first part of his education 
was at Aberdeen, whence be removed t6 Oxford. After- 
wards he travelled into Spain, Italy, Gercnany, and Franca : 
he spoke French, Spanish, and Italian, with the same {>ro- 
.priety and fluency as the natives ; and was so gteat a mas- 
ter of th6 Latin, that it was said of him, when in Spain, 
Si>lm LesUius Latine loquitur. He continueB twenty-two 
.^ears abroad ; and, during that time, was at the siege of 
.Rochelle, and the expedition to the isle of Rheei with the 
duke of Buckingham. He was all along conversant in 
courts, and at home was happy in that of Charles I. who 
admitted him into his privy-council both in Scotland and 
Ireland ; in which stations he was continued by Charles IL 
after the restoration. His chief preferment in (he church 
.of Scotland was the bishopric of the Orkneys, whence he 
was translated to Raphoe in Ireland, in .1633; and, the 
same year, sworn a privy'*counsellor in that kingdom. He 
built a stately palace in his diocese, in the form and strength 
of a castle, one of the finest episcopal palaces in Ireland, 
and proved to be useful afterwards in the rebellion of 1641, 
^by prj^erving a good part of that country. The good 
bishop exerted himself, as much as be could, in defence 
of the royal cause, and endured^a siege in bis castle of 
Raphoe, before he -would surrender it to Oliver Cromwell, 
being the last which held out in that country. He then 
retired to Dublin, where he always used the liturgy of the 
cl[urch of Ireland in his family, and even had frequent 
confirmations and ordinations. After the restoration, he 
came over to- England; and, in 1661, was -translated to 
the see of Clogher. He died in 167V, aged above 100 
years, having been above 50 years a bishbp ; and was then 
consequently the oldest bishop in the world.^ 

LESLIE (CiiARtEs), the second son of the preceding, 
.and a very distinguished writer, was born in Ireland, we 
.know not in what year ^ and admitted a fellow-commoner 
in Dublin college in 1664, where be continued till be 
commenced M. A. In 1671, on the death of his father, 
he came to England and entered bimself in the Temple 
at Lcmdon, *where be studied the law for some years ; but 

I fcarrit's edition of Ware.^Atb. Ox.— Biog. BriU 

L fi 8 L I E# 191 

Ufttrraris t eltoqakhMl it, and applied bimsttf lo divinliy. 
In leso he was adtnitted into holy orden ; and in l^S't 
beeaqus diatic^llor of the cajdiedt-aUcbttroh or diocese ef 
GddffOT* About ^itt lime be loeDdered hitmuAf paiticuleriy 
<rt>tioxid^os to the P(>t>ie)h party iti Ireland, by bis isealona 
opposition to them, Mliich was thus called /brtb* Rog&t 
Boyle, bifrbep of Clogher, dying in 16^7, f^atriok Tyrrel 
Wtts tmidf$ litulttr popish bisbopy and had the revenue* bf 
the Me Msigtied him by kibg James. He set tip a eeoveift 
tof fWurs in Monaghan ; and, fixing his habitation tbere^ 
beld a puMi^ visitation of his cleigy with great Solemnity ; 
mrbei), boflie eubtle logicians attending him, be ventuted 
te>ehylenge ttie pyotescant clergy to a public disputatioHw 
LeMe WiMpt^ the challenge, and disputed to the etttis* 
Atetfon of Ibe protesi'Mts; though it happened, a« it gMe^ 
tiMy 4t)^ sit such eoYitests, tbift both tftdes clainied the i4e«- 
«ery. He afterMtds beld another publie disputation wiA 
twd eel^rated pefyish divines in the church of Tynan, in 
the dioee^ of Armagh, before a very numerous assembly, 
^ piM^oto of bdh religions ; «be issue of ^ich mA, ihiSt 
Mf. John Siewan, a popish gentleman, solemnly renounced 
the eivoYs of the ck<dr<yh of Rome. 

As the papists had got possession of na episeopal see^ 
tfaey engrossed otiber olkeii too ; and a popish bigh-eberiff 
«ivas appoifited for the county of Monaghae. This pi«o^ 
t^eediug alarmed the gentlemen in that eotmtry ; who, de>- 
pending much on Leslie^s knov^ledge as a jtistiee of peaee^ 
)^^i«»ed to him, then cotift^d by the goat to bis hoerse. 
ile told tbefn, that it would be as illegal in them to per^ 
Mrt the sheriff to act, as it would be in bie^ to attempt it 

B\it they, itisisted that himself should appear i^ person en 
Ihe bench, at the approaching {juartet^aeMionty and "all 
{rtrdtnised to act as he did ', so he was earried vbere wr^ 
s»odh difficuky, and in gredt paiTi. tJpbn tbe question^ 
wb«tt!her the sheriff was legally ^Ualiiied, tbe latter fOplied, 
^ Itiat he was of the king^a own religiori, and it was Mft 
Majesty's will that he should be sheriff.^ LesUe then oIk 
served, <* IPbat they were not inquiriTrg into his majesty** 
N^gidn, but t^bether be (tbe pretended sheriff) had ^a*. 
lifted Irimseif according to taw, for aeting as a proper ofi^ 
Mr ; that the law was the king's will, and nothing «li^ 
to be deemed nuch ; that bis sulijects had no other wajf ^ 
knowing "bts wi41 but a^ it is revealed to them in liis'lMni; 
and i^ mfust always be ibeugbt to continue so, tin tbe o«&« 
Voi^XX, O 

194 L £ S L I t. 


trary is notified to them in the same authentic mamief. 
This argument was so convincing, that the bench unanir 
mously agreed to commit the sheriff for his intrusion and 
arrogant contempt of the court Leslie also committed 
some officers of that tumultuous army which the lord Tyr* 
connel raised, for robbing the country. » 

.In this spirited conduct Leslie acted like a sound diving 
and an upright magistrate; but, while he thought himself 
authorized to resist the illegal mandates of his sovereign, 
he never approved of carrying these principles. of resists 
ance so far as to deprive the king of the supreme power ; 
and persevering steadily in that opinion, be cootiuued, 
after the revolution, in allegiance to king James. In cour 
seqj^ence, refusing to take the new oaths appointed upoa 
that change, he lost all his preferments ^ and in 1689^ 
when the troubles began to arise in Ireland, withdrew, with 
his family, into England. Here he employed his time ia 
writing a great many political pieces in support of the cause 
he had embraced ; and being confessedly a person 'of ex-* 
traordinary wit and learning,, he became a very formidable 
champion of the nonjurors. His first piece in this. cause 
was an answer to Abp. King's ^^ State of the Protestants i^ 
Ireland, under the late King James's Government," in 
which he shewed himself as averse from the principles and 
practices of the Irish and other Papists, as he was from 
those of the author whom he refuted. Neither did his 
sufferings make him forget bis duty to the church of Eng- 
land ; in defence of which he shewed himself a strenuous 
champion against the quakers, many of whom were con- 
verted by him. But^ as these, converts were desirous oi 
returning to presbytery, whence they had last sprung, he 
was obliged to treat the subject of church government in 
defence of episcopacy. He likewise employed his pen in 
the general cause of the Christian religion, against Jews^ 
Deists, and Socinians. In the mean time, however, these 
writings, and his frequent visits to the courts of St. Ger*- 
inain's and Bar le Due, rendered him obnoxious to the 
government; but he became more so upon the publica- 
tion of the *^ Hereditary Right of the Crown of England 
asserted ;" of which he was the reputed author. Finding 
himself, on this account, under a necessity of leaving the 
kingdom, he repaired to the Pretender at Bar le Duc^ 
where he was allowed to officiate, in a private chapel, after 
the rites of the Church of England s aod it is said be took 

t £ fe L 1 le. 


tnntb pains to convert the Pretender to the Protestant re- 
ligion, but in. vain*. However, to promote the said Preten- 
d«r^s interest, when some hopes of his Restoration were 
/entertained by his party in England, he wrote a letter from 
Bar le Due, dated April 23, 1714, which was printed and 
dispersed among his adherents, in which, after giving a 
flattering description of the Pretender^s person and cha- 
racter, his graceful mien, magnanimity of spirit, devotion 
frefe from bigotry, application to business, ready appre- 
hension, sound judgment, and afTability, so that none con- 
versed with him without being charmed with his good 
sense and temper; he concludes with a proposal, *^ on 
condition of his being restored to his crown, that, for the 
security of the church of England as by law established^ 
he would so far wave his prerogative, ii# the nomination of 
bishops, deans, and all other ecclesiastical preferments in 
the gift of the crown, that five bishops should be appointed, 
of which the archbishop of Canterbury for the time being 
always to be one, who, upon any vacancy, might name 
three persons to him, from whom he would chuse." Many 
other proposals of the like nature were made soon after, 
and several projects were concerted not only in England, 
but an actual insurrection begun in Scotland by his party, 
in 171 S, aU which ended in the crushing and dispersing 

* These l«st posUioos have been 
contested in some respects by an able 
writer, who thas expresses bis opihion : 
** Tbaf he (Leslie) repaired to Bar le 
Dae, and endeaToured to convertjo the 
churchof England bimwhom be consider- 
ed at the rightful sovereign of England, 
i» indeed true; but we have reason to 
believe that this was not in consequence 
of his being obliged to leave the king- 
dom. There, is, in the first place, 
some grounds to believe, that ' The 
Hereditary Right of the Crown of Eng- 
land asserted' was not written by him; 
and there is still in'existence pndoubt- 
ed evidence, that in consequence of 
bis great fame' as a polemic, he waa 
seat to Bar la 0ao for the express pur- 
pose of endeavouring^ to convert the 
son of James ll. by some gentlemen 
of fortmie in Englapd^ . n^o; . wished to 
sea that prince on tbe tjiione of his an- 
cestors. ' Th6 writielf pPthis articje had 
the honour sixtees/ or seventeen years 
kjg(h 10 bo iwQwa to the gruid-d«ngh« 

ter of one of those gentlemen, a lady 
of the strictest veraeity ; and from her 
be received many anecdotes of Leslie 
and his associates, which, as he did. 
not then foresee that he should have the 
present occasion for them, he has suf-^ 
fered to slip from his memory. That 
lady is still alive, and we have reason 
to believe is in possession of many let- 
ters by Leslie, written in cunfidence' 
to her grandfather, both irom Bar le 
Due, and from St. Germain's ; and By 
the account which she gave of these 
letters, Leslie appVars to have con- 
sidered his prince as a weak and in* 
corrigible bigot, though in every thing 
but religion an amiable and accom- 
plished man." Dr. Gleig's Supple*' 
ment to the Encyclopsedia Britannica* 
To this we may add, that the real au- 
thor of the «* Hereditary Right," &c.- 
wastheRev.Mr. Harbin, also a noqjtiror,? 
according to a MS note of the late Mr, 
Whiston's in his copy of the first edi- 
tion of tbia X^ictionary, 

19^ L £ 8 L i B. 

of the rebeH ^and in the PAt«ader*« being obliged te 
leav€ the French doaunion«. 

In this exigence be withdrew to Italj^ whither jLe^fi^ 
attended him^ notwithstanding the tU-ngage he met with 
at that Qourtm The Pretieoder bad given him a premie 
that he shoukl celebrate the chnrch of England derviee in 
bis&m9y ; and that he wonfal bear ^at he ebonld tepre* 
aent to faira on the enhjeet of religion. Bnt the Chev-aiier 
was for from keeping the word be had given, iind on the 
faith of which oar divine had come over $ for^ thoo^ he 
allowed hiai^ for form's sake, te celebrate the ehuh^ of 
England service in bis faimrly, yet he oevar was present 
there; and not only refused to bear Leslie himsdi^ but 
sheltered the ignorance q( his priests, or the badness of 
his cause^ or both) behind his authoril^^ «ftd absolutely 
forbad all discourse concerning religion. However, Leslie 
put up with every things in dutiful sabmiilsita to bib 
avowed sovereign^ till I721» when be fetnrned tO £ng* 
land, revolving) whatever the con9e<|«enoe6 might be^ tb 
die in his own country. Some of his friends, ac^piainting 
lord Sunderlatid with his purposei implored bis peateetkia 
for the good old man, whieh his lordship teadily and ge« 
xierously promised ; and when a member of the House of 
commons officiously waited on Idrd Sunderland with, the 
news that Mr. Leslie bad arrived, he met with such a re- 
oi^tfon fr&m hi) tordship ^% bis lAib^ral ekrund d^iterve'd. 
Our authot then went over to Ireland, where be died 
April 13, 1722> at his d^wn boose dt Gfeshmg^, in thie 
e&titity of Motidghati. 

As to bis character^ fiayle styles him '^ a miin of merit 
and t!e«A*nin^,'* atid telts ui^, that he xtus the Brst wht> wr<yte 
in Great Britain against the errors of madeira BourignoOi 
His booka, adds be> are (ii^icb eneeiAed, a^d especiaHy 
Ms trtatiuie t)f •* The ShAe in the Orass.*^ Salmon ob- 
serves^ that hii works must transnbit him to posterity -as a 
man thit>fmi|;hly I«a;mtd and ttuly pidtis. IVtf. H^mrh^ 
the cOhtinualor of Ware, informs us t^t Les^ made se<> 

vetol toiivtfefts from popery ; and ^snys, that ftotwfthistMiding 

his ltttstak6n opiniOlis about government, and a few other 
matters^ he desertes the hi>^est piisase fer ^d^fetidinig th* 
Cteritttiah Teli|;rdn against D^istft, Jews, Qjirakt^ts, ^Wd test 
admirably well suppoitlng the dootrines of the ehufeb of 
England against th^t «f Jtxftne. The -atilhtMr t)f ¥be ^ Free» 
holder's Journal^** immediately after the death of Mr. 

LESLIE. 157 

Leslie, abserred, that when tbe popish emiMaries w«pe. 
nost active in poiaoiung the miiujs of tba people, Mv* 
Leslie was equaHy vigilant in exposing, borii in publia 
^ndl private, the errors and absurdities e4F the. ]loiiush d(M>« 
trines. Yet, upon the abdieation ol king Jaioe^ be i|e^ 
ftigned bis livings, foUawed bi» fovtonee, and adbereck 
^rmty ta his ifiteFests ; an4» t^fter bia demise^ «a tbose- oit 
the Pretender. Notwithstanding hia well-koown attaeli<^ 
naei^t to jbbe Jacpbite interest, and, bis frequent viMts to 
tbe court of St. Germain's, he was not nuKb ipolested by 
the government ti)l a little before Sacbeverett^s t^ial, wliei* 
be attacked Bp. Burnet rather warmly, in a pani|Aie# 
eailed ^* Tbe good Old Cause, or Lycng in IVntb,*^ io 
which be endeavoured to prove, from th^ bishop's formev 
work^ the truth of that doctrine for which the dootov wae 
prosecuted by tbe Commons, and violently iRvei^hectagainet 
the h^sbop himself. 

Besides' tbe political tracts which be scattered, Mr. Leslie 
left two volumes, in folio, of theologieal works, in which 
be has discussed nearly aU tbe oontroverMes which now 
fjist'uvb tbe peace of the Christian church. Consummate 
karqing) i^ttended by the lowest humihty, the strictest 
piety without the least tincture of morosene^, a convey* 
•ation to 'the last degree lively and s{Mrited, and yet' to tbe 
last degree innocent, 9iade bini the delight of mankind^ 
and leaves wha4; Dr. Hiokes says of hiei unquestionable^ 
that he made more converts to the church of Eb^and 
than any other roan of our times. 

*^ A charge, however,^' says tbe writer whom we have 
already quoted in the preceding note, ^' has been- lately 
brought against him of such a nature, as, if well foi^nded^ 
must detract, not only from his literary fame^ but also 
from bis integrity. ' The short and easy'Metbod with tbe 
Deifts' is unqueetionably bis most valuable^ and^ appa- 
rently, bis most cM^iginal work ; yet this traot ia published 
ia Fi-ench among the works ef the abb6 St R&tj^ wbp dfied 
in led^ ; and therefore it has b^en said, that unless it was 
publiabec}. in English prior to that period, Charles LesHf 
muslt be oonsidered as a shameless plagiary.*^ 

]n answer to this Dr^ Gleig observes^ that << Tbe Eng* 
lisb wqrk was certainly not puUisbed pHp^ to th^ death of 
tbeabb6 St. R6al ; for the first edkion bears date J^kly VfiJk^ 
l^iT^; and yet nifmy reasons conspire to convince us^ ,tbet 
ow countryman waa uo plagiary. There ia, indeed*, a 
striking similarity between die English and tbe French works; 




but this is no complete proof that the one was copied from 
the other.'* Dr. Gleig, after stating some remarkable in- 
stances of a similar coincidence, asks, ^^ After these in^ 
stances of apparent plagiarism, whsch we know to be only 
apparent, has any man a right to say that Charles Leslie 
and the abb6 St. R^al might not have treated their sub- 
ject in the way that they have done, without either borrowing 
from the other ?" And adds : 

^^ But this is not all that we have to urge on the subject. 
If thiere be plagiarism in the case, and the identity of titles 
looks very like it, it is infinitely more probable that the 
editor of St. B^aPs works stole from Leslie, than that 
Leslie stole from St. R^al, unless it can be proved that the 
works of the abb6, and this work in particular, were pub- 
lished before 1697. At that period the English language 
was very little read or understood on the continent; whilst 
in Britain the French language was by scholars as gene- 
rally understood as at the present. Hence it is, that so 
many Frenchmen, and indeed foreigners of different nations^ 
thought themselves safe in pilfering science from the 
British philosophers ; whilst there is not, that we know, 
one well-authenticated instance of a British philosopher 
appropriating to himself the discoveries of a foreigner. 
If, then, such men as Leibnitz, John Bernouilli, and Des 
Cartes, trusting to the improbability of detection, conde- 
scended to pilfer the discoveries of Hooke, Newton, and 
Harriot, is it improbable that the editor of the works of 
St. Real should claim to his friend a celebrated tract, of 
which he knew the real author to be obnoxious to the go- 
vernment of his- own country, and therefore not likely to 
have powerful friends to maintain his right? 

<* But farther, Burnet bishop of Sarum was an excel- 
lent scholar, and well-read, as every one knows, in the 
works of foreign divines. Is it conceivable, that this pre- 
late, when smarting under the lash of Leslie, would have 
let slip so good an opportunity of covering with disgrace 
his most formidable antagonist, had he known that anu- 
gonist to be guilty of plagiarism from the writings of the 
abb6 St. R6al ? Let it be granted, however, that Burnet 
was a stranger to these writings and to this plagiarism ; it 
can hardly be supposed that Le Clerc was a Sttranger to 
them likewise. Yet! this author, when, for reasons best 
known to himself, he chose (1706) to depreciate the ai^u- 
nent of the <^ Short Method/' and to traduce its^ author 

LESLIE. 199 

as ignorant of aqcient history, and as having brought for- 
ward his four marks for no other purpose than to put the 
deceitful traditions of popery on the same footing with the* 
most authentic^ doctrines of the gospel, does not so mucd ' 
as insinuate that he borrowed these marks from a popish 
s^b6,. though such a charge, could he have established it, 
would have served his purpose more than all his rude , 
railings and invective. But there was no room for such ^ 
charge. In the second volume of the works of St. R6al, 
published in 1757, there is indeed a tract entitled ^< M£- 
thode courte et aisee pour combattre les D6istes," and 
there can be little doubt but that the publisher wished it to be 
considered as the work of his countryman. Unfortunately, 
however, for his design, a catalogue of the abba's works 
is given in the first volume ; and ill that catalogue the 
^ M6thode courte et ais^e' is not mentioned.^' 

. His works may be divided into political and theological. 
Of , the former, be wrote, 1. ** An^er to the State of the 
Protestants of Ireland,'' &c. already mentioned. 2. << Cas- 
sandra, concerning the new Associations," &c. 1703, 4to. 
3. ^f B^hearsals ;" at first a weekly paper, published after- 
wards twice a week in a half-sheet, by way of dialogue on 
the affairs of the times ; begun in 1704, and continued for 
six or seven years. 4. "The Wolf stripped of his Shepherd's 
Cloathing, in answer to f Moderation a Virtue,' " 1704, 4to. 
The pamphlet it answers was written by James Owen. 5. 
** The Bishop of Sarum's [Burnet's] proper Defence, from 
a Speech said to be spoken by him against occasional Con- 
formity," 1704, 4to. 6. " The new Association of those 
called Moderate Churchmen," &c. occasioned by a 
pamphlet entitled " The Danger of Priestcraft," 1705, 
4to. 7. "The new Association," part II. 1705, 4to. 8. 
** The principles of Dissenters concerning Toleration 
and occasional Conformity," 1 70.5, 4to. 9. " A Warning 
for the Church of England," 1706, 4to. Some have 
doubted whether these two pieces were his. 10. "The 
good Old Cause, or lying in truth ; being a second Defence 
of the bishop of Sarum from a second Speech," &c. 1710. 
I^or this a warrant was issued out against Leslie. 11.." A 
Letter to the Bishop of Sarum, ^ in answer to his Sermon 
after the Queen's Death, in Defence of the Revolution," 
1715. 12. "Salt for the Leech." 13. "The Anatomy 
of n Jacobite." 14. " Gallienus redivivus." 15. <* De*, 
le^da Carthago." 16, <^ A Letter to Mr. William Moly^ 


too L I S L I E. 

neuxi on hit Case of Ireland's being bonftd by the ISflg* 
liab Aois of Parliament." 17* ^^ A Letter to Julian Jeha« 
son.'' la. Several Tracts again9t Dr. Higden and Mv, 

His theological tracts are, first, against the Quakers | 
n»y 1. <^ The Snake in the Grags/' &c. 1697, 8vo. 2. *^ A 
-Discourse proving the Diving Institution of Water Bap^ 
tism/' &c. ibid. 4to. 3. ** Some seasonable Refiectioiia 
upon the Quakers* solemn Protestation against &^rge 
Keith/* ko. 1697. 4« ** Satan disrobed from his EUsguk^ 
of Light/' 1608, 4to. 5. ^^ A Defence of a book entitlei) 
<The Snake in the Grass/ 1700/' 8vo. 6. ^^ A Reply 
to a book entitled '^ Anguis flagellatus, or a Switch fbjp 
the Snake — being the last part of the Snake in the Gimss,'^ 
1702, 9yo. 7. ^^ Primitive Hepesy revived in the Faith and 
Practice of the Quakers/' li98, 4to. 8. <^ The praseat 
State of Quakerism in England/' 1701. 9. *^ Essay oan-^ 
corning the Divine Right of Tythes/* 1700, 8vo. 

II. Against the Presbyterians : 10. <^ A Discourse, 8he«r«« 
ing who they are that are now qualified to administer Bap^ 
ttsm/* fco. 11. <*Th0 History of Sin and Heresy/^ &o. 
1698, 8vo. 

in. Against the Deists i 12. '^ A short and easy Method 
with the Deisto,*' &c. 1694, 8vo. 18. ''A Vindication of the 
short and easy Method.'* 14. << The Truth of Christianity 
demonstrated, in a Diidogue between a Christian wd a 
Deist,?* 1711, 8vo. 

IV. Against the Jews : IB. <^ A short and easy Method 
with the Jews.^' This is dated at the end, ^^ Good-Friday/* 
1689 ; and the fourth edition was published in 1715. 

V. Against the Socinians: 16. ^^ The Socinian CotitrO'^ 
versy discussed," &o. l|08. 17. '^ An Answer to Remai»ka 
on the first Dialogue against the Socinians.'* 18. A Roply 
to the Vindication of the Remarks." 19. << An Answev to 
the Examination of the last Dialogue/' &c. 20. *^ A Sup-^ 
plement in answer to Mr. C|endon-s * Tractatus philoso* 
pbieo-theologicus 4e Persona','- &e. 21. <^ The Cfaavgi 
of Socinianism against Dr. Tiliotson considered. Ice. by 
a true Son of the Cbuvcb."^ 

VI. Against the Papists } 22. << Of private Judgaseat 
and Authority in Matters of Faith.'' 29. <« The Case stated 
between the Ohurch of Rome and the ChuiKsh of England/^ 
&e. 1718. 24. << The true notion of the Catholio Ohufcni, 
in answer to the l^b<^ of Meaux's I^etter to Mf . IIeUo0|^ 

L I 8 L I I, WA 

Bdftldkes these, he published the foar Mletiiiig tfaots» 
95. ^« A 8eniK>n preaebed iu Cbafter, againit Marviagfet 
in dilfevent Coinmueions/' ITM, 9vo. This eennon oe^ 
easioned Mr. PodwelPs disoourse up6fi the saine tubjed* 
9^. <^ AxDissertation eencerning the Use and Autboriiy of 
Ecolesiastical History.** 07. ^^ The Case pf the Regal and 
tbe Pontificate.'' 28. <^ A Supplement^ in answer to a 
beok entitled * The regal Supremacy In Ecclesiastical 
AiiUi» ass^rted'^^' k^o. These two last pieces were occa- 
sioned by the dispute about the rights of convocation, be«* 
Iween Wake, &c. on one side, and Atterbury and his 
fpiends, among whom was Leslie, on the other. All hie 
Idieological pieces, except that against Titletson, were 
ooUeoted and published by himself in two vols. fok. 179 1,^ 

LEASING (GoTTHOLP Efhraim), a distinguished Geiw 
Duin writer, was born at Kamenz, in Poeierania, in (799* 
His linther, who was a man of tsalents and tear^ning, bad 
destined himself to an acade'aiical life^ but was called to 
taj^e charge of a congregation at Kamene, the place of bia 
nativity. Here he was in correspondence with the most 
Isanous preachers of his time^ published some worhs of bia 
own, and translated several treatises ef Abp. Tllletson. He 
also left behind him a manuscript refutation of some preju-* 
dtces against the reformation. There can be no doubt but 
the ei^ample and cares of so learned and thoughtful a 
father had no inconsiderable influence €>n the early turn 
Mfhiqh Leasing shewed for literature. When, in bis sixth 
year, his father chose to have his picture drawn, in which 
he was te be represented sitting under a tree playing with 
a bird, young Lessing shewed his utter dislike to the plaH> 
and said, << if I am to be painted, let me be drawn with a 
great heap ef books about me, otherwise I had rather . not 
be painted at all ;'^ which was accordingly done. He 
l^asfed five entire years at the high-school at Meissen, to 
M^iich, by his own account, he was indebted for whatever 
learning and solidity of thinking he possessed. Though 
the Latin p&etry belongs to the qficiis perfeciis of a, ^cholwt 
in this academy, and the German poetry to the imperfeeHs^ 
yet he pursued the latter mueh mere than the fbrm ;, and 
celebrated the battle of Kesseldorf in German verse, at 
die request of his father. Prpfessor Kiemm particularly 
Meeuraged him to the study ef mathematies and philoao* 

I 4i0S. Brit.T»Bof«tesQMri»TbMt.'i*BiMli'»TUIoiMii.«-Wartfs Irdand If 
Qarrit<«^oiiei'9 Life of bishop Home^p. 69«««Eiicy«lop. Brit. Supplement* 

102 L E S S I N G. 

pby ; while Grabner, the rector of the academy, wrote t9 
\k\s father concerniog them : " He is a colt that requires a 
double allowance of provender. The lessons that are 
found too difficult for others, are but child's pUy to him. — 
We shall hardly be sufficient for him much longer.-'' Being 
removed to Leipsic, he soon .displayed bis inclination to 
\vrite for the stag^, and likewise made great proficiency in 
the bodily exercises of horsemanship, fencing, dancing, 
and leaping. Mr. Wei$se was his first and principal friend at 
this place ^ and their friendship was only dissolved by 
death. . Lessing frequented the college-exercises but little, 
and that irregularly : none of the professors gave him satis- 
faction, excepting Ernesti, whose lectures he sometimea 
attended ; but he was himself an extensive reader, and 
was especially partial to the writings of Wolff in German* 
He kept, up a great intimacy with Naumann, the author of 
^' Nimrod," on. account of his possessing many singular 
qualities, which were always more agreeable to Lessing^ 
than the common dull monotony of character, even thougjji 
mingled with some weaknesses and defects. Under Kast« 
Xier be exercised himself in disputation ; and here began 
his close connection with Mylius, whose works he after« 
warfls published. His intercourse with this free-thinker, 
and with the con^pany of comedians, however, gave great 
uneasiness to his parents. . His first literary productiooa 
appeared in a Hamburgh newspaper. In company with 
M. Weisse, be translated ^^ Hannibal/' the only tragedy 
of Marivaux, into rhyming Alexandrines. His comedy of 
the ^* Young Scholar,^' which he had b6gun while a school^ 
boy, was finished at Leipsic, from an actual event that 
happened to a young scholar disappointed in his hopes of 
the prize from the acadenny at Berlin. His father about 
this time thought proper to recall him home for a time, in 
order to wean him from the bad company he was thought 
to frequent. In this interval, he composed a number of 
Anacreontics on love and wine. One day, his pious sister 
coming into his room, in his absence, saw these sonnets, 
read them over, and, not a little angry that her brother 
coul4 $10 employ his time, threw them into the fire. A 
trifling burst of resentnient was all he felt on the occasion. 
He took a handful of snow, and threw it into her bosom, 
in order to cooLher zeal.-7-I(e now went back to Leipzig^ 
which place he soon after quitted, going by Wittenberg to 
Serlio. This gave his father fresh uneasiness; and pro^ 


L E S S I N G^. 20S 

duced those justificatory letters of his son, which at least 
display the frankness of his character. , At Berlin, in con- 
junction with Mylius, he compiled the celebrated <^ Sketch 
of the History and Progress of the Drama/' The father of 
a writer who had been sharply criticised in this work, made 
complaint of it to Lessing's father. To this person he wrote 
in answer : ** Th^ critique is mine, and I only lament that 
I did not make it more severe. Should Gr. complain of 
the injustice of my judgment, I give him full liberty to re- 
taliate as he pleases on my works." One of his first ac- 
quaintances in Berlin was a certain Richier de Louvain, 
who, in 1750, from a French teacher, was become secretary 
to Voltaire, with whom he brought our author acquainted. 
—From Berlin he went to Wittenberg, where he plied his 
studies with great diligence, and took the degree of master, 
but remained only one year, and then returned to Berlin. 
At Berlin be undertook the literary article for the periodi- 
cal publication of Voss, in which employment be .both 
wrote and translated a great variety of pieces, and tbrmed 
several plans which were never executed. Among others, 
he agreed with Mendelsohn to write a journal, under the 
title of ** The-best from bad Books :" with the motto taken 
from St. Ambrose, " Legirous aliqua ne legantur.'* "We 
read some books to save others the trouble.'' In 1755, be 
went back to Leipzic, and thence set out upon a journey, in 
company with a young man of the name of Winkler : but 
this was soon interrupted, and broifght on a law-suit, in 
which Lessing came off conqueror. He now, in order to 
please his sister, translated '^ Law's serious Call," which 
was finished and published by Mr. Weisse. At the begin- 
ning of 1759, Lessing went again to Berlin, where he very 
much addicted himself to gaming. This has been attri- 
buted to his situation at Breslaw, where he was in the 
seven years war for ■ some time in quality of secretary to 
general Tauenzien.' E^en the care for his health was con- 
ducive to it. ** Were I able to play calmly," said he, " I 
would now play at all; but it is not without reason that I 
play with eagerness. The vehenient agitation sets my 
clogged machine in motion, by forcing the fluids into cir- 
culation ; it frees me from a bodily torment, to which I 
am often subject" His intimate friedds among the learned 
at Breslaw were Arletius and Klose. Here he was attacked 
by a violent feven Though he suffered much from the 
disease, yet he declared that his greatest torment arose 


fi^m the conTeroatiQbfl of his phygioaD, old IIN^ Mofgeik« 
bes&^Vy whiob he couM acar^ely eadii^re when he was w^iL 
Wb^B the figver was afc iu height, be lay perfectly qai«^^ 
•with great significance in his loeks. This sa rouch struck 
his friend sianding by the bee), that he familiaviy a^ed 
him what be was thinking of? '^ I am eurious to l^novi^ 
what wili pass in my miod wh^a I ^m in the act of dying.'^ 
Being told that was impossible^ he abruptly replied : ^' Yoa 
want to cheat me.'^ On the day of hi^ reception into the 
order of free-masons at Hamhurgb, one of bis friemis, a 
jealous free-mason, took him aside into an adjoining ic^oom, 
and asked him, ^^ Is it not true, now, that you fi^d no* 
thing an)ong us against the goTernmeat, religion, or mo- 
rals r* *^ Yes,*' answered Lessing, with great vivacity, 
*^ would to heaven I bad ! I should then at le^t have found 
SOffiethiBg !'' The extent of his genius must be gathei^' 
from his numerous writings, Mendelsohn said of him ink 
a letter to his brother, shortly after his death, that bo 
was advanced at le^t a century before the age in which 
he lived, 

In 1782, he accompanied his ^neral to the siege of 
Schweidnits ; but after the peace, be was intreduoed to 
the king of Prussia, and then resunled his literayy eociipa<» 
tions at Bevlin. Though he produced many worics, ye% 
they were pot th^ source of much profit, ^nd, in I7#9, bis 
oircumstanoed were so narrow, that he was oUigect to sell 
his library for support At this critical junoture be melF 
with a generous patron in Leopold, heir-appai«nt to the 
duke of Brunswick, through whos^ means be was appointed 
librarian at Wolfenbuttle. One of the fruits of this very 
desirable situation was a periodical publication, entttleNEl 
*^ Contributions to Literary History,'' containing notices 
and extracts of the most remarkable MSS. The '< Contri- 
butions*' were made the vehicle of ^* Fragments of an 
anonymous Writer discovered ia the Library at, WoUen^i 
buttle,'' which consisted of direct attacks upon the Christian 
revelation. They occasioned a great commotion among 
the German theologians, and would not have been printeck 
but for the interference of prince Leopold with the Hc^i* 
sees of the press. In 1778 they were suppressed. Lessing^ 
ftom his risipg fame, and connection with prince l^eopo)d» 
with whom be went on a tour to Ital^, was so distinguished 
among the German hterati, that several potentates of thal^ 
Qoun^ry made him o%rs of an advantageous 8ettleBi6Bt» 

1 E S S t N & <0« 

Notbing, bowievefy could lead him to break his ooowctlMl 
with bis liberal patron the prinoe of Brunswicki wbo^ by 
bis accession ia I'JSO to tbe sovereignty, was enabled to 
augment his favours cowards bioi* His latter publications 
were ^^ Nathan the Wise (*' a secoud pari of the same 
drama) entitled *< The Monk of Lebanon ;*' and ** A Dis* 
sertation on tbe Education of the Human Race.'' He died 
at Hamburgh in tbe month of February, 1781. Lessitig 
had more genius than leaiming, and his fame, therefore^ 
even in his own country, rests on his plays^ fables^ songs^ 
and epigrams. His life was pi|blisbed at Berlin in 179^^ 
and 18 otore replete with anecdote than instruction^ as may 
be gathered from the few circumstances we have detailed^ 
He ^as a decided deist^ and his morals corresponded. ' 

L'£STHANGE (Sir Roger), was descended from aa 
ancuent lund reputaMe family, seated at Ilunstontoli-h^li^ 
Norfolk! where he was born Dec^ 17, 16 1€. He was th« 
youngest son of sir Hamond L'fistrange^ knt a zealous 
royal^ during tbe dUputes between king Charles and his 
j^liament^ \^o> having his estate sequestered, retired to 
l^yfHit of which town be was made governor* The son had 
a Mberal ^ucratioi^ wl^i<^h was oompieti^d probably at Cam* 
bridge 5 atid adoptfed his father's ptinviples with uncooi- 
mon £eat^ and in 1639, when about two-^and* twenty, at** 
tended kin^ Charles upon bis expedition to Scotland, his 
arttaehment to whom some, years after nearly cost bim his 
life* In )644, ftOoti after the earl of Manchester h^d re- 
duced the town t>f Lynn in Norfolk, Mr. L'Estkange, 
thinking he had somb interest in the place^ as his father 
had been gOirevBor of it, formed a plan for surprizing it, 
and redaived a commission from the king^ constituting him 
governor of tbe town in cAse of success: but, being seized^ 
in consequence of the treachery of two of his associates^ 
Leman and tlager^ and his miiajesty's commission found 
upon bimi he v^s oa^ried first to Lyan^ itbenCe to London^ 
and there transmitted to the city court-martial for his trial ; 
wbere^ after Mfferiilg all manner of indignities^ be was^ as 
WhitloOke wys, condemned %o die as a )ipy, coaming from 
tbe kiligU quarters without dr^un, trumpet, or ptos* 

Hts sen^nce* being passed^ be was oas^t into Newgate ; 
whence he dispatched a petitionary appeal to the lords, 
tbe thn^ Appointed for his i&xetution beii)g the lliursday 

1 I^ «s Above,— *Dict. Hiit. 

206 L'£ S T R A N fe E. 


following ; but with great diflSculty he got a reprieve for 
fourteen days, and, after that, a prolongation for a farther 
hearing. In this condition be lay almost four years a 
prisoner, in continual fear of being executed, Hepub^ 
lished in the mean time, *^ An Appeal from the Court* 
martial to th<& Parliament :'' and about the time of the 
Kentish insurrection, in 1648, he escaped out of the 
prison, with the keeper^s privity, and went into Kent. He 
retired into the hotise of Mr. Hales, a young gentleman, 
heir to a great estate in that county, and spirited him to 
undertake an insurrection; which miscarrying, UEstrange 
with much di^iculty was enabled to reach the continent^ 
where he continued till 1653. Upon the long parliament's; 
being dissolved by Cromwell, be returned into England, 
and immediately dispatched a paper to the council at ' 
Whitehall to this effect ; << that, finding himself within the 
act of indemnity, he thought it convenient to give them 
notice of his return." On his being summoned to that, 
board, he'was told by one of the commissioners, that hi» 
case was not comprehended in the act. of indemnity, and 
he therefore formed the bold resTolution of applying in 
person to Cromwell himself, which he effected in th& 
Cockpit * ; and, shortly after, received his discharge by 
the following order, dated October 31, 1653: "Ordered, 
that Mr. Roger UEstrange be dismissed from his farther 
attendance upon the council, he giving in two thousand 
pounds security to appear when he shall be summoned 
so to do, and to act nothing prejudicial to the common- 
wealth. Ex. John Thurloe, secretary;" 

This appearance at the court of Cromwell was much 
censured, after the restoration, by some of the royal party, 
who also objected to him, that he had once been heard 
playing in a concert where the usurper was present, and, 
therefore, they nick-named him ^^ Oliver's Fidler." He 
was charged also with having bribed some of the protector'ji 
people, but he positively disavows it ; averr4ng, he never 
spoke to Thurloe but once in his life about his discharge ; 
and that, though during the dependency of that affair he 
might well be seen at Whitehall, yet he never ipoke to 
Cromwell on any other business, or had the least com« 

* Cromwell then talked to him of peaceable intentions ;" and addiog» 

the resUessness of «bis party : telling that ** rigour waB not at all his inclina- 

him, " that they would do well to give tion, but that he was but one man, and 

fome testimony «f their quiet and could do little by bimseU^'' 

L ' fi S T R A N G E. 


tnetetof any kind with him*. From this to xlte time of 
the restoration, he seems to have lived free from any dig* 
turbance firom the then governing powers; and perhaps 
the obscurity into which he had fallen made him be over-* 
looked by Charles II. and his ministry, on that prince's 
recovering his* throne. He did not, however, so under- 
value his own sufferings and merits, as to put up quietly 
with this usage, and therefore addressed a ^arm expostu- 
laticip to the earl of Clarendon, in' the dedication to that 
minister of his *^ Memento," published in 1662; where 
he joins himself with other neglected cavaliers, who had 
suffered for their attachment to the royal family during the 
civil wars and the succeeding usurpation, at the same time 
acknowledging the personal obligations he had received from 
Clarendon. For. some time his remonstrances appear to 
have produced little effect^ but at length he was made 
licenser of the press, a profitable post, which he enjoyed 
till the eve of the revolution. This, however, was all the 
recompence he ever received, except being in the com- 
mission of the peaces after more than twenty years, as be 
says, spent in serving the royal cause, near six of them in 
gaolff,' and almost four under a sentence of death in New- 
gate. It is true, he hints at greater things promised him ; 
andj in these hopes, exerted his talents, on behalf of the 
crown, in publishing several pieces. * In 1663, for a far- 
ther support, he set up a paper, called ." The Public In- 
telligencer, and the News ;V the first of which came out 
the 1st of August, and continued to be published twice a 
weekj till January 19, 1665; when he laid it down, on 
the design then concerted of publishing the ^^ London Ga- 
zette,'' the first of which papers made its appearance on 
Saturday Feb. 4. f 

^ As to the affair of the concert, 
which seems to have been thought an 
a&ir of greater importance than it de< 
genres; he infcsrms us that, while the 
question of his indemnity was depend- 
ing, being one day in St. James's park, 
he heard an qrgan touched m a low 
room belonging to one Mr. Hinckson ; 
that he went in, and found a private 
company of five or six persons, who 
desired him to take up a viol and bear 
a part, that he did so, not much, as 
he alkrws, tothe reputation of his skill ; 
that by and by, " without the least 
«olottr iff a design or expectation, in 

comes Cromfrolly who found them play- 
ing," and as far as sir Roger remem- 
bered, left them so. — Sir Roger's family, 
according to Dr. Burney, were always 
great patrons of music and musicians ( 
and Cromwell we^ know would some- 
times forgive a royalist, if be was % 
good performer; and robbed Magdatedi 
college of its organ from pure love of 
the art. 

- f This paper succeeded " The Par- 
liamentary Intelligencer" and " Met- 
curius Publioas," published in defeneo 
of the government, against the " Mer- 
curins Politicus." L'fistlnnge desisV 


tion to bis xnemory. He was author of many politicd tracts^ 
aod translated several works from the Greek, Latin, and 
Spanish. Among his political effusions are, 'VHoger UEs* 
tarange^s Apology ;" " Truth ?ind Loyalty vindicated/' &c* 
*^ The Memento ;'* " The Reformed Catholic ;" *< The 
free<>born Subject;" "Answer to the Appeal," &c.; **Sea^ 
nooable Memorial;" " Cit and Bumpkin," in two parts; 
** Farther Discovery ;" " Case put ;*' " Narrative of the 
Plot ;" « Holy Cheat ;" « Toleration discussed ;" « Dis- 
<:overy , on Discovery;" "L'Estrange's Appeal," &c. ; 
'^Collections in defence of the King;" '^ Relapsed Apod*- 
tate ;" " Apology for Protestants ;" " Richard against Bax- 
ter ;" ** Tyranny and Popery ;" *^ Growth of Knavery ;" 
^* L' Estrange no Papist," &c. ; '^The Shammer shammed ;" 
" Account cleared ;" '* RefornAation reformed ;" " Dis- 
senters Sayings," two parts ; " Notes on College, u e. 
Stephen College;" the " Protestant Joiner;" "Zekiel and 
Ephraim;" " Papist in Masquerade;" ^* Answer to the 
Second Character of a Popish Successor ;" " Considera- 
tions on lord Russel's Speech." All these were printed in 
4to. f* History of the Plot ;"• " Caveat to the Cavaliew;" 
'^ Plea for the Caveat and its Author." These were in folio. 
—•"His translations were, ^^Josephus*s Works," his best 
performance : " Cicero's Offices ;" " Seneca's Morals ;'* 
" Erasmus's Colloquies v" " ^sop's Fables ;" " Quevedo's 
Visions;" " Bona's Guide to Eternity;" and "Five Let- 
ters from a Nun to a Cavalier." Besides these, he wrate 
several news*papers, and occasional pieces. 

Mr. Granger has very justly remarked that L' Estrange 
was one of the great corruptors of the English langpage^ 
and he might have added, exhibits one of the worst models 
. of political controversy. He had, however, often to con- 
tend with men whose language was equally vulgar and in- 
temperate ; and having at all times more zeal than judg- 
ment, we can but just discover real talents in a vast mass 
of declamation, which few will now have patience to exL- 
; amine. His newspapers, and some of his political pieces, 
may yet be consulted with advantage for the information 
they contain, and the many traits of characters and man- 
ners Which they exhibit ; but a cautious reader will find it 
often necessary to verify his reports by contemporary evi- 
dence. Coarse, virulent, and abusive writers have some- 
times been thought necessary to the support of political 
parties, and the present age is not without them ; but sucb 


tai^tt l^ea^e no itnpre$sion of respect on the minds even of 
those who employ them, and are genemlly' condemned as 
the 4Dercenarj tools of a party, {n the character of sir 
Roger L*£strange we see not much to distinguish him from 
this class of writers, except that he sometimes discovers a 
portion of ease, elegance, and perspicuity, and might 
probably have displayed these qualities more frequently 
bad be not written more from passion than reflection. It 
may be added too, that he was more coni^istent than some 
of his successors ; and being the first who regularly ** en- 
listed himself under the bamiers of a party for pay, he 
fought for the cause through right and wrong for upwards 
of forty campaigns." This intrepidity gained him the 
esteem of Cromwell himself, and the papers which he wrote 
even just before the revolution, with almost a rope abou( 
bis neck, have the same character of perseverance. 

He bad a brother, Hammond UEstkanojp, who wrote a 
learned work entitled " The Alliance of Divine Offices," 
and a << Life of Charles I." Of him we find no memoirs 
worth tran$cribing. — In 1760 sir Henry L' Estrange, bart. 
•f Hunstanton, died, and with him the title, becami^extinct.^ 

LETHIEULLIER (Sma^it, esq.) gentleman-commoner 
of Trinity college, Oxford, was the second son of John 
Lethieullier, esq. of Aldersbrook, in Essex, , where he bad 
a noble collection of MSS. choice books, medals, and nar 
tural curiosities, which he had collected in his travels 
through France, Italy, and Germany. His father dying 
Jan. 1, 1736-7, and his elder brother being dead before^ 
be became heir to the paternal estates, which were very 
considerable. He was elected F. S, A. in July 1724. He 
married, Feb; 6, 1725-6, Margaret, . daughter of Willtam 
Sloper, esq. of Woodhay, in Berkshire; but- died Aug. 
27, 1760, aged fifty-nine, .without issue. He was sue* 
ceeded in his estates, to which he had added the: manor 
of Birch-ball in Theydon Bois, by Mary, only daughter 
of his next brother Charles Lethieullier, LL.D. feilow of 
All Souls college, F, A. S. and counsellor at law,{ who died 
the year before him. He was an excellent scholar, a 
polite gentleman, and universally esteemed by all tbe^ 
learned men of his time. Some papers of: his are printed 
iq Phil. Trans.. No. 497, and Archseologia, I. p. 26, 57, 73, 
75; 11.291. His library was. sold by auction, 1760^ 

I Biog. Brit — Gen. Diet.— Gibber's LiTes.— Nicbots'f Bowyer.<— Nicboh'y 
Potm8.~«GraDger.— Ecbard't Hiit. of Englandr-^Littrftry M«f ^ini ftr 1758* 

P 2 

flS L ET rtl E V L L 1 K K 

The foAowing «loge was written by the late Mr. CcXlirt* 
•on immediately after thedeath of Mr. Lethieallier : *< He 
was de^ceaded from an ancient family from France in time 
irf persecution, and a gentleman every way eminent for hi» 
excellent endowments. His desire to improre in the civil 
and nfitiiral history of bis country led him to visit all parts 
ef it; the itineraries in his library, and the discoveries he 
made relating to its antiquities, with drawings of every 
iUng remarkable, are evidences of his great application to 
resctie so many ancient remains from mouldering into obli- 
vion. His bftppy turn of mind was not confined solely to 
antiquities, but in these journeys he was indefatigable in 
eollecttng all the variety of En^tsh fossils, with a view to 
investigate their origin : this great collection, which exceU 
inost othei^, is deposited in two large cabinets, disposed 
under their proper classes. The most rare are elegantly 
drawn, and described in a folio book, with his observations 
on them. As the variety of ancient marbles had engaged 
his attention, and he found so little ^aid of them with re** 
ipect to their natural history, it was one of hb motives, in 
visiting Italy, to furnish himself with such materials as he 
was able to procure froin books, and learned men, relating 
to them. He collected specimens of the most curious, and 
had drawings, finely painted, of the most remarkable mo- 
miments of the ancient marbles; they are bound up in a 
folio vohime, with all the observations he could gather re-^ 
lating to their natural history and antiquity. His cabinet 
of medals, his ooUection of antiquities of various kinds, 
and most elegant books of the finest engravings, are in«- 
stances of the fine taste with which he has enriched bis 
library and cabinet with the spoils of Italy. This short but 
imperfect memoir is candidly offered as a tribute due to a 
long finendsbip. It is wished it may excite an abler pen 
to do more justice to the memory of this great and good 
man. But it is humbly hoped that these hints will be ae- 
cepted not only as a testimony of respect, but may alsa 
inform an inquisitive genius in these brafaches of science 
jwhere hemray be assisted with snob valuable materials for 
the prosecution of his future studies.^' 

His cousin^ Colonel William Letrieullier, who was 

. ^p F. A..S. travelled into Egypt, and brought over a very 

r. perfectiQiiimmy) tbe British museum, with most of 

the coloners collections, the rest having been in Mr. 

Smart Letbieullier^a haDd& A committee of the trasteea 


mated dii the eokintra wecttt(ir% Feb. 99/ 1 756, tor«« 
t«rn thanlus for the feluable legacy of a fine mnnraiy, and 
a curious collection of Engli^ antiquities. Oil this occa- 
sioB Pitt LeCfaieulHer, esq. nepbew to the colonel, pre- 
sented them with sereral antiquities^ which he hiaaself had 
collected during bis residence at Grand Cairo. ' 

LETI (GREGoar), a Toluminoua writer of hi^ory, was 
bom at Milan, May 29, 1630, of a family once of consider- 
abLe distinction at Bdogna. lie was intended for tbe 
church, but was induced to make open profession of tbe 
protestafit religion at Lausanne in 1€S7. This so pleased 
Guerin, an eminent physician, with whom he lodged, thkt 
he gave him his daughter for a wife ; and Leti, settling at 
Geneva in 1 660, passed nearly twenty years in that citjr 
employed on many of his publications. In 1674, the free- 
dom cf the city was presented to htm, which had never 
before been granted to any stranger, five years after he 
went to France^ and in 1680, to England, where he was 
very graciously received by Charles 11. ; received a large 
present in money, and was pvomised ^ place of histt)*- 
riograpfaer. On this he wrote bis ^Teatro Britannico,^' a 
history of England ; but, this work displeasing the cowt, 
he was order^ to quit the kingdom. Leti then went to, 
Amsterdam, had the offi(5e of historiographer in that city, 
and died suddenly June 9, 1701, aged seventy-one. He 
was an indefatigable writer, and tells us in his f' Belgic 
Theatre," that three days in the week he spent twelve hours 
in writing, and six hours the other three days ; whence the 
number .of his works is prodigious. Tbe greatest part are 
written in Italian ; among whidi are, " The Nepotism of 
Home,'' 2 vols. 1 2 mo; ^< The Universal Monarchy of Louis 
XIV." 2 vols. l2mo; ^* The Life of Pipe Sixtus V." im 
Italian, Amsterdam, 17£l, 3 vols. 12mo, plates; in Freocfa, 
4to, or 2 vols. 12mo ; and in English by Fame worth. *^ The 
Life of Philip II. king of Spain," 6 vols. 12mo; ''Of Charles 
V." Amsterdam, 17 SO, 4 vols. 12mo; ''Of Queen Eliza* 
beth," Amsterdam, 1741, 2 vols. 12mo, plates; " Hi^^ry 
of Cromwell,^' 1703, 2 vols. 12mo, plates ; '* Life of Cit- 
ron, duke d'Ossone," 3 vols. 12mo ; "The French Tfaeatue," 
7 vols. 4to, a bad work ; " Tbe Belgic Theatre," 2 vols* 
4to, equally bad ; " The British Theatre,, or Histojy of 

} Nichols'i Bowyer.-i^LyiOBs'i EnTirottSy toI. IV. 

214 XETI. : 

-England,*^ Amsterdam, 1684, 5 vols. 12mo ; in which th^re 
is. a- capital portrait of queen Elizabeth. It was fortiiis 
work that he was sent out of England. ** L'ltalia regnante,^ 
4to18. 12mo; "History of the Roman Empire in Germany,'* 
4 vols. 4to; "The Cardinalism of the Holy Church," 3 
vols. 12mo, a violent satire ; ** History of Geneva,** 5 vols. 
Idmo; "The just balance in which are weighed all' the 
maxims of Rome, and the actions of the living cardinals,** 
4 Vols. 12mo ; ** The Historical Ceremonial,** 6 vols. 12ma; 
^' Political Dialogues on the means used by the Italian Re- 
publics for their pireservation," 2 vols, l^mo ; ** An Abridg- 
ment of Patriotic virtues,'- 2 vols. 8vo ; ** Fame jealous of 
Fortune; a panegyric on Louis XIV.** 4to; "A Poem oh 
the enterprize of the Prince of Orange in England,** 1695, 
folio ; " An Eulogy on Hunting," l2mo ; " Letters,** i vol. 
12mo; "The Itinerary of the Court of Rome,*' 3 vols. 
Svo; "History of the House of Saxony,*' 4 vols. 4 to; 
^ History of the House of Brandenburg,** 4 vols. 4to ; **The 
itlaughter of the Innocent reformed,*' 4to ; " The Ruins of 
the Apostolical See,** 1672, 12mo, &c. Although M.leClerc,, 
his son-in-law, has mentioned him with high encomiums,^ 
we know few writers of history who are less to be depended 
on, having debased all his productions with fable. It is 
impossible to give credit to him unless his facts can be sup- 
ported by other authority. He, on, some occasions, assumes 
all the dignity of conceited ignorance, and relates his fic- 
tions with aJl the confidence of a vain man, who thinks he 
cannot be contradicted. His aim indeed was to please ra- 
ther than instruct, and he has, with his anecdotes, fre- 
quently amused and misled his readers. We know few 
more amusing works than his ^^ Life of pope Sixtus V."*** 
Granger, whose character of him we have partly adopted, 
relates that Let! being one day at Charles il.*s levee, thd 
king said to him, " Lett, I hear you are writing the history 
of the court of England.** " Sir," said he, " I have been 
for some time preparing materials for such a history.** 
*^Take care," said the king, *' that your work give "no of- 
fence.'* " Str,'* replied Leti, *' I will do what I can ; but 
if a man were as wise as Solomon, he would scarce be able 
to avoid giving some offence.** '^ Why then,** rejoined the 
king, ^< be as wise as Solomon, write proverbs, not \fi$n^ 

9 'Morefi«^Nioei«D» rolt. ILaad X.«-!Oen. Diet— -Grang^er, vol* IV* 

L E U C I P P U S. 215 

LEUCIPPUS, a philosopher of considerable eminence 
in the fifih century B. C. the first propagator' of the sys- 
tem of atoms, is said by Diogenes Laertius, who has writ- 
ten his life, to have been a native of Elea. He wan a dis- 
ciple of Zeno the Eleatic philosopher. Dissatisfied witb 
the attempts of former philosophers to account for the na^ 
tur^e and origin of the universe metaphysically, Leucippus^ 
and his follower Democritus, determined to restore tho 
alliance between reason and the senses, which metaphy^ 
.sical subtleties had dissolved, by introducing the doctrine 
of indivisible atoms, possessing within themselves a prin- 
ciple of motion ; and although several other philosophers^ 
before their time, had considered matter as divisible into 
indefinitely small particles, Leucippus and Democritus 
were the first who taught, that these particles were origi- 
nally destitute of all qualities except figure and motion, and 
therefore may justly be reckoned the authors of the atomic 
System of philosophy. They looked upon the qualities, 
which preceding philosophers had ascribed to mattei*, as 
the mere creatures of abstraction ; . and they determined to 
admit nothing into their system, which they could not esta^r 
blish upon the sure testimony of the senses. They were 
also of opinion, that both the Eleatic philosofihers, and 
those of other secb, had unnecessarily encumbered their 
respective systems, by assigning some external or internal 
cause of motion, of a nature not to be discovered by the 
senses* They therefore resolved to reject all metaphysical 
principles, and, in their explanation of the phenomena of 
nature, to proceed upon no other ground than the sensi- 
ble and mechanical properties of bodies. By the help of 
the internal principle of motion, which they attributed to 
the indivisible particles of matter, they made a feeble and 
fanciful effort to account for the production of all natural 
bodies from plify^ical causes, without the intervention of 
Deity. But, whether they meant entirely to discard the 
notion of a divine nature from the universe, is uncertain. 
This first idea of the atomic system was improved by De« 
mocritus, and afterwards carried to all the perfection which 
a system so fundamentally defective would admit of, by 
£picurus. The following sumuiary of the doctrine of Leu- will exhibit the infantstate of the atomic philosophy,* 
^nd at the smne time sufficiently expose its absurdity. 

The universe, which is infinite, is in part a plenum^ and 
in part a vacuum. The plenum contains innumerable cor* 

$lt I E U C 1 f P U S. 

Ipuieles or atoms, of various figures, which falling into the 
^acuuftif struck against each other; and hence arose a 
variety of curvilinear motions, which continued till, at 
length, atoms of similar forms met together, and bodies 
were produced. The primary atoms bfeing specifically of 
€qual weight, and not being able, on account of dieir mul- 
titude, to move in circles, the smaller rose to the exterior 
parts of the vacuum, whilst the larger, entangling them* 
selves, formed a spherical shell, which revolved about its 
centre, and which included within itself all kinds of bodies^ 
This central mass was gradually increased by a perpetual 
liccession of particles from the surrounding shell, till at 
last the earth was formed. In the mean time, the spheri- 
cal shell was continually supplied with new bodies, which, 
in its revolution, is gathered up from without. Of the 
particles thus collected in the spherical shell, some in their 
combination formed humid masses, which, by their circular 
motion, gradually became dry, and were at length ignitedj 
and became stars. The sun was formed in the same man- 
ner, in the exterior surface of the shell ; and the moon, in 
its interior surface. In this manner the world was formed ; 
and by an inversion of the process, it will at length be 

tive of Amelbrun in Westphalia, descended from a noble 
family, was born about 1533. He visited almost all the 
European courts, and, during his stay in Turkey, collected 
such excellent materials for an Ottoman history, that the 
public are indebted to him for their best iuformation re- 
specting that empire. His knowledge of law, as well as of 
the learned, languages, enabled him also to succeed in 
translating the *' Abridgment of the Basilica,'* 1596, S 
vols folio. He was indeed one of the most celebrated 
translators which Germany has produced; He died June 
1593, at Vienna, aged sixty. His works are, ^^ The Mus- 
sulman History,*' 1591, folio, Latin ; *^ Annals of the Otto- 
Hian Saltans," folio^ which he translated into Latin, from 
the translation made of it, by John Gaudier, otherwise 
Spiegel, horn Tttrkisb into German. The supplement to 
these Annals be continued to 1588, under the title of 
^^ Pandectae Turcicse." These two works may be foond at 
the end of Cbaleondyles, printed at theXouvre. He wrote 

1 ()lo|^. Lscrtiiis,— Stanley '« HUt^Erucker.— Gea. Diet, 

L E U N C L A V 1 U S. «A 

mko ^ Commentatio de Mosconim bellts aMhr«rsfis finitimot 
gestis/* in the oollection of Polish hUtoriatift by Plsloriof, 
Baftil, \BBif 3 vols, folio; and Latin translations of Xeno^ 
phon, Zozimos, Constantino Manasses, Micba^ <7lycafl^ 

LEITSDEN (John), an eminent orientid and clitssieal 
•cholar, was born at Utrecht, April 26, 1624, of reputable 
parents, who died when he was very yonng. He studied 
at the schools and university of Utrecht, and toc^E his dd^ 
g#ee of master of arts in 1647. To his philosophical course, 
he then added the study of theology, and particularly the 
oriental languages, in which he made great proficiency^ 
in 1649, he was admitted among the number of candidates 
for the ministry, and (hen went to Amsterdam to acquire 
a more perfect knowledge of the Hebrew, atid of the 
Jewish customs, availing himself of the instructions of two 
learned Jews, one of whom, being an Arabian, gav^ htm 'a 
favourable opportunity of adding that language to his -stock* 
On his return to Utrecht in January 1650, h6 was licensed- 
to teach the oriental languages, an honour which induced 
htm to return once more to Amsterdam, to study the Tal- 
iiiad and the Rabbins. In July of the same year, the cu- 
rators of the university of Utrecht appointed' him professor 
extraordinary of Hebrew. He wa^ required to give only 
two lectures p^week, which, however, be iifcr^ased to 
three, and included the oriental lar-^'uages and theology; 
and when he received a call to a congregation in Flanders, 
the curators of the university, unwilling to part with a man 
of such ability, promoted him to the chair of professor in 
ordinary, which he filled with great reputation. In 1658 
he travelled through the Palatinate and the neighbourhood, 
and afterwards visited France and England. On his return 
he married, and had a numerous family. Three of his 
sons attained considerable eminence, Rodolph as a phy*^ 
sician, John WiUtam as a counsellor and burgomaster, and 
James as a divine. After long ertjoying a good state of 
health, the result of temperance and exercise, be was at-* 
tacked by the nephritic colic, which, after torilienting him 
fbr some weeks, occasioned his death, Sept. 30j 1699, in 
his seventy-fifth year. He was a man of a frahk^ liberal 
temper, and benevolent ; he was very kind to foreign 

> Niccron, rol. XXVI«— Diet. lliaL — Saxii Ononuuticon.— Baillet Ju^ement 

«l< ' L E U S D E N. 

studenl9, particularly those from Hangnry, and used to be 
called the Father of the Hungarians. His manner of teach* 
log was clear and methodical ; and by that, and a strict, dis- 
cipline, he -produced many eminent scholars. 

Leusden, as far as we know, published veiy little that 
was original ; but as a critical editor, he is eutiiled to high 
commendation for skill and accuracy, and many of hit 
publications are well known in this country. Among these 
we may notice,. 1. " Philologus Hebrsus," Utrecht, 1652, 
4tQj twice reprinted. 2. *^ Jonas illustratus Heb. Chal. 
et Latin.". &c. ibid. 1656, 1692, Svo. 3. " Joel ex» 
plicatuB per paraphrasim Cbaldaicam,'' ibid. 1657, Svp. 
The book of Obadiah is added to this. 4^. /' Philologus 
Hebrsso-mixtos, una cum spicilegio Philologico," con« 
taining various critical dissertations, ibid. 1663, Leyden, 
1632, and 1699, 4ta* S. <^ Onomasticum Sacrum,'' an 
explanation of all the names in the Old and New Testa* 
menty ibid. i665^ and 1684, 8vo. Crenius notices a sin* 
g^ar mistime of his, making Bernice the name of a man. 
6. <^ Psalterium Hebrseum," Amst. 1666, 8vo. 7. ^^ Biblia 
Hebr^a,^' Amst, 1667, 2 vols. 8vo. 8. ^^ Clavis Qrapca 
Nov. Test.'* 1672, .8vo. 9. « Nov. Test. Gr^cum," 
Utrecht, 1675, 12mo, repeatedly printed, and well known 
in this country. 10. *^ Versio Septut^inta Interpretum/'' 
Amst 1683. 11. <^ Lexicon novum Hebr«o-Latin^m,'' in 
the manner of Sohrevelius, Utrecht, 1^87, 8vo. 12, An 
edition of ^^ Pool's Synopsis," ibid. 5 \M$. fol. ; an editioq 
of Bochart's works, and another of.Lighttoot's.^ 

LEUWltlNHOEK (ANTjaONv), a celebrated Diitch phi^ 
losoph^, was born at Delft, in 1632 ; and acquired a greajt 
reputation throughout all Europe, by bis experiments and 
discoveries in natural history, by means qf the microscc^e. 
He particularly excelled in making glasses for microscopes 
and spectacles ; and he was a member of most of the li- 
terary societies of Europe; to whom he sent many ipe-t 
moars. Those in the Philosophical Transactions^ and in 
the Paris Memoirs, extend through many volumes;;^ th^ 
former were extracted and published at Leydcn in 1722. 
He died in 1723, at ninety-one years of age. His Select 
Works have lately been translated into English from the 
Dutch and Latin editions published by the author, by Mr. 
Samuel Hoole, 1 798-— 1800, 3 parts 4to.* 

1 Bnnnan Trajeck. Enidit. — ^Chaufepie. — ^NicerOD, ToL 2XIXi«— Ssxii Ooeav 
5 Hailer Bibl. Med.-rliatton'8 Dictionary. 

LEVEE. n$ 

■ LEVER (Sir Ashton), the founder of a valuable mn>^ 
.seuin, was the son of sir D'Arcy Lever of Alkington^ near 
Manchester. He finished bis education at Corpus Chiisti 
coUege, Oxford ; and on leaving the university went to 
reside with his mother, and afterwards settled at his fa- 
niily*seat, which he rendered famous by the best aviary in 
the kingdom. He next extended his views to ail branches of 
natural history,, and became at length possessed of one of 
the finest museums in the world, sparing no expence ia 
procuring specimens from the most distant regions. This 
was removed to London about 1775, and opened for the 
public in Leicester-house, Ldicester»square ; but for want 
of suitable patronage, sir Ashton was in 1785 obliged to 
dispose of it by way of lottery, to his very great loss. It 
fell to the lot of a Mr. Parkinson, who built rooms on the 
Surrey side of Black-friars bridge tor its reception, and 
did every thing in his power to render it interesting to the 
public, but after some years, was obliged to. dispose of it 
by auction, when the whole of the articles were dispersecL 
Sir Ashton died in 1788, of an apoplectic attack while sit? 
fihg with the other magistrates at Manchester.^ . 

LEVER (Thomas), a celebrated divine of the sixteentb 
century, was born at Little Lever, in Lancashire, and 
icducated at Cambridge, where- after taking his degrees, 
he was chosen fellow, and then master of 8t. John's coU 
lege. He was ordained both deacon and priest in 15S(>^ 
by bishop Ridley, and became a taost eloquent and po^ 
pular preacher in the reign of king Edward. He is, iur 
deed, on his monument called by way of distinqtton, 
*^ preacher to king Edward.'* Under his mastership St, 
John^s college greatly flourished, a^id in it the reforma* 
tion gained so much ground, that on the commencement 
of the Marian persecution, he and twenty-four of the felr 
lows resigned their preferments. Mr. Lever went abroad, 
afid resided with the other exiles for religion at Francfort^ 
where he in vain endeavoured to compose the differences 
which. arose among them respecting chjurcb disciplige and 
the habits. He resided also for some time in Switzerland, 
at a place called Arrow, where he was pastor to a congre^ 
gation of English exiles. Here he became so much a fa* 
Tourer of Calvin's opinions, as to be considered, on hi^ 
return to England, as one of the chiefs of the party who 
ppposed the English church-establishment. The indiscreet 

A Oent. and Europ. Mag. for HSS. 

220 LEV 

conduct of feme of. them sooti made the whole obnc^oas 
to government ; and uniformity being strictly pressed, Mr. 
Lever suffered among others, being convened before the 
archbishop of York, and deprived of his ecclesiastical pre*- 
ferments. Many of the cooler churchmen thought him 
iiardiy dealt with, as he was a moderate man, and ndt for^ 
ward in opposing the received opinions. Bernard Gilpin, 
his intimate friend, was among those who pitied, and ex- 
pressed his usiMl regard for him. His prefermfents were 
a prebend of Durham, and the mastership of Sherburn 
hospital ; Strype mentions the archdeaconry of Coventry, 
but is not clear in his account of the matter. He appears 
to have been allowed to retain the mastership of the hos- 
pital, where he died in July 1577, and was buried in its 
ehapel. Baker in bis MS collectioiv^ gives a very high 
character of him as a preacher. ** In the days of king 
Edward, when others were striving for preferment, no man 
was more vehement, or more galling in his sermons, against 
4be waste of church revenues, and other prevailing cor- 
r^ptions of the court; which occasioned bishop Ridley to 
rs^nk him with Latimer and Knox. He was a man of as 
much natural probity and blunt native honesty as his coU 
lege ever bred ; a man without guile and artifice ; who 
never made suit to any patron, or for any preferment; one 
that had the spirit of Hugh Latimer. No one can read 
his sermons without imagining he has something before 
faiiti of Latimer or Luther. Though bis sermons are bold 
and daring, and full of rebuke, it was his preaching that 
got him bis preferment. His rebuking the courtiers made 
them afraid of him, and procured him reverence from the 
king. He was one of the best masters of his coHege, as 
Weil as one of the best men the ccrfl^e ever bred.'^ He 
was succeeded io the mastership of his hospital by his bro- 
ther Ralph, vrhom some rank as a puritan, altboogh his 
title seems doubtful. He was however, of less reputation 
than his brother. Mr. Thomas Lever's printed works are 
a- few f* Sermons,*' which, like Latimer's, contain many par- 
ticulars of the n^anners of tbe times ; and three treatises 
** The right way foom the danger of sin and vengeance in 
this wicked worid,** 1575 ; a ^'Commentary on the LcMrd's 
Prayer ;" and " The Path-way to Christ." * 

, 1 Stiype's CmBmer, p. 16S. SSa-^ Parker, 911, 343, QHS-^^-uad. Oriiubl, 
170.--Gilpin'8 Life of Gilpin, p. 142.— Fuller's Wortljies.— Brook's Lives of 
the Poritans.— Harwood't AlooiDi EtonenseSf p. 1*73. 


LEVESQUE (Pjet£R CHakles), a learned French wri- 
ter, wbo spent a long life in the study of history and ge*- 
neral literature, was born at Paris, March 28, 173$. Of 
his private life we have no account; and our authority 
apologizes iFor this by assuring us that it contained none of 
those incidents that are interesting in biography, and that 
he was known only by his numerous publications. He 
was, however, in the course of his life, professor of moraia 
and history in the college of France^ a ttiember of the old 
academy of inscriptions and belles-lettres, a member of the 
institute of the class of ancient history^ and a knight of the 
legion of honour. He died at Paris, March 12, IS 12^ 
leaving the following proofs of his talents and industry* 
1. ^' Le reves d^Aristobule, philosophe Grec, suivis d^ua 
abreg)6 de la vie de Formose, philosophe Fran^ais,*' Paris, 
1761, 12mo. 2. *^ Choiz de poesies de Petrarque," trans<> 
lated from the Italian, 1774, 8vo, reprinted in 1787, 2 
vols. 12mo. This translation is faithful, but wants the 
spirit and graces of the original. 3« ** L^homme moral,^ 
Amst 1775, a work which haf been ofteo reprinted, and is 
said to have been written at Petersburgh, for the use of 
the Russian youth. Its objeet seems to be to tak^a sur- 
vey of man in the savage and social state, and during all 
the modifications of the latter ; and its contents are a se- 
ries of remarks on all subjects connected with happiness, 
not always profound, but often striking, lively, and agree* 
able. From its being printed oftener in Holland than in 
france, it is probable that this work, as well as the follow- 
ing, was written with more freedom of sentiment than was 
then agreeable. 4. ^^ L'homme pensant, ou Essai sur 
Tbistoire tie Tesprit humain,^' Amst. 1779, 12mo. 5. 
'^Histoirede Russie,'' Paris, 1785, 5 vols. 12mo. This 
is esteemed a very accurate sketch of Russian history ; 
$iid was followed by a sequel, 6. ** Histoire des differens 
peuples soumis a la domination des Russes," 2 vols. Both 
were reprinted in 1800,. with a continuation to the et)d -of 
the reign of Catherine, 8 vols. 8vo. In this last, he offers 
a very able vindication of the conduct of that empress in 
.the early part of her reign. 7. ^* £loge historique de 
I'abb^ Mably,*^ Paris, 1787, 8vo. This obtained the prize 
of the academy of inscriptions and belles lettres. 8. *< La 
France sous les cinq premier Valois,'' Paris, 1788, 4 vols. 
12mo. 9. *^ Dictionnaire des arts, de peinture, sculpture, 
etgravure,'* Paris, 1792, 5 vols. Svo. He compiled this 


dictionary in conjunction with Watelet, to wbom oii^ &it^ 
tbority attributes the principal merit of it. 10, A trart^ 
Jation^ highly praised^ of " Thucydides,*' Paris, 1795, 4 
Tols. 4to. . Levesque also contributed variousv^ssays to the 
jnemoirs of 'the institute, and wrote many of the articled in 
that collection of the ancient moralists which was pobisflbed 
by Didot and Debure. ' Not long before bis death he pofa- 
lisbed <' L'etude de Phistoire de la Grece,^' 4 vols. 8va.; 
not, as is said, a learned work, but a popular introduction 
to the knowledge of Grecian history.^ 

LEVI (David), a learned Jew, and zealous defender 
of the opinions of that people, was born in London m 
1740, and after a regular apprenticeship to a dioemaker, 
settled in that business ; but, not succeeding in it, com* 
menced hat-dresser ; and in this 4iew profession, though 
surrounded with domestic cares, still finding time^ for 
study^ produced a volume on the ^^ Rites and Ceremonies 
of' the Jews,'* 1783, 8vo. He next published ^'Lingua 
Sacra,'' 3 vols. Svo, containing^ an Hebrew Grammar with 
points, clearly explained iu English, and a complete He- 
breW'English Dictionary, which came out in numbers^ 
1785 — 1789. This performance, though by no means the 
most perfect of its kind that might be produced, is a great 
instance of industry and perseverance in a person who was 
confined all the time to a mechanical business to supply 
domestic wants. In 1787 he published his first ^^ Letters 
to Dr. Priestley,^' in answer to his *^ Letters addressed to 
the Jews," inviting them to an amicable discussion of the 
evidences of Christianity ; in which he says, *^ I am not 
ashamed to tell you that I am a Jew by choice, and not 
because I was borii a Jew ; far from it ; for I am clearly of 
opinion that every person endowed with ratiocination ought 
to have a clear idea of the truth of revelation, and a jdit 
ground of his faith, as .far as human evidence can go/' 
In 1789 lie published his second ^' Letters to Dr. Priest- 
ley," and also " Letters to Dr. Cooper, of Great Yar- 
mouth," in answer to his one great argument in favour of 
Christianity from a single prophecy ; 2. to Mr. Bicheno ; 
3. to Dr. Krauter ; 4. to Mr. Swain ; 5. to Anti-Socinus^ 
alias Anselm Bailey ; Occasioned by their Remarks on his 
first Letters to Dr. Priestley. In this year he published the 
^' Pentateuch, in Hebrew and English," with a translation 

> Diet Hist SoppleoieDt 

L^E V t 2B3! 

of the notes of Lion Socsroaan, ahd the 613 precepts con-* 
tained in the la\y, according to Maimonides. At the end < 
of th6 fiame year, at the earnest request of the . most con- 
siderable of the Portaguese Jews, Jbe undertook to trans- 
late their prayers from Hobrew into English; which he* 
accomplished in four years (though confined to his bed by 
iilness twenty«-seven weeks), the last of six volumes ap- 
pearing in 1793. The first volume of his '^ Dissertations 
on the Prophecies^' was* also published in 1793; and in 
1794 his Translation of the Service for the two first NightS' 
of the Passover, as observed by all the Jews at this day, 
in Hebrew and English. In 1795 he published '< Lettera 
to Nathaniel Brassey Halhed,^ M. P. in answer to his Tes- 
timony of the Authenticity of the Prophecies of Richard 
Brothers, and his pretended mission to recall the Jews7' 
A second volume of his *^ Dissertations on the Prophecies'* 
appeared in 1796, which he intended to complete in six 
volumes; and of which, in May 1797, more than half of 
the third volume was printed. In the beginning of 1797 
be published a ^' Defence of the Old Testament," in a se- 
ries of letters addressed to Thomas Paine, in answer to 
his Age of Reason, part IL For the German Jews h& 
translated their Festival Prayers, as he bad done those of 
the Porl;uguese, in 6 vols. 8vo ; a labour of four years* 
By all the synagogues in London Mr. Levi was regularly 
employed to translate the prayers composed on any par- 
ticular occasion, as those used during, the king's iilness in 
. 1788, and the thanksgiving in 178S; with various others 
for.tbe use of the several synagogues. He wrote also a 
sacred ode in Hebrew, 1795, on the king's escape froiQ 
assassination. On Nov. 14, .1798, he had a violent stroke 
of the. palsy, which nearly deprived him of the use of his 
^'igbt hand. He died in July 1799, in the fifty-ninth year 
of. his age, and was. interred in .the. Jews' burial-ground 
near Betfanal-green, . with a Hebrew .epitaph, of which the 
following i$ a translation — ^^ And David reposed with j^is 
fathers, and was buried. Here iieth a correct and proper 
person, of perfect carriage, who served the Lord all ius 
daysj turned away fropi evil, ap4 ^^ supported by his 
own industry all the days of his life ; Rabbi David the son 
of Mordecai the Levite, of blessed memorjv vi'ho departed 
for the next world on the Sabbath night, 3d of Ab., and 
was buried with good reputation on Monday the fourth ; 
the days of bis life were 59 years. May hiii soul be en- 

224 Ltvntr. 

ireloped with AbrBfaam, Isaac» and Jacob. Mayeot tboil 
come io the grave at full age.*' ^ 

LEVRET (Ai/DREW), an eminent Freoch suigeon and 
accoQcheur, was born in 1703, and was admitted a member 
of. the royal academy of surgery at Paris in February 1742. 
He obtained a high and extensive reputation in bis depart- , 
ment of the art by the improvements which be made in 
some of the instruments necessary to be employed in cer« 
tain difficult cases (especially the forceps), and by the pro- 
digious number of pupils whom he instructed. He. was 
employed and honoured with official appointments by all 
the female branches of the royal family. He published 
several work^, which underwent various editions and trans* 
lations* 1 • ^^ Observations sur les causes et les accideua 
deplusieurs accouchemens laborieux/' Paris, 1747. Tot}ie 
fourth edition, in .1770, were added, ^* Observations on the 
lever of Roonhuysen." 2. " Observations sur la cure radi-. 
cale de plusieurs polypes de la matrice, de la gorge, et du 
nez, oper6e par de nouveau:c moyens," ibid. 174d, &c« 
3. ^^ Suite des observations sur les causes et les accidens 
de plusieurs accouchemens laborieux,*' ibid. 1751. 4* 
<^ Explication de plusieurs figures sur le m^chanisme de la 
grossesse, et de Taccouchementy" ibid. 1752. 5. <^L'Art 
des accouchemens d^montr^ par des principes de physique 
et de mecbanique," ibid. 1753, &c. 6. <^ Essai sur Tabus 
des regies generales, et contre les pr6jug4s qui s'opposent 
aux progres de Tart des accouchemens/' ibid. 1766. This 
author died Jan. 22, 1780.' 

LEWIS (John), a learned English divine and antw 
quary, was the eldest son of John Lewis, wine-oooper, io 
the parish of St Nicholas, Bristol, where he was born^ 
Aug. 29, 1675. His father dying while be was in his in-* 
fancy^ he was committed to the care of his maternal 
grandfather John Eyre, merchant of Poole in Dorsetshire^ 
who instilled into his infant mind the first principles of re^ 
ligion. Losing this relation, however, before he. was se-* 
ven years old, he was taken into the house of the rev, Sa-* 
muel Conaat, rector of LitchetMatravers (an intimate ac* 
quaintance of his grandfather Eyre), and educated along 
with a nephew whom Mr. Conant was preparing for» 

lio school* This was an assistance peculiarly acceptable 


. 1 Europ. Mag. 1799«-— Qent. Muf. 186l.— -Lysoiiiff 6nTir9iit» SappLvol* 
^ Dick. Hist.-«ltMs'8 Cyclopaedia^ from £loy. 

to Mr. Lewi^'ii mother^ who appears to faav^ bef a left in 
ctrcumsts^uces which were not adequate to a Uberai educa- 
tion. After renciaining with Mr. Conaht two years, he wa4 
placed under the instruction of the learned Mr. John Moyle, 
at the grammt^rrschool of Winborne, in 1687, upon whosQ 
decease the year following, he was removed fo Poole, but 
reaped little benefit there, until he was put under tbe^are 
of Mr. John Bussel, who was encouraged to establish a 
grammar-school there. Mr. Russel, finding him to be a 
youth of talents and industry, employed him as his assis- 
tant : and after his removal to Wapping in London, cpn- 
tin-ued his favours to him, placing him at the free-school 
of Ratcliife-cross, belonging to the Coopers^ company. 

Two years after, when he was about sixteen year$ old, 
Mr. Daniel Wigf^ll, a merchant, took him into his family 
as tutor to bis sons, and after continuing here until 1694, 
he went to Oxford, and was admitted batteler of Exeterr 
College : bpt hU scanty fortune not allowing him to reside 
constantjiy, he was recommended to Mr. William Churchey, 
then minister at Poqle, tobe assistant in the free-school of 
that town. By thi9 gentleman^s indulgence in allowing 
bim to beep his terms in the university, he proceeded A. ^ 
in 1697, when he returned to Mr. Russel at Wapping, 
and was ordained deacon by bishop Compton soon after. 
In April following be took upon him the cure of Acryse in 
Keiit, and lived at the same time in the family of Philip 
Papillojp, es(}. to whom his behaviour rendered him so ac- 
ceptable, that although 'he bad left the parish, and was 
then chaplain to Paul Foley, esq. upon the recommenda- 
tion of Dr. Barton, prebendary of Westminster, yet, upon 
the death of the incumbent, he procured him a presenta* 
tion from the Iqrd chancellor Somers, upon which he vfzs 
instituted S.ept. 4, 1699. He now applied himself to re- 
pair a dilapidated parsonage*houfie, as well as to discbarge 
his pastoral duties with all diligence, particularly that of 
catechising the young, which he looked upo.n as a very im- 
portant part of his ministry^ While here, he^ soon after 
met ^ith a singular instance of unfair dealing. Bdng .^p- 
ppiqted to preach at the archdeacon's visitation at Canter- 
bury in 1701, his sermon (on 2 Cor. vi. 4.) was lent to 
Willisitn Brockman, esq. upon his earnest request, who 
printed it. under the title of a *' Summary ,^^ &c, with a 
preface calculated to injure him. 

Vol. XX. Q 

ae L £ w I ft 

He found a kinder friend, however, in archbishop Tenl^' 
son, who bad heard a good character of him, and granted 
him the sequestration of the little rectory of Hawkinge, 
near Dover, in 1702, telling him at the same time, that 
he hoped he should live to consider him farther. It was at 
that time his acquaintance began with Mr. Johnson of Mar- 
gate, who recommended him for his successor in that la- 
borious cure ; but his old friend and patron Mr. Papillon 
being unwilling to part with him, he excused himself to 
the archbishop at that time : afterwards, upon Mr. War- 
ren's resignation, he accepted it in 1705. On his- be- 
coming a member of the society for promoting Christians 
knowledge, he was desired to draw up a short and plaio* 
exposition of the Church Catechism, fit for the children 
educated in charity-schools ; and this,' which he executed 
to the entire satisfaction of the society, • has passed through 
many editions. In 1706, archbishop Tenison collated him 
to the rectory of Saltwood with the chapel of Hythe, and 
the desolate rectory of Eastbridge ; but, being here dis- 
turbed by a dispute with a neighbouring 'squire, his pa- 
tron removed him to the vicarage of Mynstre, on the ces- 
sion of Dr. Green, in March 1708, where be rebuilt the 
bouse, in a more elegant and commodious manner. 

In his "Apology for the Clergy of the Church of Eng- 
land," published in 1711, h^ attacked the veracity of the 
historian of the nonconformists, by asserting, " that Mr. 
Calamy was too much biassed to have any thing he said con- 
cerning the party he espoused believed on bis bare word." 
This harsh opinion naturally provoked Calamy to make 
sonoe very severe reflections on him,, both in the preface 
to the second edition of ^* Baxter's Life abridged,'* in 
1714, and in his " Continuation," in 1727 ; against which 
Mr. Lewis had drawn up a vindication; but, Mr. Calamy's 
death intervening, he would not war with the dead, and de- 
sisted from publishing it. 

In May 1712, he was appointed to preach at the arch- 
bishop's visitation, and took his subject from Isa. xi. 9, 
but such was the violence of party spirit at that time, that 
both he and his sermon were roughly treated by some of 
the audience. It was this year that he commenced M. A. 
as a member of Corpus Christi college, Cambridge. Not 
long after he incurred the displeasure of his friend Mt. 
Johnson by writing against his ^' Unbloody Sacrifice/' aii4 

1 E W 1 S. M7 

was treated by him with more contempt than he deserved. 
Archbishop Tenison, however, and Dr. Bradford approved 
of his pamphlet, and Dr. Waterland considered it as con- 
taining much in a httle, and as being close, clear, and ju« 
dicious* His sermon preached at Canterbury cathedral on 
January 30, 1717, being severely reflected upon, he printed 
it in his own defence, and it was so highly approved by^ 
archbishop Wake that he rewarded him with the master- 
ship of Eastbridge- hospital soon after. From that time he 
was continually employed on his various publications and 
correspondence, with the literary men of his time. He died 
Jan. 16, 1746, and, at his own desire, was buried in the 
chancel of his church at Mynstre (where he had been vicar 
upwards of thirty-seven years), under a plain black marble 
with an inscription. 

Archbishop Wakens charieu^ter of him was that of vir so^ 
hriusj et bonus pradicator : and a considerable dignitary in 
the church used to say, that he looked upon his life to have 
been spent in the service of learning and virtue, and thought 
the world tq be more concerned for its continuance than 
himself: that it would be happy for us if there were many 
more of the profession like him, &c. It was his misfor- 
tune, however, to live in a time of much party violence, and 
being a moderate man, he met with ill usage from both 
parties, particularly from the clergy of his own diocese. 
His only object was the security of our church-establish- 
ment as settled at the Revolution. He was so diligent a 
preacher, that we are told he composed more than a thou- 
sand sermons. He was always of opinion that a clergyman 
should compose his own sermons, and therefore ordered 
bis executor to destroy his stock, lest they should con- 
tribute to the indolence of others. Having no family, for 
his wife died young without issue, he expended a great 
deal of money on his library and the repairs of his dilapi- 
dated parsonage-houses ; and was, at the s^me time, a libe- 
ral benefactor to the poor. His chief, and indeed only^ 
failing was a warmth of temper, which sometimes hurried 
him on to say what was inconsistent with his character and 
interest, and to resent imaginary injuries. Of all this, how- 
ever, he was sensible, and deeply regretted it. Hearne 
and Mr. Lewis were, it appears, accustomed to speak 
disrespectfully of each other^s labours, but posterity has 
done justice to both. The polilical prejudices of antiquaries 
Itfe of very little consequence. 

Q -2 

??8 I. E W I S. 

Mr. Lewi3's works are, 1. <^ The Church Catechism etr 
planed/' already ipieDtioned, 1700, 12ino. 2. *^ A. 9bor^ 
Defence of Infant Baptism/' 1700, 8vo. 3. *' A serious 
Address to the Anabaptists," a single sheet, 1701, with a 
^ecoad in 1702. 4. ^^ A Companion for the afflicted,*' 
}706. 5. ^^ Presbyters not always an authoritative part of 
provinpial synods,"' 1710, 4to. 6. ** An apologetical Vin- 
dication of the present Bishops,"l7 1 1. 7. " The Apology 
for the Church, of England, in an examination of the rights 
pf the Christian church,'' published about this time, or 
perhaps in 1714. 8. ^^The poor Vicar's plea against bia 
gleb^ being assessed to the Church," 1712. 9. ^' A Guide 
tp yoving Communicants/' 1713. 10. ^' A Vindics^tioD of 
the Bishop of Norwich" (Trimnell), 1714. 11. ^« The 
. agreement of the Lutheran churches with the church of 
Epglaqd, and an answer to some exceptions to it,^' 1715. 
12. .^^Two Letters in defence of the English liturgy and 
reformation," 17 IG. 13. " Bishop Ferije's Church ol&ig- 
land naan's reasons for not making the decisiops of ecQW^* 
siastical synods the rule of his fait]bi," 1717, 8vo. 14. <<' Aa 
Exposition of the xxxivth article of Religion," 1717. 
15. " Short Remarks on the prolocutor's answer,*&c,'* 16* 
"The History, &c. of John Wiclifje, D. D." 1720, 8vo. 
17* '^The case of observing such Fasts and Festivals as are 
appointed by the king's authority, considered," 1721. IS. 
" A Letter of t^hanks to the earl of Nottingham, &c.'* 1721. 
19. ^^ The History and Antiquities of the Isle of Thaoet in 
Kent," 1723, 4to, and again, with additions^ in 1736. 20. 
** A Specimen of Errors in the second volume of Mr. Col- 
lier's EciL'lesiastical History, being a Vindication of Buroet^B 
History of the Reformation," 1724, 8vo. 21, ** History and 
Antiquities of'the abbey church of Faversham, &c.^' 1727, 
4to. 22. ^^ The New Testament, &c. translated out of the 
Latin vulgate by John WickliBe ; to which is pre6xed, an 
History of the several Translations of the Holy 3ibli?," &c. 
1^31, folio. Of this only 160 copies were print/ed by sub- 
scription, and the copies unsubscribed for were advertified 
tl^e same year at \L Is. each. Of the '^ New TestameiUi'* 
the cev. H. Baber, of the British Museum, has lately printed 
an edition, with valuable preliminary matter, in 4to. 2S. 
^^ The History of the Translations, &c.'' reprinted sepa* . 
rately in. 1739, 8vo. 24.* « The Life of Caxton," 1737, 
8x^0. For an account of this work we may refer to J)ihdio's 
new ^ition of Ames. 25. ^* A brief History of tha Rise 

LEWIS. 229 

ind Progress of Anabaptism, to which is prefixed a defence 
of Dr. Wicliffe from the false ciiarge of his denying In- 
fant-baptism," I7.'i8. 26. " A Dissertation on the anti- 
quity and use of Seals in England," 1740. 27. *^ A Vindi- 
cation of the ancient Britons, &c. from being Anabaptists, 
with a letter of M. Bucer to bishop Hooper on ceremonies,'* 
1741. 28. " A Defence of the Commnnion office and Ca- 
techism of the church of England from the charge of fa- 
vouring transubstantiation," 174?. 29. "The Life of Rey- 
nold Pecock, bishop of St. Asaph and Chichester," 1744, 
8vo. Mr. Lewis published also one or two occasional ser- 
mons, and an edition of Roper's Life of sir Thomas More. 
After his death, accordinsr to the account of him in th^ 
Biog. Britannica (which is unpardonably superficial, as 
Masters's History of Bene't College had appeared some 
years before), was published " A brief discovery of some 
of tlie arts of the popish protestant Missioners in England," 
1750, 8vo. But there are other curious tracts which Mr. 
Lewis sent for publication to the Gentleman's Magazine, 
and which, for reasons stated in vol. X. of that work, were 
printed in " The Miscellaneous Correspondence," 1742 — 
1748, a scarce and valuable volume, very little known to 
the possessors of the Magazine, no, set of which can bfe 
complete without it. Of these productions of Mr. Lewis, 
we can ascertain, on the authority of Mr. Cave, the follow- 
ing : an account of William Longbeard, and of John Smith, 
the first English anabaptist ; the principles of Dr. Hickes, 
and Mr. Johnson ; and an account of the oaths exacted by 
the Popes. Mr. Lewis left a great many manuscripts, some 
of which are still in public or private libraries, and are 
spe^cified in our authorities.' 

LEY, or LEIGH (Sir James), an eminent lawyer in 
the early part of the seventeenth century,. was the sixth 
and youngest son of Henry Ley, esq. of Tesfont Evias, in 
Wiltshire, and vy^s born about 1552. In 1569 be entered 
of Brazen-nose college, Oxfprd, whence he removed to 
Lincoln's-inn, studied the law, and was appointed Lent 
reader in 1601, after which his learning and abilities raised 
him to the highest rank of his profession. In 1 603, he 
Was made serjeant at law, and the year following chief jus'^ 
tice of the king's bench in Ireland ; on the ancient history 

I Masters's Hist of C. C. C. C— Bi0ff. Brit.— Dibdin'i TypograpHica] Adii* 
^uities, vol. I. — and BibliomsMiia.-^Gent. Mag. vol. I. p. 259, and vol. XVII, 
pp. 41, 47^— Restituta, pp< 69, 73.-*Nichols's Bowy«r, 


of which country he appears to have bestowed some atteii* 
tiori, and coliected with a view to publication, ^^ The An- 
nals of John Clynne, a Friar Minor of Kilkenny," who lived 
in the reign of Edward III. ; the " Annals of the Priory of 
St. John of Kilkenny," and the '^ Annals of Multiferman, 
Rosse, add Clonmell." All these he had caused to be tra4is- 
cribed, but his professional engagements prevented his 
preparing them for the press. They afterwards fell into 
the hands of Henry earl of Bath. Extracts from them are 
in Dublin college library. 

In 1609, being then a knight, sir James was made the 
king's attorney in the court of wards. In 1620 he was 
created a baronet; in 1621, chief justice of the court of 
king's bench, England ; and in f 625, lord high treasurer. 
From this office he was removed, under pretence of his 
great age, to make room for sir Richard Weston. Lord 
Clarendon seems to intimate that his disability as well as 
age might be the cause, and that upon these accounts 
there was little reverence shewn towards him. This, how- 
ever, is scarcely reconcileable with the honours bestowed 
on him immediately afterwards, for he was not only created 
baron Ley, and earl of Marlborough, but soon after made 
president of the council. Lloyd says he had better abi« 
lities for a judge than a statesman. He died at Lincoln's- 
inn, March 14, 1628, and was buried in the church at 
Westbury, where a sumptuous monument was erected to 
his memory. We have noticed his attention to Irish his- 
tory while in that country. Lloyd has given us another 
trait of his character while there, which is highly honour- 
able to him. " Here he practised the charge king James 
gave him at his going over (yea, what his own tender con- 
science gave himself), namely, not to build his estate upon 
the ruins of a miserable nation, but aiming, by the impar- 
tial execution of justice, not to enrich himself, but civilize 
the people. But the wise king would no longer lose him 
out of his own land, and therefore recalled him home about 
the time when his father's inheritance, by the death of 
bis five elder brethren, descended upon him." 

He wrote, or compiled, ^* Reports of Cases in the courts 
at Westminster in the reigns of king James and king 
Charles, whh two tables ; to which is added' a treatise of 
Wards and Liveries," 1659, folio. The ** Treatise of 
Wards" had been published separately in 1642, 12mat 

LEY. 231 

Among Hearne's '* Collection of curious Discourses/' are 
some by sir James Leigh.' 

LEY (John), a voluminous polemic in the seventeenth 
century, was born at Warwick, Feb. 4, 1583, and eda«- 
cated at Christ church, Oxford. After bis admission into 
holy orders he was presented to the vicarage of Great Bud* 
worth in Cheshire, where he continued a constant preacher 
for several years. He was afterwards made prebendary 
and subdean of Chester, and had a weekly lecture at St* 
Peter's church. He was also once or twice a member of 
the convocation. On^ the commencement of the rebellion, 
be espoused the cause of the parliament, took the coven- 
ant, was chosen one of the assembly of divines, appointed 
Latin examiner of young preachers, af^d by his writings, 
encoufaged all the opinions and prejudices of his party, 
with whom his learning gave him considerable weight. He 
accepted of various livings under the republican govern- 
ment, the last of which was that of Solihull, in Warwick* 
shire, which he resigned on being disabled by breaking of 
a blood «• vessel) and retired to Sutton Colfield, in the same 
county, where he died May 16, 1662. His works, of which 
Wood enumerates about thirty articles, relate mostly to 
the controversies of the times, except his sermons ; and his 
share in the '* Assembly's Annotations on the Bible,'' to 
which he contributed the annotations on the Pentateuch 
and the four Evangelists.' 

. LEYBOURN (William), who was originally a printer 
in London, published several of the mathematical works of 
Samuel Foster, astronomical professor in Gresham coUege*^ 
He afterwards became an eminent aathor himself, and 
appears to have been the most universal mathematician of 
his time. He published many mathematical treatises in 
the seventeenth century. Among these his '^ Cursna Ma- 
thematicus" was esteemed the best system of the kind ex- 
tant His ^< Panarithmologia ; or. Trader's sure Guide,'* 
being tables ready cast up, wa» long in use. It wras formed 
upon a plan of his own, and has been adopted by Mr* 
Bareme in France. The seventh edition was Mblisbed in 
1741. We have no account of his birth or depb. ' 

LEYDECKER (M£LCHiOR), an eminent arotestlmt di- 
vine, was t)orn January 25, 1652, at Mi^Deburg. He 

1 Ath. Os. vol. I.— Lloyd's State WorUiies.— Ware's Ireland, by Harris.— 
iPark't edition of lord Orford. 

9 Ath. Ox. to}* IL > GraBger. 


acquired'great skill in controversy and ecclesiastical antf« 
quity, and wrote much against the Socinians and other sec* 
. taries. He was one of Frederic Spanbeim's friends, ind 
appointed professor of divinity at Utrecht, 1678. He died 
Jatiuary 6, 1721, aged sixty-nine. The following are the 
principal among his numerous Latin works: 1. a treatise 
" On the Hebrew Republic," Amsterdam, 1714 and 1716, 2 
vols. fol. a very valuable work for the history of Judaism; 
2. " Fax veritatis,** Ludg. Batav. 1677, 8vo. 3. «* A Con- 
tinuation of the jEcclesiastical History began by Hornius,*^ 
Francforr, 1 704, 8 vo. 4. « History of the African Church,'* 
eorious^ and full of interesting inquiries. 5. " Synopsis 
controv^rsiarum de foedere." 6. A " Commentary in the 
jHeidelburg Catechism." 7. A " Dissertation against Bec- 
ker's World bewitched." 8. " An Analysis of Scripture,** 
with the "Art of Preaching." 9. A " History of Jansenism,** 
Utrecht, 1695, 8vo. What Leydecker says in this work 
against the sovereignty of kings, has been refuted by P* 
Quesnel, in his " Sovereignty of Kings defended,** P^ris^ 
1704 I2mo. ^ 


LHUYD (Edward), an eminent antiquary, born about 
1670, was a native of South Wales, and the son of Charliei 
Lhuyd, esq. 6f Lhanvorde. In 1687 he confim^nced hi^ 
academical studiies at Jesus college, Oxford, where he waes 
created M. A. July 21, 1701. He studied nateTral hiitbrj^ 
imder Dr. Plot, whom he succeeded as keeper of the A^h- 
luoieSkn museum in 1690. He had the use of all Tatt^to*^ 
collections, and, with incessant labour and great eiactnes^, 
employed a considerable part of his life in searching into 
the Welsh antiquities, had perused or collected a great 
deal of ancient and valuable matter frpm their MSS. trans- 
cribed all the old charters of their montoteries that hi 
could meet with, travelled tteveral times over Wales, Coirn* 
ieall, Scotland, Ireland, Armoric Bretaghe, countries iti-^ 
habited by the same people, compared their afitiqiiitle^i 
and made observations on the whol6. In March 1708-9, 
be was elected, by the university of Oxford, esquire beadl^ 
of diyinity, a place of considerable profit, Which, however^ 
he enjoyed but a few mouths. He died July 1709, an 
event which prevented the completion of nfiany adthirable 
designs, for want of proper encouragement, he did very 

} Bunpan Traject. Erudit, 

L H U Y a 


)ktle towards understanding the British bards, having seen 
but one. of those of the sixth century, and not being abte 
to.procure access to two of the principal libraries in the 
country. He communicated, however, many observations 
to bishop Gibson, whose edipon of the Britannia he re« 
vised ; and published '^ Archeologia Britannica, giving 
•ome account additional to what has been hitherto pub« 
lisbed 0f the languages, histories, and customs, of the 
original inhabitants of Great Britain, from collections and 
observations in travels through Wsdes, Cornwall, Bas Bre«* 
tagne, Ireland, and Scotland, Vol. I. Glossograpby ♦;^' 
Oxford, 1707, foL He published also " Litbopbylacii Bri- 
tannici Iconographia,^* 1699, 8vo. This work, which is a 
methodical catalogue of the figured fossils of .the Ashmo* 
lean museum, consisting of 1766 articles, was printed at 
the expence of sir Isaac Newton, sir Hans Sloane, and a 
few other of his learned friends* As only 120 copies were 
printed, a new edition of it was published in 1760 by 
Mr. Huddesford, to which were annexed several letters 
from Lhtiyd to his learned friends, on the subject of fossils, 
and a " prselectio" on the tfame subject. 

He left in MS. a Scottish or Irish- English dictionary, 
proposed to be published in 1732 by subscription, by Mr« 
David Malcolme, a minister of the church of Scotland, witli 
additions; as also the elements of the said language, with 
necessary and useful information for propagating more 
efiectually the English language, and for promoting the 
knowledge ef the ancient Scottish or Irtsb, and many 
branches of useful and curious learning. Lhnyd, at the: 
end of bis preface to tbe '^ Archaeologia,'* promises an his-* 
torical dictionary of British persons and places mentioned 
in ancient records It seems to have been ready for press, 
though h6 could not fix the time of publication. His coU 
Sections for a second volume, which was to give an account 
<tf fixe antiquities, mbhumtents, &c. in the principality of 
Wales, wer6 numerous and well-chosen; but, on account 

* His ** Glojuography'' is divided 
iito teo titles : 1. *' The Comparative 
Etjribblc^y." S. "The Comparative 
VocahAliiry of the Original Languages 
of BriUiD and Ireland." 3. *' An Ar- 
morfck Grammar, translated sut of 
French by Mr. Williams, the sub-li* 
b^arian df the Museum." 4. <* An 
Armorick English Voeabalary." 5. 
" ^&k Wdsh words omitted in Dr. 

Davies'fl Dictionary." 6. " A Cornish 
Grammar." 7. « MSS. Britannicorum 
Catalc^us.'* 8. « A British £tymo^ 
logicon, by Mr. Parry, with an Ap-» 
peodix." 9, ** A brief Introduction to 
the Irish or ancient Scottish Lan* 
guages." la " An Irish English Dic- 
tionary." And lastly, « A Catalogue 
of If ish Manuscripts." 

234 L H U Y D. 


of a quarrel , between him and Dr. Wynne, then teWoWf 
afterwards principal of the college, and bishop of St. Asapb^ 
tbe latter refused to buy tbern, and they were purchased 
by sir Thomas Seabright, of Beachwood, in Hertfordshire^ 
whose grandson dispersed them by auction in 1 S07. Of 
tbe sale and the chief articles, an account was given by 
Mr. Gougb in the Gentleman's Magazine for May of that 
year. Carte made extracts from Mr. Lhuyd's MSS. about or 
before 1736 ; but these were chiefly historicaL Many of 
bis letters to Lister, and other learned contemporaries, 
were given by Dr. Fotbergill to the university of Osford, 
and are now in the Ashmolean museum. Lhuyd undertook 
more for illustrating this part of the kingdom than any 
one man besides ever did, or than any one man can be 
equal to* 

To this account of so eminent an antiquary we shall sub* 
join some loose memoranda by tbe rev. Mr. Jones, a cu-» 
rious collector of anecdotes, aiid curate to Dr. Young aft 
Welwyn : 

*' He was certainly a very extraordinary man, both for 
natural abilities, and sedulous and successful. application* 
He deserved more encouragement. 

^< This little story of him was told me lately by ^ very 
knowing person, who had it from good hands; viz. ^ That 
during his travels in Bretagny, in the time of our wars 
^ith France, he was taken up for a spy, confined for a few 
days to prison, and all his papers seized. The papers 
being examined by the priests and Jesuits, and found to 
be to them unintelligible, raised tbe greater suspicion. 
But tbe principal managers against him, receiving assur- 
ances, by letters from learned and respectable- men in 
England, that he was only pursuing inquiries relating to 
the antiquities of Britain, and had not the least concern 
with state-affairs, honourably dismissed him.' I wish I had 
more little anecdotes of 'this kind to add, relating to that 
truly great man. He would have done wonders if he bad 
lived to complete his designs; and posterity would have 
wondered, and thanked him. 

^^ I remember I was told formerly at Oxford, by a gen- 
tleman that knew and honoured him, ^ that his death vvas 
in all probability hastened, partly by his immoderate ap- 
plication to researches into antiquity, and more so by his 
ehusing, for some time before his decease, to lie in a 
Toom at the Museum, which, if not very damp,' was at 


L H U Y D. 235 

^ least not well-aired, nor could be.' Thi», it seems, was 
theo the current opinion ; for be was naturally, as I bate 
heard, of a very robust coiystitution. It would probably 
have been better, if be could have. contented himself with 
a chamber or two in his college, though only a sojourner 
there, and paying rent. He well deserved to have lived 
rent-free in any part of Great Britain ; though I do not 
know that his college denied him this piece of sntall respect 
so evidently due to his great merits 

^^ The ingenious and learned Mr, Thomas Richards (for- 
merly a member of that college, and afterwards the most 
worthy rector of Lfaanvyllin in North Wales) told me, ia 
1756, *^ that, in a year or two after his admission into the 
university, a consultation was held by the fellows of 
Jesus- col lege, about a proper person of that college^- or 
any other native of Wales, (though of another college,) to 
answer the celebrated ^ Muscipula,' then lately published 
by the ingenious Mr. Holdsworth, of Magdalen -col lege, at 
the request, and by the direction, of Dr. Sacheverell. 
Those who knew, and had often observed, the collegiate 
exercises of Mr. Richards, were pleased to propose him^ 
though of so low standing, as the fittest person that tkey 
could think of for such an undertaking. Mr. Lhuyd, being 
present, asked, ^ Has he the caput poeticum ?^ They assuring 
him that he usually wrote in a strong Virgilian verse, 
' Then,' said Mr. Lhuyd, ^ I will give him a plan,' which 
waifi that of the ' Uoglandia,' since published and well 

^ knawn. Mr. Richards, as he told me (and a friend of his 
said the same), retired with leave, fpr about a week, out 
of college, taking lodgings at 8t. Thomas's, and completed 
the poem. When finished, and corrected by Mr. Lhuyd, 
and Mr. Anthony Alsop, of Christ-church, Mr. Lhuyd * 
drew up a preface, or dedication, in very elegant Latin, 
but in terms by much too severe, which made Mr. Richards 
very uneasy, for he must obey. Before the poem was 
sent to the press, Mr. Lhuyd died ; Richards was then at 
liberty. He consulted with bis friend Mr. Alsop (who was 
greatly offended with Dr. S/s haughty carriage), and both 
together drew up the dedication as it now stands. 

^^ A friend of Mr. Richards informed me, * that, upon 
the publication of the ' Muscipula,' Dr. 8. gave a copy of 
it to Mr. Lhuyd, with these haughty words : * Here, Mr. 
Lhuyd, I give you a poem of banter upon your country; 
and I defy all your countrymen to answer it.* This pro- 
voked the old Cambrian/ &c. 

flS6 L H U Y D. 

** He had prepared many other valuable materials, but 
did not live to finish and publish them. His apparatus, in 
rough draughts, are now in the possession of the family of 
the Seabrights at Beach-wood, in the county of Hertford; 
I wish they were bestovved upon the British Museum iii 
London, or the Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, of which 
latter the said Mr. Lhuyd was keeper. 

** In some blank leaves of my printed copy of the afore^ 
said Archaeologia, I have minuted down some particular 
anecdotes relating to this extraordinary person^ The said 
copy I intend to bestow for the use of the public academy 
at Caermarthen, in South Wales, to be preserved in tb^ 
library there, amongst my other poor donations to that se- 
. minary of useful learning and religion. 

**The story of Sacheverell's indecent affront to Mr. 
Lhuyd is there set forth more at length, from an authentic 
account, which I bad from a person who Well knew the 

** At evenings, after his hard study in the day-time, hk 
«sed to refresh himself among men of learning and inquiry, 
and more particularly Cambro-Britons, in friendly conver- 
sations upon subjects of British antiquity ; communicating 
his extensive knowledge therein, with much good humour, 
freedom, and cheerfulness, and, at the same time, receiv- 
ing from them farther and more particular informations, 
subservient to his great and laudable designs. This, I 
have been informed by good hands, was his general mdn- 
ner. His travels furnished him with many more materials 
for his work, and he knew how to make the best use of 
them all. 

*^ In the Ashmolean Museum at Oxford, is a Latin cata- 
logue of the curiosities there, in his own hand-writing ;^ 
and the statutes of that place were drawn up by him undet 
the directions of the trustees thereof. 

** There are many valuable MSS. of his still remaining 
in private hands. See the anecdotes before mentioned, 
prefixed to my printed copy of the Archaeologia. 

*^ The remaining printed copies of the same book lay 
mouldering in the aforesaid Museum at Oxford. I wikb 
they were purchased by some worthy antiquary, and dis* 
persed." * 

1 Biqg. Brit. — Goagh's Topography, vol. IF.— Owen's British Remains, 1718, 
0VO.— Puliewey's Sketches of BoUny.— Geut. Mag. vol. LXXVII. p. 419. .• • 

L H U Y D. 281 

LHUYD, LHWYD, or LHOYD (Humphrey), a leame4 
English antiquary in the sixteenth century, was son an4 
heir of Mr. Robert Lhwyd alias Rossenhall of Denbigh ia 
Denbighshire, by Joan his wife, daughter of Lewis Pigotu 
He was born at Denbigh, and was educated in the univer* 
sity of Oxford ; but in what college is not known. It is 
certain, however, that after he had taken the degree of 
bachelor of arts, which was in 1547, he was commoner of 
Brasen-nose college ; and in 1551 took the degree of 
master of arts as a member of that college ; at which tim^ 
be studied physic. Afterwards retiring to bis own country^ 
he lived mostly within, the walls of Denbigh castle^ but|^ 
Granger thinks, never practised as a physician, employing 
his time chiefly in his antiquarian researches. He died 
about 1570, and was interred near the church of Whit-* 
church near Denbigh ; where a monument was erected tq 
him. He had married Barbara daughter of George Luiur 
ley, and sister of John lord Lumley, by whom he had issue 
ISptendian and John, who both died without issue, Henry, 
who lived at Cheam in Surrey, and Jane the wife of Rob* 
Coytmore. Camden gives him a very great character, as 
one of the best antiquaries of his time; and he is by 
I^aines Barrii^ton esteemed very accurate in what relates 
to the history of Wales. He bad a taste for the arts, par<* 
ticularly music, and executed the map of Eugland for tb^ 
*^ Theatrum Orbis." He collected a great number of cu^ 
rious and useful books for his brother-in-law lord Lumlej^ 
which were purchased by James I. and became the fouoda^^ 
tion of the royal library. They are now a very valuable 
part of the British Museum. 

His writings are, 1. ^^ An Almanack and Kalendar; conr 
taining the day, hour, and minute, of the change of the 
u)Oon forever," &c. 8vo. 2. ^^ Commentarioli Britannic^s 
Descriptionis Fragmentum. Colon. Agrip." 1572: of which 
a aew edition was published by Mr. Moses Williams, under 
the title of ^^Humfredi Lhwyd, Armigeri, Britannicae Dct 
scri^tiQpis Cotnmentariolum: necnon de Mon^ Insula, & 
Britaojiici Arce sive Armamentario Romano Disceptatip 
Epistol^ris. Accedunt^rse Cambro-BritanoicaB. Accurapte 
Mose Gulielmo, A.M. R. S. Soc." Lond. .1731, 4to. This 
was translated into English by Tho. Twyne, who entitled 
it, " The Breviary of Britain," Lond. 1753, 8vo. 3. " De 
Mon& Druidum insul&', Antiquit^ti suas redtituta;" in a 
letter to Abraliam Ortelius, April 5, 1568. 4, " De Arma* 

«3« L H U V D. 

mentario Ronraho.'* These two last are printed at the tnd 
of ** HistorisB Britannicse Defensio ; written by sir John 
Price," Lond. 1S73, 4to. 5. " Chronicon Walliae, aRege 
Cadwalladero, usque ad Ann. Donl. 1294," MS. in the 
Coctonian library. 6. " The History of Cambria, now called 
Waiesj from Caradoc of Lancarvan, the Registers of Con- 
way and Stratflur ; with a Continuation, chiefly ex^tracted 
from Mat. Paris, Nic. Trivet, &c." He died before this 
was quite finished; but sir Henry Sidney, lord -president 
of Wales, having procured a copy of it, employed Dr. 
David Powel to prepare it for the press, who published 
it under this title : ^* The Historie of Cambria, now called 
Wales ; a part of the most famous yland of Britaine ; writ- 
ten in the Brytish language above two hundred years past; 
translated into English by H. Lloyd, gent, corrected, aug* 
mented, and continued out of Records and best approved 
Authors," Lond. 1584, 4to. Our author translated also, 
7. ** The Treasure of Health ; containing many profitable 
Medicines, written by Peter Hispanus," To which were 
added, ^^ The Causes and Signs of every Disease, with 
the Aphorisms of Hippocrates," Lond. 1585. And' 8. 
« The Judgment of Urines," Lond. 1551, 8vo.' 

LIBANIUS, a celebrated sophist of antiquity, was bom 
of an ancient and noble family at Antioch, on the Orontes, 
in the year 314. Suidas calls his father *^ Phasganius ;'' but 
this was the name of one of his uncles ; the other, who was 
the eldei^, was named Panolbius. His great-grandfather, 
who excelled in the art of divination, had published some 
pieces in Latin, which occasioned his being supposed by 
some, but falsely, to be an Italian. His maternal and pa- 
ternal grandfathers were eminent in rank and in eloquence; 
the latter, with his brother Brasidas, was put to death by 
the order of Dioclesian, in the year 303, after the tumult 
of the tyrant Eugenins. Libanius, the second of his fa- 
therms three sons, in the fifteenth year of his age, wishing 
to devote himself entirely to literature, complains that he 
met with some ^^ shadows of sophists.'* Then, assisted 
by a proper master, he began to read the ancient writers 
at Antioch ; and thence, with Jasion, a Cappadocian, went 
to Athens, and residing there for more than four years, 
became intimately acquainted with Crispinus of Heraclea^ 

^ 1 Ath. Ox. vol. I.— Geo. Diet— Orange r.-*OUiys't Briiiih Ubrarian.-«-Bai^ 

riogtoB on the SUtutes, p. 559, 

L I B A N I U S. S3f 

wboy he says, *^ enriched him afterwards with books mt 
Nicdmedia, and went, but seldom, to the schools of Die* 
phantos.'* At Constantinople he ingratiated himself with 
Nicocles of Lacedaemon (a grammartan, who was master 
to the emperor Julian), and the sophist Beroiarchius. Re- 
turning to Athens, and soliciting the office of a professor, 
which the proconsul had before intended for him when be 
was twenty-five years of age, a certaio Cappadocian hap« 
pened to be preferred to him. But being encouraged by 
Dionysius, a Sicilian who bad been prefect of Syria, some 
jspecimensbf his eloquence, that were published at Con* 
staotinople, made him so generally known and applauded, 
that he collected more than eighty disciples, the two so- 
phists, who then filled the chair there, ragir.g in vain, and 
Beroiarchius ineffectually opposing him in rival orations, 
and, when he could not excel him, having recourse to th^ 
frigid calumny of magic. At length, about the year 346, 
being expelled thjs city by. his competitors, the prefect 
Limenius concurring, he repaired to Nice, and soon after 
to .Nicomedia, the Atl^ens of Bithynia, where his excel- 
lence in speaking began to. be more and more approved by 
all ; and Julian, if not a hearer, was a reader and admirer 
of his orations. In the same city, he says, ^' he was par- 
ticularly delighted with the friendship of Aristsenetus f ' and 
the five years which he passed there, he styles ^^ the spring 
or any thing else that can be conceived pleasanter than 
spring,. of his whole life;'' Being invited again to Con- 
stantinople, and afterwards returning to Nicomedia, being 
also tired of Constantinople, where he found Phcenix and 
Xenobius, rival sophists, though he was patronised by 
Strategius, who succeeded Domitian'as prefect of theEa^t, 
jnot daring on account of his rivals to occupy the Athenian 
chair, he obtained permission from Gallus Caesar to visit 
for four months, his native city Antioch, where, after Gal- 
lus was killed, in the year 354, he fixed his residence for 
the remainder of his life, and initiated many in the sacred 
writes pf eloquence. He was also much beloved by the em- 
peror Julian, who heard his discourses with pleasure, re* 
ceiyed him with kindness, and imitated him in his writings. 
Honoured by that prince with . the rank of quaestor, and 
with, several epistles of .which six only are extant, the last 
written by the emperor during his fatal expedition against 
the Persians, he the more, lamented his death in the flower 
i)f his age, as from him he had promised himself a certain 

2#0 i I B A N I U S. 

and bating support both in the worship of i(joIs and in hi# 
own studies. There was afterwards a report, that Liba* 
iiius, with the younger Jamblichus, the master of Proclu6| 
inquired by divination who would be the successor of Va- 
lei^Sy and in consequence with difficulty escaped his cru« 
eky» Irenseus attesting the innocence of Libanius. In lifce 
manner he happily escaped another calumny, by the favour 
of duke Lupicinusy wnen he was accused by his enemy 
Fidelisy or Fidustius, of having written an eulogium on thd 
tyrant Procopius. He was not, however, totally neglected 
by Valens, whom he not only celebrated in an oration^ 
but obtained from him a confirmation of the law against 
entirely excluding illegitimate children from the inherit* 
ance of their paternal estates, which he solicited from tfa^ 
emperor, no doubt for a private reason, since, as Eunapius 
informs' us, he kept a mistress, and was never married. 
The remainder of bis life he passed as before mentioned, 
at Autioch, to an advanced age, amidst various wrongs 
and Qppressions from his rivals and the times, which he 
copiously relates in his life, though, tired of the manners 
of that city, be had thoughts) in his old age, of changing 
"bis abode* as be tells Eusebius. He continued there, how^ 
ever, and on various occasions was very serviceable to the 
city, either by appeasing seditions, and calming the dis<* 
turbed minds of the citizen^, or by reconciling to them 
the emperors Julian and Theodosius. That Libanius lived 
even to the' reign of Arcadiiis, that is, beyond the seven* 
tieth year of his age, the learned collect from his oration 
on Lucian, and the testimony of Cedrenus ; and of the 
same opinion is Godfrey Olearius, a man not more re- 
sfiectable for his exquisite knowledge of sacred and polite 
literature than for his judgment and probity, in bis^MS 
praelections, in which, when he was professor of both Ian* 
guages in the university of his own country, be has given 
an account of the life of thi$ sophist. 

The writings of Libanius are numerous, and he coo)* 
posed and delivered various orations, as well demonstrative 
as deliberative, and also many fictitious declamations and 
di^utations. Of these Frederic Moretl published as many 
as he could collect in 2 vols, folio, in Greek and Lalid. 
In the first vol. Paris, 1606, are xiii ^^ Ezerdses'^ (Pro* 
gymnasmata) ; XLIV '^ Declamations ;** and m ^^ Moral 
JDissertations f and in the second vol. Paris, 162^ are the 
^ Life of Libanius/' an^ xxxvi other drationa^ most of 

fe I F A N I U a S4i 

\\ke1n long afid 5n serious subjects. This editibaof Morell 
having long been discovered to be very erroneous, the 
learned Reiske undertook a new edition, collated with six 
MSS. which he did not live to complete^ but which was 
at fast published by his widow in 1791 — 1797, 4 vols. 8vo. 
Of the productions of Libanius^ Gibbon says that they 
are, for the most part, the vain and idle compositions of 
an orator who cultivated die science of words ; the produce 
tions of a recluse student, whose mind, regardless of his 
contemporaries, was incessantly fixed on the Trojan war 
and the Athenian commonwealth. 

. Besides what are contained in the above volumes, and 
his epistles, published by Wolff, Amst 1738, fol. ten other 
works of Uiis sophist have been separately published, most 
of them orations; and in the ** Excerpta Rbetorum'* of Leo 
Allatius, Greek and Latin, Rom. 1641, 8vo, are xxxiz 
** Narrations," vii *' Descriptio,ns," and vn more " Ex- 
ercises of Libanius, with translations by Allatius.'* His 
unpublished works are, 1. Many hundred ^^ Epistles'* yet; 
concealed in various libraries, a mode of writing in which 
k appears he excelled, by the testimony even of the 
ancients, particularly Eunapius and Photius ; and of 
that the perusal of them will easily convince the intelligent 
reader ; for they abound with Attic wit and humour, and 
every where recommend themselves by their pointed con- 
ciseness no less than by their elegance and learning ^. 
2. Several " Orations" in a MS. of the Barberini library, 
porrectly written on vellum. 3. " Various Declamations," 
in the above MS. and also in the Vatican library. And 
that there are are many MS epistles, orations, and decla- 
mations of Libanius, in the. imperial libcary at Vienna^ 
Nesselius has observed, affirming also, that several Greek 
ischolia are frequently inserted in the margin. Though so 
many of the writings of this sophist are preserved, there is 
BO doubt that many both of his ^ Epistles" and ^^ Orations" 
have been lost.^^ 

* Dr.Bentley, howerer^ (P'tsserta- jodgment of Libanias m a writer '19, 

lion. upon Phalaris, p. 4B7,} obsenrct, that, *' while be affects to be very nice 

that' '* yoa feel, by the emptiness and . and curious, he destroys the simplicity 

deadness of them, that you converse and elegance of language, and becoi^aes 

with some dreaming pedant, with hit obscure." Cod. xe. 
«lbow upon the desk." Photius's 

» Select Works of Julian, by Mr. Duncombe, nS4, vdl. H. p. 216.— Gib- 
bon^s Hist, — Hayley's Life of Cowper, preface, p. xxxiii. Uvo edit.— Lardner's 
Wocks.— Cave« vol. l|«<»S«uui Onooiast. 

Vol. XX. R 

2*^ L I B A V I U SL 

LIBAVIUS (Andrew), a physician and chemist, bout 
at Hall, in Saxony, was professor of history and poetry at 
Jena, in 1588, but removed to Rothenburg, on the Tauber^ 
in 1591, and to Coburg, in Franconia, in 1605, where he 
was appointed principal of the college of Casimir, at that 
place. He died at Coburg in 1616. Libavius obtained a 
considerable reputation in his time by bis chemical worksf, 
Slaving, pursued that science upon better principles thaft 
most of his contemporaries, although he did not altogether 
escape the delusions of alchemy. Although he employed 
many chemical preparations in medicine, he avoided the 
vioieiice of Paracelsus and his disciples, against whom he 
frequently defends the doctrines of the Galenical schooL 
He left bis name long attached, in the laboratories, to a 
particular preparation of tin with muriatic acid, which was 
called ''the fuming liquor of Libavius." It is unnecessary to 
enomerate the titles of bis many works, which have now 
become obsolete, and are almost forgotten. His last work, 
published at Francfort in 1615, under the title of ^' Exa- 
men PbilosophisB Novae, quae veteri abrogandae opponitur," * -^ 
foKo^ is remarkable for the first mention of the transfusion v,^^ 
of blood from the vessels of one living animal to those of ' '^ 
another, of which he speaks with great confidence, and 
which once excited gre4t expectations, which have con- 
fessedly been disappointed. ^ 

LICETUS (FoRTUNius), a celebrated physician and 
philosopher^ was born at Rapallo, in the state of G<enoa, 
Oct. 3, 1577, where his father was also a physician. After 
completing his education at Bologna, in 1599, he obtained 
the professorship of philosophy at Pisa, which he filled with 
so much reputation that he was invited to the same chair in 
the univer^ty of iPadua in 1609, and occupied it until 
1636. He removed at that time to Bologna, in conse- 
quence of failing to obtain the professorship of medicine, 
when vacant by the death of Cremonini* But the Venetian 
states very soon acknowledged the loss which the university 
of Padua had sustained by the retirement of Licetus ; and 
the same vacancy occurring in. 1 645, he was induced, by 
the pressing invitations which were made to him, to re- 
turn, to Padua, and held that professorship till his death io 
1657. He was a very copious writer, having published 
upwards of fifty treatises upon medical, moral, philosophi- 

l ReM's Cyclopmlia, fs9m VU>y «ad Haller* * 

L I C E T U S. d4$ 

cdl, antiquarian^ and historical sabjects ; but they are no 
longer sufficiently interesting to require a detail of their 
titles, as, notwithstanding his erudition, he displays little 
acuteness in riesearch or originality of conception. His 
treatise ** De Monstrorum Causis, Natur&, et DiflFerentiis^** 
which is best known, is replete with instances of credulity^ 
and with the fables and superstitions of bis predecessors^ 
and contains a classification of the monsters which had 
been previously described, without any correction from hi^ 
own observations. The best edition is that of Gerard Bla- 
«ius, in 1668.^ 

LIDOEL (Duncan), professor of mathematics, and of 
medicine, in the university of Helmstadt, the son of John 
Liddel, a reputable citizen of Aberdeen, was born there 
in 1561, and educated in the languages and philosophy at 
the schools and university of Aberdeen. In 1579, having 
a great desire to visit foreign countries, he went from Scot- 
land to Dantzic, and thence through Poland to Francfoxt 
on the Oder, where John Craig, afterwards' first physician 
to James VI. king of Scotland, then taught logic and ma-^ 
tbematics. By his liberal assistance Mr. Liddel was en« 
abled to continue at the university of Francfort for three 
years, during which he applied himself very diligently to 
mathematics and philosophy under Craig and the other 
professors, and also entered upon the study of physic. In 
1582, Dr. Craig being about to return to Scotland, sent 
Liddel to prosecute his studies at Wradslow, or Breslaw, 
ill Silesia, recommending him to the care of that celebrated 
statesman, Andreas Dudithius ; and during his residence at 
Breslaw, Liddel made uncommon progress in his favourite 
study of mathematics, under Paul Wittichius, an eminent 

In 1584 Liddel returned to Francfort, and again applied 
to physic, and at the same time instructed some pupils irii 
various branches of mathematics and philosophy. In 1587, 
being obliged to leave Francfort on account of the plague, 
he retired to the university of Ro%tock, where his talents 
attracted the esteem of Brucseus,' and Caselius, which last » 
observes, that, as far as he knew, Liddel was the first per- 
son in Germany who explained the motions of the heavenly 
bodies according to the three different hypotheses of Pto- 
lemy, Copernicus, and Tycho Brahe. With these learned 

1 Cha^fept^.^^Niceron; vol. }tXVII.r-^Ioreri.«»Rees's Cjo!ops9dta.«-SA]itt 

R 2 

244 "^ L I D D E L. ^ 

men he lived more like a companion than a pupil; aQd. 
Brucaeus, himself an excellent matbematician, acknow- 
ledged that he was instructed by Liddel in the more per- 
fect knowledge of the Copernican system^ and other astro- 
nomical questions^ It was probably during his residence 
here that Liddel became acquainted with Tycbo Brabe. In 
1590f having taken his master^s degree at Rostock, he 
returned once more to Francfort; but, hearing of the in- 
creasing reputation of the new university at Helmstadt, 
where his friend Caselius bad accepted the chair of philo- 
sophy, he removed thither, and in 1591 was appointed to 
the first or lower professorship of mathematics, and in 1594 
to the second and more dignified mathematical chair, which 
he filled with great reputation to himself and to the univer- 
sity. In 1596 he obtained the degree of doctor of medi-. 
cine, and both taught and practised physic, and was em- 
ployed as first physician at the court of Bruqswick. His 
reputation being now at its height, he was several times 
chosen dean of the faculties, both of philosophy and phy- 
sic, and in 1604, pro-rector of the university, the year 
before he resigned his mathematical professorship. 

In 1607, having a strong inclination to pass the re- 
mainder of his days in his native country, which he had 
frequently visited during his residence at Helmstadt, he 
took a final leave of that city, and after travelling for some 
time through Germany and Italy, at length settled in Scot- 
land. The first account we have of him after his return 
relates to his giving some lands, purchased by him neaf 
Aberdeen, to the university there for the education and 
support of six poor scholars. This occurred in 1612, and 
the following year he gave a sum to found a professorship 
of mathematics, and bequeathed his whole collection of 
books and mathematical instruments to Marischal college, 
directing.a small sum to be expended annually in adding to 
the collection, and another to be distributed among the 
poor. This appears to have been the last act of his life^ 
for he died Dec. 17th of that year, 1613, in the fifty- 
second year of4iis age, and was buried in the West church 
of Aberdeen, where the magistrates placed in memory of 
him a large tablet of brass, upon which is engraved a figure 
of the deceased in his professor's gown and cap, surrounded 
by books and instrunaents, and accompanied by a suitable 
inscription. An engraved portrait, taken from this plate 
at the expence of the late sir David Dalrymple, lord Hailes, 

L I D D E L. 245 

is preBxed to the life of Dr. Liddel, drawn up by professor 
Stuart, of Aberdeen, and published in 1790, 4to. To this 
we are indebted for the present sketch. 

Dr. Liddei's works are, 1. ^' Disputationum Medicina- 
lium,^* 1605, 4 vols. 4to, consisting of theses maintained 
by himself and his pupils at Helmstadt from 1S92 to 1606. 
The copy in the library at Aberdeen is full of MS notes 
in his own hand. Manget mentions what appears to be a 
new edition, or a new aran*gement, of these theses, pub- 
lished at Helmstadt in 1720, 4to, under the title of ** Uni- 
versal Medicine compendium.*' 2. ** Ars Medica, sue- 
ciilcte et perspicue explicata,'* Hamburgh, 1607, 8vo, re- 
printed at Lyons, 1624, by Serranus ; and again at Ham- 
burgh, 1628, byFrobenius, who acknowledges his obliga« 
tions to Dr. Patrick Dun, principal of the Marischal College 
ojp Aberdeen, for the use of a copy corrected and enlargcfd 
by the author. 3. " De Febribus libri tres," Hamburgh, 
1610, 12mo, republished by Serranus, along with the 
** Ars Medica.'* 4. **Tractatus de dente aureo," &c. ibid. 
1628, 12mo, in answer to Horstius's ridiculous account of 
a boy who had a golden tooth. (See James Horstius). He 
appears to have undertaken this work out of regard to the 
reputation of the university of Helmstadt, which, Horstius 
being one of the professors, he thought might be affected 
by this imposture. 5. ^ Artis conservandi Sanitatem, li- 
bri duo, aC. D. doctore Liddelio defuncto delineati, ope- 
ra et studio D. Patricii Dunasi, M. D. &c.** Aberdeen, 1651, 
12mo. In the preface to this work Dr. Dun^ who had 
studied physic at Helmstadt under Dr. Liddel, says, that 
having found the MS. among his papers, he thought JtlEi 
duty he owed to the public and his old master, to complete 
^nd publish it. All these writings received the distinguished 
approbation of his colleagues and contemporaries, and have 
been mentioned with respect by succeeding authors. ^ 

LIEBERKUHN (John-Nat^ianiel), a Prusian anato- 
mist, was bnrn at Berlin in 171ri. His inclinations led him 
early to cultivate philosophy and anatomy : but it was not 
until he was about liis twenty-fifth year that he was per-» 
knitted entirely to indulge them. His acquisitions before 
that period had, indeed, been considerable ; and after it 
he pursued his studies at Hall, Jena, Leyden, Paris, and 
London. In 1740, he was elected a member of the royal 

} A S3(etch of Uie Life of Dr. Duncan Liddel, Aber. 1790, 4U^ 


44« LIE BE R K U H N. 

society of London, and of other learned societies an the 
continent. He returned to Berlin in that year, by the ex- 
pfess command of the king of Prussia, and became cele- 
brated for his anatomical researches, and a fine museum of 
fnatomical preparations which he accumulated. ^He died 
9* Berlin of a peripneumony, in 1756. The only works he 
left were reprinted at London, in 1782, by John Sheldon, 
esq. lecturer on anatomy, 4to, under the title of " Disser- 
tationes quatuor." The first is the author's thesiis on the 
structure of the valve of the colon, and the use of the pro- 
cessus vermicularis ; the second, on the structure and ac- 
tion of the villi of the svm^l intestines of the human body : 
the third, on the proper methods of discovering the struc- 
ture of the viscera : the fourth, on the .anatomical micro- 
acope. It is said that his eye-sight bad almost the power 
of a microscope,^ and that he could perceive with the naked 
eye object$ to which other men w^e .obliged to apply mi- 
croscopes and magnifiers. This account may perhaps 
have been a little exaggerated, bat we cannot doubt that 
'9^ descripUoi^ of his anatomical microscope will affect every 
humane mind with horror. To it belongs an apparatus 
for the purpose of crucifying living animals, and fixitig 
them and their bowels in such a manner, ynth pointed 
hooks, as that they cannot move, in the midst of their pro- 
tracted tortures, so as to disturb the operator, after he has 
opened their belUes, and dragged out their intestines, for 
his deliberate inspection. We have no words to express 
Our detestation of such cruelty, nor, we trqst, are any 

LIEUTAtJD (Joseph), a celebrated physician and ana* 
tomist, was bom at Aix, in Provence, June 21, 1703. His 
family, long established at Aik, had produced many distin- 
guished officers, ecclesiastics, lawyers, &c. He was at 
first intended by his parents for the church ; but the re« 
putation of his maternal uncle Garidel, the professor of 
medicine at Ai^r, gaye him a .bias to the study of medi- 
cine, and pai;ticulB!rly bota^ny, in which his researches an4 
skill soon occasioned him to be promoted to thie chairs of 
botany and anatojpay at Aix, which his uncle had long 
filled. His lectui:es on anatomy were much atte^nded, and 
by an audience comprising many persons not engaged i^ 

1 Diet Hilt — Sheldon's edition.— Month. Rer. toI. LXVIIIt — ]Lounger^f 
CoflimoQ-PIace 9ook, ts). IV. 

LIE U T A U D. 247 

ilbe study of medidne, and among others, the matquis 
d'Argens, the intimale friend of the king. M. lieutaud 
pablishedy in 1742, a syllabus of anatomy for the use of 
'bisrpupils, entitled '^Essais anatomiques, contenant THi^- 
'toire exacte de toutes les parties qui composent le corps 
chunokaioe ;" it was several tiaies reprinted, with improTe« 
ments, and in 1777 was edited Jby M. Portal, in 2 Tolumes. 
.Be.Qoramunicated also several papers on morbid anatomy, 
.And .QB physiology, to the academy pf sciences, of whidi 
Juft was elected a corresponding' n^ember. In.l74d, how^ 
ever, be quitted his post at Aiz, and went to Verssplles, 
jat the instance of the celebrated Seoac, who then held the 
highest appointment at court, and vwho obtained for Lien* 
'taud the appointment of physician to the royal infirmary. 
This ajCt of friendship is said to have originated from the 
private communicatipn of some errors, which Lieutaiid 
;bad detected in a work of M. Senac, aiyi which he did not 
{deem it proper to publish. At Versailles he continued fam 
^aaatomical investigations with unabated zeal, and was soon 
.after his arrival elected assistant anatomist to the royal 
actfideniy, to which 'he continued to present many valuable 
memoirsc He also printed a. volume en tided ^' Elepienta 
PhyaioIogiflB,'' &c. Paris, 1749, which bad been composed 
for the Uj|e of his class at Aix, In 1755, he was nominated 
fihysician to the royal family^ and twenty years afterwards^ 
he obtained the place of first physician to the king, Louis 
XVL In 17S9 he published a system of the practice of 
medicine, under the title of << Precis de la Medicine pra* 
iique,*' which underwent several editions, with great aug* 
mentations, the best of which is that of Paris, 1770, in 
2 vols. 4to. In 1766, he published 'a '^/Precis de la Ma<^ 
tiere .medicale,'^ in Svo, afterwards reprinted in 2 vols. 
But his most important work, which still rank^ high in the 
estimation of physicians, is that which treats of the seats 
and causes of diseases, ascertained by bis innumerable disr 
sections. It was entitled ^^ Historia Anatomico^-medica^ 
sistens numerosissima cadaverum bumanorum extispicia,'* 
.Paris, 1767, in 2 vols. 4to. M. Lieutaud died Septem« 
ber 6, 1780, after an illness of five days;* 

LIEVENS (Jan, or John), a historical painter of great 
merit, was born in 1607, at Ley den, and placed under 
the care of Joris Van Scbooten, atid afterwards of Peter 

> Eloget des Academiciens, toI. IL— Reet's Cyclopadia, firofli Elpy. 

3ia L I E V E N S. 


Lastman. Portrait was perhaps that branch of the art in 
which he uniformly excelled, yet some of his historical pieces 
are deserving of the highest praise. His^^^ Resurrection of 
Lazarus'' is a work, Mr. Fuseli says, which, in sublimity 
of conception, leaves all attempts of other masters on the 
ssune subject far behind. His *^ Continence of Scipio/* is. 
also celebrated in very high terms. Another of his per- 
formances, applauded by the poets as well as the artists of 
his time, is his ^^ Student in his library," the figures as 
" large as life. This was purchased by the prince of Orange> 
' and presented by him to Charles L It was the means df 
procuring him a favourable reception at the English court, 
where, he painted the portraits of the royal family and 
many of the nobility. After residing in England for three 
years, he went to Antwerp, and was incessantly employ^gjL 
The time of his death is not specified,^ 

LIGHTFOOT (John), a learned English divine, was 
born on the 19th or 29th of March, 1602, at Stoke upon' 
Trent, in Staffordshire. His father was Thomas Ligbtfeot, 
vicar of Uttoxeter in that county *. After having finished 
his studies at a school kepjt by Mr. Whitehead on Morton^ 
green, near Congleton in Cheshire, he was removed in 
1617, to Cambridge, and put under the tuition of Mr. 
William Chappel, then fellow of Christ's college there, 
and afterwards bishop of Cork in Ireland, who was also the 
tutor of Henry Morf, Milton, &c. At college he applied 
himself to eloquence, and succeeded so well as to be 
thought the best orator of the under-graduates in the uni«- 
versity. He also made an extraordinary proficiency in the 
. Latin and Greek; but neglected the Hebrew^ and even 
lost that knowledge he brought of it from school. His 
taste for the Oriental languages was not yet excited ; and, 
as for logic, the study of it, as managed at that time 

^ Mr. Thomas Lightfoot was born died January the 34th» 1636, at the ag^ 

at a little village called Shelton, in the of seventy-one. Mr. Thomas Lights 

parish of Stoke upon Trent in Stafford- foot had by her five sens, the seoond 

fihire. He was in holy orders six and of whom was John our author. The 

fifty years, and was thirty-six vicar of eldest was Thomas, who was brought 

Uttoxeter. He died July the dlst, up to trade. The third, Peter, was a 

, 1 658, in the eighty-first year of his physician, and practised at Uttoxeter* 

^ge. He married Mrs, Elizabeth Bag- The fourth was Josiah, who succeeded 
nal, a gentlewoman of very good fa- ' his brother. Dr. John Lightfoot, in the 

mtiy ; three of which family were made liviog of Ashley in Staffordshire. The 

koights by queen Elizabeth for their youngest was Samuel, whp. w^s iil^^ 

Vdluur i(( the wars in Ireland. She wise a clergyman. 

\ nikingtpa. 

L I G H T F O O T. MB 

among t\\e academics, was too contentious for his qai6t 
anrd meek disposition. 

As soon as be had taken the degree of B, A. he left the 
univemty, and became assistant to his former master; Mr; 
Whitehead, who then kept a school at Repton, in Derby* 
shire. After he bad supplied this place a year or two, he 
entered into orders, and became curate of Norton under" 
Hales, in Shropshire. This curacy gave an occasion of 
awakening his genius for the Hebrew tongue. Norton 
lies near Bellaport, then the seat of sir Rowland Cotton, 
who was his constant hearer, made him his chaplain, and 
took him into his house. This gentleman being a perfect 
master of the Hebrew language, engaged Lightfoot in that 
study ; who, by conversing with his patron, soon became 
sensible, that, without that knowledge, it was impossible 
to attain an accurate understanding of the Scriptures. He 
therefore applied himself to it with extraordinary vigour 
and success; and his patron removing, with his family, to 
reside in London, at the request of sir Allan Cotton, his 
uftde, who was lord^mayor of that tity, he followed his 
preceptor thither. He had not been long in London be- 
fore be conceived . the design of going abroad for farther 
improvement ; and with that view he went into Stafford- 
shire^ and took leave of his father and mother. Passing, 
however, through Stone in that county, he found the place 
destitute of a minister; and the pressing instances of the* 
parishioners prevailed upon him to undertake that cure. 
He now laid aside all thoughts of going abroad, and hai^-~ 
ing in 1628 become possessed of the living, he married 
the daughter of William Crompton, of Stone-pai'k, esq. 
After a time, his excessive attachment to rabbinical learn- 
ing occasioned another removal to London, for the sake of 
Ston-college«library, which he knew was well stocked with 
books of that kind. He therefore quitted his charge at 
Stone, and removed with his family to Hornsey, near 
London, where he gave the public a specimen of his ad- 
vancement in those studies, by his '' Erubhini, or Miscel- 
lanies Christian and Judaical," in 1629. He was now only 
27 years of age, and appears to have been well acquainted 
with the Latin and the Greek fathers, as well as with Plu- 
tar(5h, Plato, and Homer, and seems also to have had 
some skill in the modern languages. These 6rst fruits of 
bis studies were dedicated to sir Rowland Cotton ; who. 


in 1631, presented him to the rectory of Ashley/ in Staf« 

Thinking himself now fixed for life, he built a study in 
the garden, retired from the noise of the house ; and ap- 
plied himself for twelve years with indefatigable diligence 
in searching the Scriptures. Thus employed, the days 
passed very agreeably ; aud be continued quiet and unmp*- 
lested till the great change which happened in the public 
affairs, brought him into a share of the administration re* 
lating to the church ; for he was nominated a member of 
the memorable assembly of divines, for settling a new 
form of ecclesiastical polity. This appointment was purely 
the effect of bis distinguished merit ; and he accepted it 
purely with a view to serve his country as far as lay in bis 
power ; but, although he contended on son^e points with 
many of the most able innovators in that assembly, it can- 
not be denied that he had a favourable. opinion of the Pres- 
byterian form of church-government. The necessity for 
residing in London, in consequence of this appointment, 
induced him to resign his rectory ; and, having obtained 
the presentation for a younger brother, he set out for 
London in 1642. He had now satisfied himself in clearing 
up many of the abstrusest passages in &e Bible, and -had 
provided the chief materials, as well as formed the plan, 
of his *^ Harmony ;'' and an opportunity of inspecting it 
at the press was, no doubt, an additional motive for his 
going to the capital. Here, however, he had not been 
long, before he was chosen minister of St. Bartholomew'^ 
behind the Royal Exchange. He lived at this time at the 
upper end of Moore-lane, whence he dedicated to his 
parishioners of St. Bartholomew, his ^* Handful of Glean- 
ings out of the Book of Exodus." The assembly of divines 
meeting in 1643, our author gave his attendance diligently 
there, and made a distinguished figure in their debates ; 
where he used great freedom, and gave signal proofs of 
his courage as well as learning, in opposing many of those 
tenets which the divines were endeavouring to establish* 
His learning recommended him to the parliament, whose 
visitors, having ejected Dr* William Spurstow from the 
mastership of Catharine-ball in Cambridge, put Lightfoot 
iii his room this year, 1643 ; and he was also presented tb 
the living of Much-Munden, in Hertfordshire, void by the 
death of Dr. Samuel Ward, Margaret-professor of divini^ 
in that university, before the expiration of this year. In 

L I G H T F O O T. usi 

the ndean time be had taken bift turn with other favourites 
in preaching before the House of Commons, most of which 
sermons were printed ; and in them we see him warmly 
pressing the speedy settlement of the church in the Pres- 
byterian form, which he cordially believed to be according 
tp the pattern in the Mount, liis leisure hours he em-* 
ployed in preparing and publishing the several branches of 
bis <* Harmony ;'* all which, although decidedly proving 
the usefulness of human learniog to true religion, occa« 
sioned to him great difficulties and discouragements, chiefly 
owing to the vulgar prejudices of the. illiterate part of the 
revolutionists, which threatened even the destruction of 
the universities. In 16^5 j he entered upon the office of 
vice-chancellor of Cambridge, to which he was chosen th9,t 
year, having taken the degree of doctor of divinity in 
1652. He performed all the regular exercises for his de- 
gree with great applause*, and executed the vice-chan- 
cellor^s office with exemplary diligence and fidelity; and^ 
particularly at the commencement, supplied the place of 
professor of divinity, then undisposed of, at an act whick 
was kept for a doctor's degree in that profession f. At the 
i^ime time he was engaged, with others, in completing the 
celebrated Pdyglott Bible, then in thie press ; which being 
eocouraged by Oliver Cromwell, he expressed his joy at 
this high patronage, in his speech at the commencement. 
He also took occasion to commiserate the oppressed state 
of the olergy of the church of England^ spd to extol theijr 
learning, zeal, and confidence, in God. 
^ At the restoration, be offered to resign the mastemship 
of Catharine-hall to Dr. Spurstow, who declining it, ano* 
tjber person would have been preferred by the crpwn, ia 
vbich the right of presentation lay' But, as what Light- 
foot had done ihad been rather in compliance with the ne- 
cessity of the times thim from apy seal or spirit of oppo- 
sition to the king and government, Sheldon, abp. of Can« 
lerbury, readily and heartily engaged to serve him, though 
personally unknown ; iind procured him a confirmation 


* His Uiesis was upon this question : nor eztraordinsiy gifts, in the chnrcb. 

Post Canonem Scriptuiss consigna* f The qaestions were, 1. ** Whether 

torn noo snnt novas ReveUttones ex« the state of innocency was a state oC 

pectandsB." He has written much, in immortality ?>* S. ** Whether eternal 

▼arioas parts- of his works, upon this life is promised in the Old Testament?" 

subject. It was his opinion, that, after Both which he mainlained in tha affir- 

the closing of the canon of Seriptnrey mative, 
^km v«i wUMr jpropbcscy, miraqies, 


L I G H T F O O T. 

from the crown, both of his place, and of hrs liviag. 
Soon after this, he was appointed one of the assistants 
at the conference upon the liturgy, which was held; 
in the beginning of 1661, but attended only once or' 
twice, being more intent on completing his ** Harmony ;" 
and, being of a strong and healthy constitution, and re- 
markably temperate, he prosecuted his studies with un-' 
abated vigour to the last, and continued to publish, not-*^ 
withstanding the many difficulties he met with from thi^ 
expence of it*. Not long, however, before he died, some' 
booksellers got a promise from him to collect and metho- 
dize bis works, in order to print them; but the fulfilment 
was prevented by his death, which happened at Ely Dec. 
6, 1675. He was interred at Great Munden, in Hert- 

As to his rabbinical learning, he was excelled by none^ 
and had few equals ; and foreigners who came to England 
for assistance in their rabbinical studies, usually paid their 
court to him, as one of the most eminent scholars in thai 
bfanch. Among these were Frederic Miege and TheQ«> 
dore Haak, who were peculiarly recommended also to Dr. 
Pocock, with whom our author had a correspondence ; «^ 
also Dr. Marshal of Lincoln-college, in Oxford; Samofel 
Clarke, keeper of the Bodleian library ; Dr. Bernard, of 
St. John's; and the famous Buxtorf; were all correspond^ 
ents of his. Castell acknowledges his obligations to him, 
when he had little encouragement elsewhere. It is true, 
he is charged with maintaining some peculiar opinions t ; 
of which he says, *' Innocua, ut spero, semper proponens;^* 
yet he bore the reputation of one of the most ingenious as 
well as learned of our English commentators, and has been 
of great service to his successors. He bequeathed his 
whole library of rabbinical works, oriental books, &c. to 
Harvard college, in America, where the whole were' burnt 
in 1769. 

* In a letter to Buxtorf, he declares, 
<' that he could scarce find any book- 
sellers ID England who would Tenture 
to print his works, and that he was 
obliged to print some of Uiem at his 
own expence ;" and Frederic Miege, in 
a letler, informed him, *' thM Uiere 
was not a bookseller in Germany, who 
would freely undertake the impression 
of his Commentary upon the first Epis- 
tle to the Cori()thians." See these let- 
ters in bis works, vol. III. at the enJ. 

f The principal of these are perhaps 
his belief, that the smallest points ia 
the Hebrew text were of diTine institii* 
tion ; that the keys were given to Peter 
alone, exclusive of the other apostles ; 
that the power of bindhig and loosing' 
related not to discipline^ but to doe- 
trine. Add to these, his mean opinion 
of the Septuagint version; and tho^- 
uUer rejection of the Jews, wkidli ha; 
maintained, contrary to Uu( conuBPilt' 
opinion of divines. 

L I G H T F O O T. 25S 

The doctor was twice married; his first wife, already 
mentioned, brought him four sons and two daughters. 
His eldest son, John, who was chaplain to Bryan Walton^ 
bishop of Chester, died soon after that prelate. His ser 
oond was Anastasius, who had also these additions to that 
name, Cottonus Jacksonus, in memory of sir Rowland 
Cotton and sir John Jackson, two dear friends of our au* 
thor ; he was minister of Thundridge^ in Hertfordshire, 
and died there, leaving one son. His third son was Anas- 
tasius too, but without any addition ; he was brought up 
to trade in London. His fourth son was Thomas, who 
died young. His daughters was Joice and Sarah, the for- 
mer of whom was'married to Mr. John Duckfieldj^ rector 
of; Aspeden, in Hertfordshire, into whose hands fell the 
doctor's papers, which he communicated to Mr. Strype. 
The, other married Mr. Coclough, a Staffordshire gentle- 
xnan. This lady died in 1656, and was interred in the church 
of Munden, in Hertfordshire. The doctor's second wife was 
relict of Mr. Austin Brograve, uncle of sir Thomas Brp- 
graye, bart. of Hertfordshire, a gentlemaii well versed in 
rabbinical learning, and a particular acquaintance of our 
author. He had- no issue by her. She also died before 
him, and was buried in Munden church. 

Dr. Lightfoot was comely in^ bis person, of full pro- 
pbrtion, and of a ruddy complexion. He was exceeding 
temperate in his diet. He ordinarily resided among his 
parishioners at Munden, with whom be lived in great har- 
mony and affection, and in a hospitable and charitable 
manner. He never left tliem any longer than to perform 
the necessary residence at Cambridge and Ely; and during 
that absence would frequently say ^^ he loitged to be with 
his russet coats." He was a constant preacher ; and Mun-^. 
den being a large parish, and the pa^ sonage*house a mile 
from the church, and^ as he attended there every Sunday, 
read prayers and preached morning and afterngon, he fre- 
quently continued all day in the church, not taking any 
refreshment till the evening service was over. He was. 
easy of access, grave, but yet affable and communicative. 
His countenance was expressive of his dispositicjn, which 
was uncommonly mild and tender. 

Dr. Lightfbot's works were collected and published first 
in 1684, in Z vols, folio. The second edition was printed 
at Amsterdam, 1686, in 2 vols, folio, containing all bis 
Latin writings, with a Latin translation of those which be 

iU t 1 G H T F* O O t. 

wrote in English. At tbe end of both these editions there 
is a list of sticb pieces as he left unfinished. It is the cfaieff 
of these^ in Latin, which make up the third volume^ added 
to the former two, in a third edition of his works, by John 
Leusden, at Utrecht, in 1699, fol. They were commu- 
nicated by Mr. Strype, who in 1700 published another 
collection of these papers, under the title of *^ Some ge- 
nuine Remains of the late pious and learned Dr. John 
Lightfoot.^' This contains some curious particulars of his 

LIGHTFOOT (John), a distinguished botanist, was 
born at Newent, in the forest of Dean, Gloucestershire^ 
Dec. 9, 1735. His father, Stephen Lightfoot, was a re- 
putable yeoman or gentleman farmer, who died in 1769, 
with a very amiable character, expressed on a small marble 
monument in tbe parish church of NeWent. His son was 
educated at St. Crypt's school,|^at Gloucester ; from whence 
he became an exhibiticner in Pembroke-college, Oxford; 
where he continued his studies with much deputation, and 
took his master's degree in July 1766. He was first ap* 
pointed curate at Colnbrook, and afterwards at Uxbridge; 
which he retained to his dying day. 

His first patron was the honourable Mr. Lane, son to the 
late lord Bingley. Lord chancellor Northington presented 
him to the living of Shelden, in Hants, which he resigned 
on taking the rectory of Gotham, co. Nottingham. He 
had also Sutton in Lownd, in the same county ; to both of 
which he was presented by his grace the duke of Portland, 
His ecclesiastical preferments amounted to above 500/. a 
year. He was also domestic chaplain to his illustrious pa- 
troness the late duchess dowager of Portland, and by her 
liberality enjoyed during her grace's life, an annuity of a 
hundred a year. During her grace's summer residence at 
Bulstrode, he performed duty in the family twice a week, 
and at other times was of very considerable use to her 
grace in arranging her magnificent collection of natural 
history, particularly the shells and the botanical part. He 
also drew up the catalogue of her museum for sale. He 
was an excellent scholar in many branches of literature, 
but, next to tbe study of his profession, he addicted him^ 
self ohiefly to botany and concbyliology, excelling in both, 

1 Life prefixed to hiii Works, and Sttype's preface.—* MS note respecting his 
library in Mr* Gouf h's copy of the Bio^raphia Britaiiaia« 

L I G H T F O O T. 255 

but particularly in botany, and he was equally versed in 
the knowledge of foreign as of British botany. 

In 1772, the late Mr. Pennant invited Mr. Lightfoot to 
be the companion of his second tour to Scotland and the 
Hebrides, advising him to undertake the compilation, as 
he himself modestly calls it, of a " Flora Scotica," which 
Mr. Pennant offered to publish at his own expence. Mr. 
Lightfoot gladly complied, and besides the knowledge ac* 
quired by his own observations, was ably assisted by the 
collections and communications of Dr. Hope, professor* of 
botany at Edinburgh, the rev. Dr. John Stuart of Luss; 
the rev. Dr. Burgess of Kirkmichael, in Dumfriesshire, and 
of other gentlemen in England. The " Flora Scotica*' 
was published in 1775, 2 vols. 8vo. The plan and exe- 
cution of it appeared calculated to render it one of the 
most popular Flora's, but for a long time it did not pay its 
expences, which certainly did not arise from any want of 
merit ; for its only great and radical fault was not known, 
or at least scarcely considered such till lately. The fault 
we mean, is the compiling descriptions from fo)reign au« 
thors, without mentioning whence they are taken ; so ^hat 
a student can never be certain of their just application, but 
on the contrary, often finds them erroneous or unsuitable, 
without knowing why. 'Even in the last class, on which 
Mr. Lightfoot bestowed so much pains, the synonyms of 
Lihnseus and Dillenius often disagree, though in many 
cases such contrarieties are properly indicated, so as ta 
throw original light on the subject. 

Mr. Lightfoot was for some years a fellow of the royal 
society, and was one of the original fellows of the Linnar^an 
society, the formation of which he contemplated with great 
pleasure, though his death happened before he could at- 
tend any of its public meetings. Having married the 
daughter of Mr. William Burton Raynes, an opulent mil- 
ler at Uxbridge, he resided in that town, and died there 
suddenly, Feb. 18, 1788, aged fifty-three, leaving a wi- 
dow, two sons, and three daughters. Mrs. Lightfoot was 
married in 1 802 to John Springett Harvey, esq. barrister at 
law. He was buried in Cowley church, where his grave 
remained, for some time at least, without any memorial. 
He is supposed never to have recovered from a disappoint- 
ment respecting a living which bis patron, the late duke 
of Portland, solicited from lord chancejlor Thurlow, but 
which the latter did not think fit to bestow. 

256 LI G H T.F O O T. 


* Mp. Lightfoot had in the course of bis botanical studie^^ 
collected an excellent British herbarium, consisting of 
abundant specimens, generally gathered wild, and in many 
cases important for the illustration of his work. Qe had 
also amassed from sir Joseph Banks and other friends, a 
number of exotic plants. The whole was bought after his 
death) for 100 guineas, by his majesty, as a present to the 
queen, and deposited at Frogmore, the price being fixed 
by an intelligent friend of the family.' 

LILBURNE (John), a remarkable English enthusiast, ' 
^as descended from an ancient family in the county of 
Durham, where his father, Richard Lilbyirne, was possessed 
of a bd,ndsome estate*, especially a^ Thickney-Purchar- 
den, the seat of the family upon which he resided^ and 
had this son, who was born in 1618. Being a younger 
ctiild, he was designed for a trade ; and was put appren« 
tice at twelve years of age, to a wholesale clothier in Lon- 
don, who, a9 well as his father, was disaffected to the 
hierarchy. The youth, we are told, had a prompt genius 
and a forward temper above his years, which shewed itself 
conspicuously, not long after, in a complaint to the city- 
chamberlain of bis master's ill-usage ; by which, having 
obtained more liberty, he purchased a multitude of books 
favourable to his notions of politics and religion ; and 
having his imagination warmed with a sense of suffering 
and resentment,, he became at length so considerable 
among his party, as to be consulted upon the boldest of 
their undertakings against the hierarchy, while yet an ap^- 

The consequence he attained flattered his vanity, and he 
could no longer think of following his trade. In 1636, 
being introduced by the teacher of his congregation, to 
Dr. Bastwick, then a star-chamber prisoner in the Gate- 
house for sedition, Bastwick easily prevailed with him to 
carry a piece he had lately written against the bishops, to 
Holland, and get it printed there. Lilburne, having dis- 

* It is worth notice that he was the ,when the trial was put off by tha 

last person who joined issue in the aur judges \ till at last it wad ordered, at 

cient custom of atrial by battle. It the king's instance, by parliament, that 

«as with one Ralph Auxton, for lands a bill should be brought in to taka 

of tbe value of 200/. per ann. The away that trial, in 1641. RiuiiworUl'* 

two champions appeared in the court, '* Collections," vol. I. 
armed cap-^^pi^, with sand-bags, &c. 

^ Life by Pennant— -and by Sir James South in the CycIop8Bdia.«-<3eiit* Mas* 
LVm. and LXXII. 

L I L fi t K K £. 257 

jitftcbed tilis iiti{9bttant affair, petarned to EnglAml in a few' 
didA€bs mth the paoipfalet, Baslwick's <* Merry Liturgy/'' 
as 11 was cillted^ and a car ga of other pieces of a similar 
ktnd. These he dispersed with mtieh prmey; uiiti), being 
beiniy^d by bis JEtssoeiate, he Was apprehended ; and^ after 
examination before the coancil-board and high eottiYnissfon 
court, to whose rules he refused to conform, he was found 
guilty of printiff^ arrd pubKshing severalseditious books, par- 
Mularly **Hews from IpswWhj'^ki production of Prynne's. 
Lilburne was condeitioed Feb. 1 637, to be shipped at the 
eairt'fl^ it$A{ from the Fleet-priSonr t6 Old Palace Yard, Wes^- 
Mfnater ;- theil set upon the piltory there for two b^urs ; 
•ftenv^rds'to be earried back to the Fleet, there to remain 
#t be conformed to the rules of the coiirt ; also to pay a 
fine of SiQOt to the kiffg ; and, lastly, to give security for 
his good behaviour. He underwent this sentence with an 
undismayed obstinacy, utteriilg many bold speeches against 
lile bishops, amd dispersing many pamphlets from the pil« 
lot^, whdre, aftef the star-chamber then sitting had or- 
i0Hld him to be gagged, he stamped with his feet. The 
Spirtt h€ lAew^d apon this occasion procured him the nick* 
oanye tf *^ Free-born John" among the friends to the go* 
l^nmedt; iAd amoitg his own party the title of Saint. In 
prisoti he was loaded with double irons on bis arms and 
legfs, and put into one of the closest wards ; but, being 
suspected to have occasioned a fire which broke out near 
that wsrdv he was removed into a better, at the earnest so- 
Kefits^tion both of the neighbours and prisoners. The first 
4iSe b^ made of bis present more convenient situation, was 
lo pttbKsh a piece of his own writing, entitled '* The 
Christita Mail*^ Trial,** in 4to, ** Nine arguments against 
€pise<9pai^,*^ and several <* Epistles to the Wardens of the 

fte wrot^ several other pamphlets, before the long par* 
liMMnft gratlted him the liberties of the Fleet, Nov. 164*0; 
wUch^ indurgenee he Fikewi^ abused by appearing on 
M«y 3i 1641, at the head of af^s^vage^ mob, who clamoured 
tor Jtisrfceigttitfse the earl of Strafford. Next day he was 
seiacfd and arraigned at the bar of the House of Lords, for 
ad' assault u^n cblonel Lunsford, the governor of the 
TcJwer ; bnt ttte t't^mper 6f the times being now in his fa- 
vtMi^,' he wiis disfirissed, and the same day a vote passed in 
the Hou^ of C<Mhtnons, declaring his former sentence' ille«*' 
gill and' SyrMnff^Ul, and that he ou^ht to have repa/atido 

Vol. XX. S 


L I L B U R.N E. 

for his sufferings and lofses* This reparation was effec** 
tualy although slow. It w^ not until April 7, 1646, that a 
decree of the House of Lords passed for giving him ^wo thou-^ 
saud pounds out of the estates of lord Cottington, sir Banks 
Windebank, and James Ingram, warden of the Fleet ; and it 
was two years after before he received the money, in con* . 
sequence of a petition to the House of Commons, when he 
obtained an ordinance for 3000/. worth of the delinquents- 
lands, to be sold to him at twelve years purchase. This 
ordinance included a grant for some part of the seques- 
tered estates of sir Henry Bellingham and Mr. Bowes, in 
the counties of Durham or Northumberland, from which 
he received about 1400/.; and Cromwell, soon after hit' 
return from Ireland, in May 1650, procured him a grran^ 
of lands for the remainder. This extraordinary delay was 
occasioned entirely by himself. 

When the parliament had voted an army to oppose the 
&ing, Lilburne entered as a volunteer, was a capUiin qf 
foot at the battle of Edge-hill, and fought weU in the enr 
gagement at Brentford, Nov. 12, 1612, but being taken 
prisoner, was carried to Oxford, and would have been 
tried and executed for high treason, had not his parlia- 
mentary friends threatened retaliation. After this, as he 
himself informs us, he was exchanged very honourably 
above his rank, and rewarded with a purse of 300/. by the 
earl of Essex. Yet, when that general began to press the 
Scots* covenant upon his followers, Lilburne quarrelled 
with him, and by Cromwell's interest was made a ms^r 
of foot, Oct. 1643, in the new-raised army under the earl 
of Manchester. In this station he behaved very well, and 
narrowly escaped with -his life at raising the siege of New<» 
ark by prince Rupert; but at the same time he quarrelled 
with his colonel (King), and accused him of several mis? 
demeanours, to the earl, who immediately promoted him 
to be lieutenant-colonel of his own regiment of dragoons; 
This post Lilburne sustained with signal bravery ^t the 
battle of Marston-moor, in July ; yet he had before that 
quarrelled with the earl for not bringing colonel King to 
a trial by a court-martial; and upon Cromwell's accusing 
his lordship to the House of Commons, Nov. 1644, Lil- 
burne appeared before the committee in support of that 
charge. Nor did he rest until he had procured an' impeachf 
ment to be exhibited in the House of Commons in Augusi 
this year, against colonel King for high crimes and mis-' 

L I L B U ,R N E. 259 

demeanours. Little attention being paid to this, be firat 
offered a petition to the House, to bring the colonel 
to his trial, and still receiving no satisfaction, be pub- 
lished a coarse attack upon the earl of Manchester, ia 
1646. Being called before the House of Lords, where 
that nobleipan was speaker, on account of this publication, 
he not only refused to answer the interrogatories, but pro- 
tected against their jurisdiction over him in the present 
case ; on which he was first committed to Newgate, and 
then to the Tower. He then appealed to 4;he House of 
Commons ; and upon their deferring to take his case into 
consideration, he charged that House, in print, not only 
with haying . done nothing of late years for tite gene* 
ral good, but also with having made many ordinances no- 
toriously unjust and oppressive. This pamphlet, which 
was called ^^ The Oppressed man^s oppression,'' being 
seized, he printed another, entitled '^ The Resolved 
man's r^lution," in which he maintained ** that the 
present parliament ought to be pulled down, and a new 
one called, to bring them to a strict account, as tb^ 
only means of saving the laws and liberties of England 
from utter destruction," This not availing, be applied to 
the agitators in the army; and at length, having obtained' 
liberty every day to go, without his keeper, to attend the 
committee appointed about his business, and to returti 
every nigfat to the Tower, he made use of that indulgence 
to engage in some seditious practices. For this he was re- 
committed to the Tower, and ordered to be tried ; but, 
upon the parliament's apprehensions from the Cavaliers, 
on prince Charles's appearing with a fleet in the Downs, 
he procured a petition, signed by seven or eight thousand 
persons, to be presented to the House, which made an or- 
der, in August 164S,to discharge him from imprisonment^, 
and to make him satisfaction for his sufferings. This was 
not compassed, however, without a series of conflicts and 
quarrels with Cromwell ; who, returning from Ireland in 

* See the trial, which wa« printed power of the ttw, as well as fact. In 

by him .under the name of " Theodo- the same print, over his head, appear 

ros Verax/' to which he prefixed, by the two faces of a medal, upon oae of 

way of triamph, a print of himself at which were inscribed the names of the 

'full length, standing at the bar with jnry, and on the other these words; 

Cokie's Institutes in his hand, the hook " John Ljlburne saved by the power of 

that he made use of to prove that flat- the Lord, and the integrity of his jury, 

terhig doctrine, which he applied with who are judges of law as well as fact, 

singular address J|^ the jury, that in October 26^ 1649.** 
them alone was ifllerent the judicial 

S 2 

aw L 1 1 i tJ It ii Ei 

Mdy ISBOf^nA ^fidiog Lilborne in a peaeeabKe di$]f6si« 
Mn wish i^ard to? the parliattieRt, {^rbctired! hind the n?* 
maand^ of his grant for feparatioirs above-mentiODed. 
This ^as gratefully acknowledged by his antagonist, wh<f, 
l|GMteyer^ did not continue long in that humour; for, hariYtg* 
undertaken a dispute in law, in- which his uncle George 
X^lburne happened to be engaged, he petitiotied the^ paf^ 
litfment on that occasion with his usual bold if ess in 1651 ; 
and this assembly fined him in the sum of 7000/. ta the 
state, and balBshed him the kingdom. Before this, how- 
ever, could b^ carried into execution, he went in Jto. 
I65U2, to Amstei^dam ; where, having printed an apologjr 
for himself, he sent a copy of it^ with a letter, to Gromw^f, 
charging him as the principal promoter of the act of bis 
banishment. He bad also several conferences with some 
of the royalists, to whom he engaged to restore Charles IT. 
by his interest with the people, for the small, sum of 10,000/. 
bst no Notice was taken of a design* which, faaAs it been 
platisible, could never have been confided to such a man. 
He then remained in e:{^ile, without hopes of revisiting 
England, till the dissolution of tfae long parliament ; on 
irhich event, not being able to obtain a pass, he returned 
without one, in June 1657 ; and being seized and tried at 
the Old Bailey^ be was a second time acquitted by his jury. 
Crbmwell, incensed by this contempt of his power, which 
#as now become despotic, had him carried to Portsmouth, 
in ord6r for transportation ; but the tyrant's wrath was 
averted, probably by Lilburne's brother Robert, one of his 
Hiajor-generals, upon whose bail for bis behavtour he was 
suffered to return. After this, he settled at Eltbamy in 
Kent, where he p^sed the short remainder Of his days iti 
tranquillity, giving, however, another proof of hisr versatile 
principles, by joining the quakefs, among witom he 
preached, in and about Eltham, till bis death, Aug^. 2% 
1657, in his forty-ninth year.' He was intefrifed in th^ 
then new bunal- place iti Moor-fields, Aear the pl^e now 
called Old Bedlam ; four thousand persons attending^ bis 

Wood obaaracteri^es him as a person ^< from bis youth 
much addicted to contention, novelties, opposition of go* 
yernment, and to violeni and bitter expressions ;"' *^ thc^ 
idol of the factious people;" ** naturally a great trouble-, 
world in all the variety of governments, a t^ge-^dge of 
religion, the chief ring-leader of the tev«lfefs, 9l great 

JL i L B U R :N £* 261 

propid^alrfiajk^;, said ^ modeller of Hiif^» wd puMisker of 
leF.eral seditioius pitiiiphl^ts, fifki of no quaixeboMe a dta^^ 

E>sitipny tbatit'Was s^pfiosit^ly sidd pf bim (by judge Jen«> 
0$), ^ tba^ 4f tber^ wa3 opne living heat he^ John would 
be.agfiQst Lilburne, and JLitlburne agaioot John/ '* ^ JLprd 
iJ^i^ndoD instances bim '^ ^ad an ejv^ieficeiof tbe temper ci 
llpe^oatioQ ; ^nd bow lartlihei spirits at that time (in 1663) 
were froin paying a spbo^i^^MW to that power, Wben m* 
body bad tbe Qourage to lift up tbeir bauds against iu^ 
Mwfj^ ssys jl^bat be w^s ^ thp fEiost titrbuleiit, bvit the most 
pprig^^t a^d pc^rageous pf human kind ;'' and more recent 
biographers bf^v^ given b^in credit for tbe consistency of 
bis prinoy>les. We doubt, however, vvtioiher this consist 
tency wHlJbePir a. very <;loae examination : it is true that be 
luiifbrmly M^Vjeigbed f^^nst tyraoiny, whether that lof a 
jkif^y aprotec(or,^.or a pfMtliament; but snob was bi5* selfish 
lov^ pf libpr^y) tl#t he iecluded under tbe name of ty^ 
rapojryjiv^ry species ^of tribunal wbich did not acq>iKl men 
^^^MRV^^^ d'^positipn,, and it would not be easy from 
4iis wr^ng^ tp (majce4>iu ^ny (Tegular form of government, 
QT. 9fft^^ .^f ^UticjEil prmoipte^, likely to prove either 
Piexi9^<|i^(^f\b^>iQ^^^ iti JtiiesO) bovtever, may be found 
tbe*mp( <^>tl^09f9 wild iicbemes which men of similar 
ten^fH^.bave from tii^ije to time obtruded upon public at«- 
tentioiQ.' lAs noat^ers^of ^wipsity, therefore, we shall add 
11. iisit (Of ibis principal publications : 1. <* A Saiva Liber^- 
tiaije/' ;2. ^* Tbe Outcry of the young men and tbe ap- 
pren^qes of ]t'^dpn ; or 901 inquisition after tbe loss of 
the fundamental Laws wA Liberties of England," t^c. 
jLpn^on« 1645| August 1, in 4to. 3. ^ Preparation to aa 
Hue ;^nd Cry after sif Art^pr Haselrig." 4. <^ A Letter to 
aF;rieni3/' 4at^d the 20th pf July, 1645, in 4to. 5. '< A 
Xe^t^pO'WiiVi^a^Prynaef esq." dated the 7th of Jamiary, 
. J1645« This ,was' writtep upon occasion of Mr. Prynne's 
'< Xfuth tri^.fiq^hmg over Falsbood, Antiquity over No*- 
jw^ty.*' 6. *^ L^ndop's Liberty in Chains discovered," &c. 
London, 1646^ in 4to. 7.^^ Tbe free mail's freedom vin<- 
-4^109$^^ J or .4 ti;Qe relation of tbe. cause and manner of 
Li^iitf9i9>pt-CoIonel John Lilburoe's present Imprisonix>ent 
jin Neivga^," &c. London, 1646, 8. " Charters of Lon* 
4pt|, or tbe sepond tpfiiFt of London^s Liberty in Chains 
4isc)wered," ^c London, 1646, 2.8 Decemb. 9. **Two 
Letters from the Tower of'LondoQ to Colonel Henry Mar- 
tin, a meiRKDer of the House of Commons, upon the 13th 

262 L I L B U R M E. 

and 15ih of September 1647/' 10. «^ Other Letters of 
great concern/' London, 1647. 1 1. ^* The resolved man's 
resolution to maintain iirith the last drop of his blood his 
civil liberties and freedotns granted unto him by the great, 
jnst, and truest declared Laws of England," &c. London, 
1647, in 4to. 12. << His grand plea against the present 
tyrannical House ofXords, which he delivered before an 
open Committee of the House of Commons, 20 Octob. 
1647," printed in 1647, in 4to. 13. << His additional Plea 
directed to Mr. John Maynard, Chairman of the Commit- 
tee," 1647, in 4to. 14. " The Outcries of oppressed 
Commons, directed to all the rational and understanding in 
the kingdom of England and dominion of Wales," &c. 
Febr. 1647, in 4to. Richard Overton, another Leveller, 
then in Newgate, had an hand in this pamphlet. 1 5. <* Jo* 
nah's Cry out of the Whale's Belly, in certain Epistle^ 
unto Lieutenant General Cromwell and Mr. John Good- 
win, complaining of the tyranny of the Houses d|:*Lords 
and Commons at Westminster," &c. 16. *' An iflpeach- 
ment of High Treason against Oliver Cromwell and his 
son-in-law Henry Ireton, esquires, late Members of the 
forcibly dissolved House of Commons, presented to pub- 
lick view by Lieutenant- Colonel John Lilburne, close pri- 
soner in the Tower of London, for his zeal, true and zea- 
lous affection to the liberties of this nation," London, 
1649, in 4to. 17. '^ The legal fundamental Liberties of 
the People of England revived, asserted, and vindicated," 
&c. London, 1649. 18. ''Two Petitions presented to the 
supreme authority of the nation from thousands of the 
lords, owners, and commoners of Lincolnshire," &c. Lon- 
don, 1650, in 4to. In a paper which he delivered to the 
House of Commons, Feb. 26, 1648^9, with the hands of 
many levellers to it, in the name of '' Addresses to the 
Supreme Authority of England," and in "The Agreement 
of the people," published May 1, 1649, and written by 
him and his associates Walwyn, Prince, and Overton, are 
their proposals for a democratic form of government.* 

LILLO (George), a celebrated dramtitic writer, was by 
profession a jeweller, and was bom in the neighbourhood 
of Moorgate in.London, Feb. 4, 1693, where he pursued 
his occupation for many years with the fairest and most 
unblemished character. He was strongly attached to the 

1 Bioj. BriU 

L I L L O. 263 

Muses^ and seems to have laid it down as a maxim, tliat 
the devotion paid to tbem ought always to tend to the pro- 
motiqn of yirtue and - mortality. . In pursuance of this aim. 
-LiUo was happy in the choice of his subjects, and showed 
great power of affecting the heart, and of rendering the 
distresses of common and domestic life equally interesting 
to the audiences as those of kings and heroes. His 
« George Barnwell," «« Fatal Curiosity," and « Arden of 
Feversham,'' are all planned on common and well-known 
stories ; yet they have perhaps more frequently drawn tears 
from an audience than more pompous tragedies, particu- 
larly the first of them. Nor was his management of his 
subjects less happy than his choice of them. If there is 
any fault to be objected to his style, it is that sometimes 
he affects an elevation rather above the simplicity of his 
subject, and the supposed rank of his characters ; but tra- 
gedy seldom admits an adherence to the language of com* 
mon life^ arid sometimes it is found that even the most 
humble characters in real life, when under peculiar circum- 
stances of distress, or the influence of any violent passion,^ 
will employ an aptness of expression and power of Ian* 
guage^ not only greatly superior to themselves, but even 
to the general language and conversation of persons of much 
higher rank in life, and of minds more cultivated. 

In the prologue to *^ Elmerick," which was not acted till 
after the author's death, it is said, that, when he wrote that 
play, he *^ was depressed by wat'it," and afflicted by dis- 
ease ; but in the former particular there appears to be 
evidently a mistake, as he died possessed of an estate of 
60/. a year, besides other effects to a considerable valpe. 
The late editor of his works (Mr. T. Davies) in two vo- 
lumes,- 1775, j2mo, relates the following story, which, how- 
ever^ we cannot think adapted to convey any favourable im- 
pression of the person of whom it is told : ^< Towards the 
latter part of his life, Mr. Lillo, whether from' judgment or 
humour, determined to put the sincerity of liis friends, 
who professed a very high regard for him, to a trial. In 
order to carry on this design, he put in practice ati odd 
kind of stratagem : .he asked one of his intimate ac- 
quaintance to lend him a considerable sum of money, and 
for this he declared be would give no btind, nor any 
other security, except a note of hand ; the person to 
whom he applied, not liking the terms, civilly refused 
him. Soon after, Lillo met bis nephew, Mr. Underwood, 

264 (^ I L L p. . 

^itb wboQA be had bi^p^ f^tr^'u^xi/cip ^ifn^^vf^f. Hm fgm 
tbi^ s^me que^tioQ tq biniy 4^ring Jtiim iQ U«4 biiP» I9H>a^ 
upon the s^me ^erws. His (Pepbemr, ^her fsoio ^ -0^(9^ 
it:ious ^ppreiiension pf bip uncle^a £«i^l i^teiHi<9P» or ffpxn 
generosity of spirit, ]iiii;aediately ofkr^i to foq9{»ly with 
bis request. Lillo wa3 so well pleased witb ;tb?s ready cani^ 
pliance of Mr. Underwood, ,tbat be ioEifl^diatiely deelar#4 
that he was fully satisfied with tlie love and regard tjbM: )h< 
nephew bore him ^ he w^ conyiucfsd tb^^ Ms frif oflfibfp 
was entirely disinterested; and asspred bio9» tb^U: be $hciMM 
reap the benefit such generous behaviour dfsei'Ved. !« 
consequence of this promise, be bequeathed biim tbt bfilfc 
of his fortune.*' The same writer says, that Lilto in bi^ 
person was lusty, but not tall ^ of a pleasing aspect, tbo^gb 
unhappily deprived of the sight of one eye. 

Lillo cUed Sept. 3, 17 39, in th^ forty ^^ventb y^ear^f bif 

age ; i^nd, a few moiubs a&er his 4eatb, Henry F;ielding 

printed th^ fQllowing charactdf of bii9 in ^* The Chai9* 

pion:^* ^^He had a perfect knowledgie of blio9i9» nsrt^ref 

though his contempt of all ba,se means of application, wb&eb 

are th^ necf^ssary steps to great acquaintance, restrained 

bis conversation witbip narrow bounds. He bad ^h^ spjurit 

pf an old ilomani joined to the innocence of a primiiiyie 

Christian : he was content with bis little state of life, io 

which bis excellent temper of mind gave bim an happiness 

beyond the power of riches ; and it was necessary for hja 

friends to have a sharp insight into his want pf tb^ir ser*- 

yice^, as well as good inclination or abilities to se^e biip* 

In short, he was one of the best of mee, and ^hoiie wIiq 

knew him best will most riSgret his loss,'' ^ 

XILLY, or LYLl-Y (John), auQther dramatic writer, of 

less fame and merit, was born in the Wilds of Ke^, abom 

1555, according to the computation of Wood, who sayis, 

^< he became a student in Magdalen-college in the begia-" 

oing of 1569, aged sixteen or thereabouts, and was altiy-* 

' wards one of the demies or ^Jerk^ of that ho^ise." He 

* took the degree of B. A. Apr]l27, 1573, and of M« A. in I S7S» 

Online disgust, he. removed to Climbridge; and th^m^ 

went to court, where he was taken notjce of by queen £li* 

^abeth, and hoped to have been preferred tp the po^t ^i 

master of the revels, but after many yoars of afixioysalt^n^^ 

ance, was disappointed, and was forced to wjrii^^ te tba 

< Life prefixed to bis Works.— Biog. pran.-r<^ibber's Lives, tqL V. 

i- I H y. :jM5 

'^^ryed ip iD^n^Qripl. lu wbat year he diad ip unkpown ; but 
/WpQ^ 3aySy he wa3 aUv.e in 1597. Xiis^^nQbuient to-tlt^ dmr 
jmUq ^I.Mses prodiiced aiae ^ramati^ pieq^fi, non^ ef whiclitt 
. kowever^ have pre^rved their reputation in our liaie94 Ev^m 
PhiliipSf io bis <* Tbeatrviai/' evils ifae^D^ ^ ofd-^^bioned 
: <trag§die# and oooiedie^/' fie^ides tb^M» l^UJy ^«« bwn 
cel^bra^^d fipr bis attempt, wbicb was a K^y uaAiappy oaa^ 
- %o rtform avd purify the English ia^guaige. F^r ^is pdiri- 
pose he wrote a book entitled ^' Eapbues," which u^et witli 
. a degree of success very unusual, and certainly not leii 
Quiperi^isdy being alioo^ ajaunediaibeJy aod universally fol» 
low^d ; at Uas^, if we |nay give credit to the w^ivds »( Hf. 
Blount, who published six of Lilly's plays togetbffr» i9 ^ne 
volume in twelvi^. lo a pre£»ce to that book hp ^aya, 
^^ our nation are in bis d/^bt fo^ a Aew British, whipb be 
taught them : * Euphues axid bis England ' began 6rat 
ihat language; all ou^ ladies were his scbolar9 ; ai>d that 
b^uty at court, which could not parley Eupbuisme, that 
is ^o say, who wai uaahie to converse in that pure aokd re* 
fofxped ]£ngUsb, which he had formed bis work to be the 
standard of^ was. as little regarded a9 she^vhicb now there 
speak9 not French.*' 

Aojcording to Mr. j^loun^ Lilly was deserviQ|r of the 
highest encooaiums. He styles him, in his i,i^le-page, 
<^^he only ra^^ ppet of that time, .the witi^yt ^omcoli fapeli*^ 
pu^ly quick and unparalleled John Lilly ;"' and m his epis* 
^e .dedicatory jsay^^ ^' that he «a|Le at ^ppUo'^ table ; that 
Apollo gave him a wreath of his own hayes without, .snatch* 
ing, .and the lyi'e he played on bad no borrowed atrings/* 
li, indeed, what.has been said with regard to his i!^orma* 
tiou of the English language had been true, he certainly 
would have had a claim to the highest honours frona his 
SPun^rymen -, but those eulpgJ44ms are - far from well 
foundedt since his injudiciovis attempts «t improcement 
produced only the most ridiciiUus atfea^ion. The style 
of hj^ j^iipbue^ exhibits^ the ahsiirde^it e^sc^s/s pf pedantry, 
io which notthiDg but tl^ mo^t dejpWr«)ihle bad tastp <could 
bav.e..^ivpn eyem a ten^arary ^pproba<iou. jL.iJly V^astihe 
: sMUhor.o^ a famous pamphli^ •against Martin I^bir-preiate 
and his party, well known to collectors, entitled ** Pap 
with' a Hatchet, alias a. Bg for my godson, &c.*^ published 
ahoiJt 1589, and attributed to Nasht^y ^but. w^s certainly 

266 ' LILLY. 

Lillys. His prose work, or rather his two prose works 
fntended to reform the English language, were entitle 
*' Euphues and his England,'' Lond. 1580, and *' Euphues, 
the Anatomy of Wit^" 1581. Some differences of opinion 
as to the times of publishing these, may be found in oqr 

LILLY (William), a famous English astrologer, was 
born at Diseworth in Leicestershire, in 1602, and was put 
to school at Ashby*de*la-Zouch, in the same connty ; but, 
his father not being in circumstances to give him a liberal 
education, as he intended at Cambridge, he was obliged te 
•quit the school, after learning writing and arithmetic. Be- 
ing then, as his biographers inform us, of a forward tem- 
per, and endued with shrewd wit, he resolved to push his 
fortune in London, where be arrived in 1620; and where 
his immediate necessities obliged him to article himself as a 
servant to a mantua-filaker, in the parish of St. Clement 
Danes. In 1624, he was assistant to a tradesman in the 
Strand; who, not being able- to write, employed him 
(among other domestic offices) as his book-keeper. He 
had not been above three years in this place, when, his 
master dying, he addressed and married his mistress, with 
ia fortune of 1000/. In 1632, he turned his mind to astro- 
logy ; and applied to one Evans, a worthless Welsh cler- 
gyman, who, after practising that craft many years in Lei- 
cestershire, had come to London, and, at this time, resided 
in Gunpowder-alley; Here Lilly became his pupil, and 
made such a quick progress, that he understood, in the 
cant of his brethren, how " to set a figure" perfectly in 
seven or eight weeks ; and, continuing his application with 
the utmost assiduity, gave the public a specimen of his at- 
tainments and skill, by intimating that the king had chosen 
an unlucky horoscope for the coronation in Scotland, 1 633. 
In 1634, having procured a manuscript, with some alter- 
ations, of the ^' Ars Notoria*' of Cornelius Agrippa, he 
became so infatuated by the doctrine of the magical circle, 
and the invocation of spirits, as not only to make use of a 
form of prayer prescribed there to the angel Salmonseus, 
and to fancy himself a favourite of great power and inte* 
rest with that uncreated phantom, but even to claim a 

knowledge of, and a familiar acquaintance with, the parti-^ 

•. • . • » , • 

1 Ath. Otb. Yol. I.— Biog^ Brit— Warton's Ulst of Poetry.—- Phillips's Thea» 
trum Poetafura, edit. 1800, bjT Sir £. Bridges, — Ceusura Literaria, rol. 1.^ 
finis's Specimens, vol. II. ' 

LILLY. 1167 

calar guardian angels of England, by name Salmad and. 
Malcbidael. After this* be treated' the more common mys* 
tery of recovering stolen goods, &c. with great contempt, 
claiming a aupematural sight, and the gift of prophetical 
predictions, and seems to have known well how to profit 
by the credulity of the times. Siich indeed was his fame, as 
to produce the following notable story. When one Ramsay, 
the king^s clock maker, being informed that there was a great 
treasure buried in the cloister of Westminster-abbey, ob» 
tained the deanV (Dr. Williams, bishop of Lincoln), leave 
to search for it with the divining or Mosaical rods, he ap<- 
plied to Lilly for his assistance. Lilly, with one Scot, 
who pretended to the use of the said rods, attended by 
Ramsay and above thirty persons more, went into the 
cloister by night, and, observing the rods to tumble over 
one another on the West side of the cloister, concluded the 
treasure lay hid under that spot ; but, the ground being 
dug to the depth of six feet, and nothing found but a 
coffin^ which. was not heavy enough for their purpose, 
they proceeded, without opening it, into the abbey. Here 
tbey were alarmed by a storm, which suddenly rose, 
and increased to sach a height, that they were afi«id the 
West end of the church would have been blown down 
upon them ; the rods moved not at all ; the candles and 
torches, all but one, were extinguished, or burned 'very 
dimly. Scot was amazed, looked pale, and knew not what 
to think or- do; until Lilly gave directions to dismiss the 
daemons, which when done, all was quiet again, and each 
man returned home. Lilly, however, took care not to ex*- 
pose bis skill again i|i this manner, though he was cunning 
enough to ascribe the miscarriage, not to any defect in the 
art itself, but to the number of people who were present 
at the operation and derided it ; shrewdly laying it down 
for a rule, that secrecy and intelligent operators, with a 
strong confidence and knowledge of what they are doings 
are necessfury requisites to succeed in this work. 
' In the mean time he buried his first wife^ purchased a 
moiety of thirteen houses in the Strand^ and married a se- 
cond wife^ who, joining to an extravagant temper a ter- 
magant spirit,-^ which all his art could not lay, made him 
-both poor and miserable. With this lady he was obliged 
to retire in 1637, to Her^ham in Surrey, where he con- 
tinued till Sept 1641 ; and now seeing a prospect of advan- 
tage from the growing confusion of the time% and the 

a<a LiXfLiTS 

prevaleece ^f eailiasiBtio Mod its^viity •of *U kibdi^ lie xe« 
tavned to London. Here iuuring purchaeed sevekraLeiirioae 
bMfcs in Us f0tf whiob*w#ce fottiul in piritfag ddwndim 
bouse tif epoiher astMlogeiT} he peooset tbcm mtb inoeB^ 
saiit dUigeece, and, in l^#y pabliii>ed Jiis .^ Merliniis 
JbDglkufi Juni^ri" and several oiker astrologieal books; 
Q/e iiad centaraaabed' an intimaey^ :the ip«eecdmg jear, with 
fiuUtrode SlVintelocke, esq. v^ mtiA afterwards his fnenA 
and patrvlu ; and, in 1645, demoted hioiseif 'entirely to ifae 
ivteses^ df the pariouoeqt, ^^^ ' ^^ jbattte 'of ^aaebjf 
though Ji^ bad before itA^er igicH'med * to 't be fckig's ^party* 
Ift ^47, iipoti thp bieakisig Mt jof the qtiaiirefl hettreeo 
^ |»irHaiitcixt and- oraqr,: .whose -head quarb^v were at 
Windsor, he ma^ «e&t for, tqgetber wkh Bo(&er> another 
aititrologer, by Faidax, the general, .iwbo iddsieBsed tbim in 
these terws: ^^Vkat iQod had blessed /the army with ssany 
signal yictortes,' and yet iheir work was not finished ; that 
he bdped God would go along with theai, until this work, 
was done; that th^i soyght not themselves, hut the wel- 
fare and Araoquilltty of- the gpod people, and the whole 
natmi; «id, for^ihat .«nd^ were resolved to sacrifice both 
their own lives and fartuties ; that he hoped die art;^ which 
tAiey (Lilly and Booker) studied, »was lawful and agreeable 
to God*s word; that he nandeistood it not, but did not 
doubt they both teared Gad, and therefore bad ^ good 
opsaion of them." To this spdefih Lilly returned the fed- 
lo«dng answer : *< My lord^ lam glad to see you here at 
this tune : certainly both ihepfiojfie of Ck)d, and i^l others 
of tiua natdon, Ave V4ery sensMoile'oiF God's mercy, love, and 
&vsour unto them, in directing the parliament tandminate 
and elect you general .of their armies, a person so rdigious, 

' so valiant. The several unexpected victories obtained 
under your excellency's conduct will eternize the same 
^ unto all posterkyi We are confident of God's gping along 
with you and your army, un^l- the great work, for which 
he ordained you both, is fully perfected ; wbtoh we hope 
srill be the ponqueiiDg and subversion of yoavs and the 
ptarhamen^s enemies ; and then a quiet settlement, and 
iftrm peace over all the nation, unto GM^9 glory, and 

^lill sat3s£actioen pf tender consciences. Sir, as for onr«> 
jelveS) we trust in God, and, a» Cluistians, belie^ie in 
Jlim; we do net study any art, i^vtt what is laivful and con^ 
sonant to the scriptures, fathers, and ant^qXiity ! . .viduch we 
Jittmbly d^ire you to believe." 

t I L L Y. 2^& 


Tfclb ndii^eiitei Jb'M^rtfuiiber, seems to beuie hem oe^ ' 
ctsioned by ^ sus{]fick>ii^ of his atttttehmetit to tte p»f^ 
pftrt^, of v^lch be bad aflforded some grottiid^ by receiiriog^ 
an appltca^km frotn the kitig^ then in ctistod5r of tbe army 
at HatttpldH-'Court; for^ in August preoedrag^ when bii^ 
maje^bad framed thougfais' of escaping from the soldiery, 
and biding bimttelf soifiewhere near ti^eity> hesent, av 
lAlly teils tfs, Mrs. Wborwoed:, to know in what qiianef 
01* the nation be might be safety eem^led, tilt he thdught 
proper to discover himself. Lilly, having ereeted a (iguf«, 
said, the king might be safely concealed in some part of 
Essex afooiit twenty miles from London, where the lady 
happened to have . a house fit for his ma^ty's iieception^ 
and went away next morning to acquaint him with it BWs> 
the king* was gone away in the bright Westward, and sur^ 
rtndere^ biMstSf at leogth to Hammond, in the Isle of 
Wight; 8ind thns the project was rendered abortive. He 
was again' applied to by the siMe lady, in 1648, for the 
same purpose, while the kiiig W^s at Carisbrook^ castle; 
whence having laid a design to e^ape by saviring ^ iron 
bars of his chamber* Window, Mrs; Whorwood ^ame to oor 
author, and ae^ainted hiin with it. Lilly procured a 
proper saw, mad^e by one Farnior, an ingenious locfcsflHith, 
in Bow-'lane,, Cheapside, and famished her with aquafortis 
besides ; by which means his majesty bad nearly succeed^ 
' ed, but his heart failing, .he proceeded no farther. About 
September, the same lady came a third time to {#Uly, on 
the sariie errand. The parliameiit-commissioaers wwre ftiaw 
Kfypointed to treat with his majesty; on- which, onx astro- 
Ibger^ after perusing his figure, told the lady the commis- 
sioners would be there such a day,- appoidted the day and 
bdtir w4ieu to receive them, and directed, as doon as the 
{H'opo^tions were read, to sign them, and make haste with 
dl spied icf come up 'With the commissioners to London, 
. Ae anrmy being then far distant from London, and the city 
enraged stoutly against them. The king is said to have 
ptonrised he wotrlddo so, but was diverted from it by lord 

Ailtfitfs while our astrofosfer continued true to his own 
it^terest, * by serving that of the parliament party, from 
whom he received this year, 1648, fifty pounds in easib^ 
and an order from the council of ^tate for a pension of lOOL 
per artn. whicW was granted to him for ftirnishingthem^ with 
* perfect knowledge of the chief concernments of FFance. 

270 LILLY. 

This he obtidDed by means of a secular, priest, with whom 
be had been formerly acqualDted, and who now was con- 
fessor to one of the French secretaries. Lilly received the 
pension two years, when he threw it up, with the employ- 
ment, in disgust on some account. or othen He read pubr 
lie lectures upon astrol<^y, in 1648 and 1649, for the im* 
provement of young students in that art ; and succeeded 
so well both as a practitioner and teacher, that we find 
him, in 1651 and 1652, laying out near 20%0L for lands 
and a house at Her$ham. During the siege of Colchester, 
he and Booker were sent for thither, to encourage the 
soldiers, which they did by assuring them that th^ town 
would soon be taken, which proved true, and was perhaps 
not difficult to be foreseen. In 1 650 he published that the 
parliament should not continue, but a new .gpvernment 
arise, agreeably thereto; and in the almanack for 1653, he 
also asserted, that the parliament stood upon a ticklish 
foundation, and that the commonalty and soldiery would 
join together against them. On this he was called before 
the committee of plundered ministers ; but, receiving no- 
tice before the arrival of the messenger, he applied to 
speaker Lenthal, always his friend, who pointed out the 
offensive passages, which he immediately altered ; and at- 
tended the committee next morning with six copies printed, 
which six alone he acknowledged to be his. By this trick 
he escaped after having been only detained thirteen days 
in custody of the serjeant at arms. This year he was en- 
^ged in a dispute with Mr. Thomas Gataker, and, before 
the expiration of the year, he lost his second wife, to his 
great joy, and married a third in October following. In 
1655 be was indicted at Hicks^s-hall, for giving judgment 
upon stolen goods, but acquitted: and, in 1659, he re- 
ceived, from the king of Sweden, a present of a gold 
chain and medal, worth above 50/.. on account of his haTs 
ing mentioned that monarch with great respect in his 
almanacks of 1657 and 1^58. 

After the restoration, in 1660, being taken into custody, 
and examined by a committee of the House of Commons, 
touching the execution of Charles I, he declared, that 
Robert Spavin, then secretary to Cromwell, dining with 
him soon after the fact, assured him it was done by cornet 
Joyce. This year, he sued out his pardon under the 
broad-seal of England, and continued in London till 1665; 
when, on the appearance of the plague^ he retired to his 

LILLY. 271 

eAi»te at Hersham. Here he applied himself to the study 
of pbysicy . having, by means of his friend Elias Asbmole, 
procured from, archbishop Sheldon a licence to practise it ; 
and, from Oct. 1670, be exercised both the faculti/es of 
physic and astrology, till his death, which was occasipaed by 
a paralytic stroke, in 1681, at Hersham. He was interred 
in the chancel of the church at. Walton, and a black mar* 
ble stone, with a Latin inscription, was placed over bis 
grave soon after by Mr. Asbmole, at 'whose request also 
Or. Smalridge, bishop of Bristol, then a scholar at West- 
minster-school, wrote a Latin and English elegy on bis 
deaths both which are annexed to the history c^ our aui» 
thorns life and times, from wh^ch this memoir is extracted* 
Lillys a little before his death, ^opted one Henry Co- 
ley, a tailor, for his son, by. the name of Mchrlin Junior, 
and made him a present of the copyright, or good-will of 
his almanack, which had been printed six and thirty years 
successively ; and Coley carried it on for some time^ Lilly 
bequeathed bis estate at Hersham to one of the sons of his 
friend and patron Bulstrode Whitelock ; and his magical 
utensils came all into the hands of Dr. Case, his^successor, 
of facetious memory. 

• Lilly was author of m^ny works. His ^* Observations on 
the Life and Death of Charles late King of England," if 
we Overlook the astrological nonsense, .may be read with 
as much satisfaction as more celebrated histories, Lilly 
being not only very well informed, but strictly impartial. 
This ^rojrk, with the Lives of Lilly and Ashmole, written 
by themselves, were published in one volume, 8vo, in 1774. 
His other works were principally as follow : i. *^ Merlinus 
Anglicus Junior.'' 2. ^< Supernatural Sight.'' 3. << The 
white King's Prophecy." 4. ^^ England's prophetical Mer* 
lin;" all printed iu 1644. 5. ^^The starry Messenger," 
1645. 6. << Collection of Prophecies," 1646. 7. <^ A 
Comment on the white King's Prophecy," ib. 8. *^ The 
Nativities of archbishop Laud, and Thomas earl Straf- 
ford," ib. 9.« ^^ Christian Astrology," 1647; upon this 
piece he read bis lectures in 1648, before- mentioned. 10. 
*' The third Book of Nativities," ib. 11." The World's 
Catastrophe," ib. 1 2. f* The Prophecies of Ambrose Mer- 
lin, with a Key," ib^. 13. " Tritbemius, or the Govero- 
ment^of the World by presiding Angels." See Cornelius 
Agrippa's book with' the same title. These three last were 
printed together in one volume ; the two first being trans- 

2r^ LILLY. 

larif^ in^ EdgtidI hy ERas AshMiofe, esq. U. ^< A Ti«^ 
ti»« <rf rtlie llM^e 6«IYI8 seeii in the WIntet of 1647," [mnted 
ill 1649. 15. ^M^miiehy or do Momrchy,'* 1651. 16. 
<> Ot>«ei¥ii^f)9 on the Lifd arfd Oeivtb of Charles, late^ 
King of England/* ib. and again in 1615, with the iitUi of 
Alf. WMiairi Liffty'a ^'True History of King Jamcd and 
King Charles h*^ fte. 17. *' Annus T^nebrosu»; or, fte 
biacb Year."* Tbin^ drevlp hi^ into the dispirte wifib Gatak«rr, 
Wbkb our ailthor carried on in bis itlmanack in 1654.^ 
- LILY, ot LI LYE (William), an^ etdinent English gfad^* 
UnfariM, was bom at Odtbaifi, inf Badipsfaire, about 1466. 
After a good foundation of school-learning, be was sent to 
Magdaleo'COllege, Oxford, and admitted a demy there at? 
tbe age o^ ei^gbteen. Hiei¥ing taken the degr^ of B. A. he 

3uitt^ Vhe university, and went, for retigioa^s sake, to 
i^rusaiedf), as^ Fitfs, and aftefr hiai Wood, Tanner, and 
others have averted ; but Bale, from wboto l^rt^ eopi^, 
gives no such reason for Lily^s journey. I4 is indeed mdtft 
jlirobabfe, that be travelled eas^^ard wTth an inteMriOff'tc^ 
atequsrie sonre knowledge of the Gr^ek lanfguagi$, esj^eeially 
hs be continued five years in the isilaAd of Rhodes^ wit4l no 
other design. At Rhodes he found several ieairn^d aneii^ 
i^ho b«d taken refuge there, Under tbe pi<oleet}off of 4ie 
knights, aftet the taking of Constanfhiopte ^ mA h^ve he 
became accjtiainifed with the dooiiestf^ life and familiar 
(Conversation of t^ Greefes. He t^rtt thence to' Bom^; 
and imprbved hitnseif farther in the Latio and Greek 
tbngu^ under John Sulpitius and PoHlponius Sabinlis. On 
bis arival in Snglaii^d, in iBOSy he settled in London> and 
tsmght a priyalte gfaitmiar-schobl, being tbe firlst teaiihfer of 
Oreek'in tbe metropolis. In this he had so m«ieh sttccafss 
and reputation, that he was appointed first-master of St. 
l*aiirs school by the founder. Dr. Gotet, i^ 1510. 1?hi^ 
laborious and useful employment be fiUed' tot the space of 
twelve years; and in that tune educated a great vMXiy 
youths, some of whom proved the greatest men iti the tki- 
tion, a's Thomas Lupset, sir Anthony t>ennyV sir William 
Paget, sir Edward North, John Leland, &c. He died of 
the plague at London in February 1 505, aged 54, and was 
buried in the north yard of St. P'aurs. He i^ highly praised 
by Erasmus fbrhis uncommon knowledge in tbe hmguages, 
and admirabte skill in the instruction of youth. He was 

/ t ; «! lilc ly biaiseif.*^Bie0. Mt.-^Atlu Ox. vol. I. 

LILY. a7S 

very inttmMe with sir Thomas Morje, to whose LatiD trms- 
Nations of sereral Greek epigrams are prefixed some dooe 
by Lily, printed with this tide, ** Progymnasmata Tbomss 
Aforir & .Gulielmi Liiii, Sodalium/' Basil, 1518, by Fro« 
benius; and again in 1673, ibid. Lily, by bis wife Agnes^ 
bad two sons; and a daughter, who was married to bis 
usher John Rightwise, who succeeded his fatber-in-Iaw in 
the Qsastership of St. Paul's school, and died in 1532. 

Lily's works are, 1. '^ Brevissima institutio, seu ratio 
gramndatices cogDoscendi,'*^ Lond. 1513 ; reprinted often, 
and used at this day, and commonly called ^^ Lily's Gram- 
mar." The English rudiments were written by Dr. Colet, 
and the preface to the first edition, by cardinal Wolsey. 
The English syntax was • written by Lily ; also the rules 
for the genders of nouns, beginning with Propria qu8& ma^ 
ribus ; and those for the preter-perfect tenses and supines, 
beginning with ^* As in prsesenti." The Latin syntax was 
chiefly tl^ work of Erasmus. See Ward's preface to his 
edition of Lily's grammar, 1732. 2. <' In senigmatica Bossi 
Antibossicon primum, secundum, tertium, ad G. Horman- 
iium," Lond. 1521, 4to. 3. ** Poemata varia," printed 
^itk the former. 4. <^ Apologia ad R. Wbyttingtonum." 
'5. *^ Apologia ad Joan. Skeltonum," in answer to some 
invectives of that poet. 6. " De laudib\is Deipari Virginis.'* 
7. ^' Super Pbiiippi archiducis appulsu." 8. << De CaroU 
quinti Csesaris adventu panegyricum." Some other pieces 
are attributed to him on doubtful authority. 

Lily bad two sons, George and Peter. Georqs was 
born in London, and bred at Magdalen-college, in Ox«> 
ferd ; but, leaving the university without a degree, went 
to Rome, where be was received into the patronage of 
cardinal Pole, and became eminent for several branches of 
learning. Upon bis return, he wa^ made canon of St. 
Paul's, and afterwards pre'bendary of Canterbury. He 
"published the first exact map of Britain, and died in 1559. 
Be wrote " Anglorum Regum Chronices Epitome," Venice, 
1548, Francf. 1565, Basil, 1577. To which are added, 
•<* Lancastriee & Eboracensis [Famil.] de Regno Conten- 
tiones, & Regum Angliae genealogia ;" " Elogia Virorum 
i|lu«trium, 1559," 8vo; " Catalogus, sive Series Pontifi- 
<ium Romanorum;" besides the " Life of Bishop Fisher,? 
Ms. in the library of the Royal Society. Peter, his 
second son, was a dignitary in the church of Canterbury, 
and father of another Peteir Lily, l),D» This other was 

Vou XX. T 

274 LILY.. 

some, time fellow pf Jesusrcollege iu Cambridge ; after- 
wards a brother of the Savoy- hospital in the Strand, Lon- 
don ; prebendary of St. Paul's ; and^archdeacon of Taun- 
ton. He died in 1614, leaving a widow, who published 
some of his sermons.' 

LIMBORCH (Philip), a celebrated profe^^pr of divi- 
nity in Holland, of the Arminian persuasion, was of a good 
family, originally of Maestricht, and born at Amsterdam^ 
June 19, 1633. He passed the first years of his life in his 
father's house, going thence daily to school; and then, 
attending the public lectures, became the disciple of Gas- 
par Barlspus in ethics, of Gerard John Vossius in tfistory, 
and of Arnold Sanguerd in philosophy. This foundation 
being laid, he applied himself to divinity under Stephen 
CurcellseUis, who succeeded Simon Episcopius in that chair, 
among the remonstrants. From Amsterdam he went to 
Utrecht, and frequented the lectures of Gilbert Yoetius, 
and other divines of the reformed religion. In May 1654, 
he returned to Amsterdam, and made bis first probation- 
sermon there in Oct. following. He passed an examination 
in divinity in August 16.55^ and was admitted to preach 
publicly, as a probationer, which he did first at Haerlem. 
The same year he. was invited to be stated minister of Alcr' 
inaer, but declined it, not thinking himself yet qualified 
for that in>portant task. In 1657 he published a course of 
sermons in Dutch, by Episcopius, his great uncle by the 
mother's side, and the same year was invited to be minister 
of the remonstrants at Gouda, where there was a numerous 
congregation of that sect. He accepted this vocation, and 
exercised the ministerial function in that town till he was 
called to Amsterdam. 

Having inherited the papers of Episcopius, he fouifd 
among them a great number of letters relating to the affairs 
of the remonstrants ; and, communicating these to Hartr 
soeker, minister of the remonstrants at' Rotterdam, they 
joined iti disposing them into a proper ordec, and then 
published them under the title of ^ Epistolse prsBstantiuai 
et eruditorum Vironim, &c.^' at Amsterdam, in 1660, 8yo. 
These being well received by the pub\ic, Limborch col- 
lected more letters, and pubiitsbed a second edition, epr^ 
rected and enlarged, in 1684, foL After which, the copy 

1 Pits, Bftle, and Tanner.— Biog. Brit.-^Ath. Ox. vol. I. new edition.— ^ 
Warum't Risu»ry of Poetry.— ?uUer't WorthieB.— Knight's Life of Golet— 
Jortin't Erasmni. . . 


L I M, B O R C H. 275 

Comino^ into another bookseller's bands, a third edition 
came out| 170^^ at Amsterdam, in folio^ with an appen^* 
dix, by Limborcb, of tvveiity letters more ; the whole con'- 
laining a complete series of every thing which relates to 
the history pf Arminianism, from the time of Arminius to 
the synod of Dort, and afterwards. In 1661 our author 
publisfaed a little piece in Dutch, by way of dialogue upon 
the subject of toleration in religion. Curcellseus having 
printed, in 16^0, the first volume of Episcopius^s works^ 
which had been communicated to him by Francis Lim- 
borch, our author's father, the second volume was pro* 
cured by Philip the son in 1661 ; to which he added a pre« 
face in defenpe of Episcopius and the remonstrants. In 
1667 he became minister atAmsterdam^ where Pontanus, 
the professor of divinity, whose talent lay chiefiy in preach- 
ing, appointed Limborch his deputy ; first for a year^ and 
then resigned the ch»ir absolutely to him in 1668. From 
this tio^e he turned all his studies that way, and acquired a 
great reputation, not only among those of his own party at 
home, but among foreigners too, to which his mild and 
incfdest temper contributed not a little. Soon after, he 
published, in Flemish, several sermons of Episcopius^ which 
had n^ver bet^p printed before. 

In 1660 he had married; and, his wife being dead, in 
1674 be engaged in a second marriage, and had^ two chiU 
dren. The ensuing year he procured an edition of all the 
works of his master Curcellaeus, several of which had nevec 
appeared before. But, as neither Episcopius nor Curcel- 
laeus had leisure to finish a complete system of the remon-^ 
straht theology, Limborch resolved to undertake the task, 
and to compose one which should be entirely complete ; 
some disorders, however, and several avocations, hindered 
him from finishing it before 1684, and it did not come out 
till 1686. This was the first system of divinity, according 
to tbe doctrine of the remotistrants, that had appeared in 
prin^ The work was undertaken at their request, received 
with all eagerness by them, and passed through four edi- 
tions^. The $ame year^, 1686, he ;had a dispute, at first 

* The tfUe of the first edition is, PnedetfinatioQeTractatatpofthumus." 

<' Tl^k^ia Ghristic^aa ad Praxim Pie- This postboiDoiM pieoe waa priiYted 

tatis; ac ProDOtioBem pacis ChrktiansB separately the tame year atAnutor- 

voice difeeta, Amst. 1686,'' 4to ; the dam, 8vo, ia I»w Patch or Fiemieh^' 

fourth, 1 7 1$, ibU to which is added* " Re- with - a loog pre&ee in defence of the 

latfo bisterica de drigine et Progressu remonstrants, against a piece in liow 

Controversikrom in l^cederato Belgio de Duteb, under the title of the *< Coin> 

T 2 * 

m 1 1 M B o R d: B. 

HtHt t>6cif and afterwards in writiDg> with Isaac Orobfa, H 
Jew of Seville iir Spain, who had made his escape out of 
the inquisition, and retired to Amsterdain, where he prac- 
tised physic with great reputation. This dispute produced 
k piece by oaf author, entitled ^ Collatio arnica de Ve« 
iltate Heligionis Christianas com erudito Judaso/* ** A 
friendly conference with a learned Jew concerning the 
Truth of the Christian Religion/' In it he skewed, that a 
Jew can bring no argument of any force in favour of Jn« 
daism which may not be made to militate strongly in favoulr- 
of Christianity* Orobio, however, contended that every 
oian ought to continue in the religion, be what it would, 
which he professed, since it was easier to disprove the 
troth of another religion than it was to prore his own \ 
and upon this principle he averred, that, if tt had been his 
lot tor be born of parents who worshiped the sun, he laMT 
ho reason why he should renounce their Religion and em-* 
kraee another. To this piece against Orobio, LimWchf 
idd^d a small tract against Uriel Acosta, a Portuguese 
deiit, in vtrhich Limborch ansvlrers very solidly his argu- 
inents, to shew that there is no true rdigion besides the 
i^eligion of ilature. (See Acosta.) Shortly after, Limborch 
published a. little piece of Episcopius, in Flemish, contain-' 
ingan account of a dispute between that remonstrant and 
one William Bome, a Romish priest, shewing, that the 
KDmah church is not exempt from errors, and i^ not the 
sovereign- judg^e of controversies. In 1692 the book of 
sentences passed in the inquisition at Thoulouse, in France, 
coming into the hands of a friend, and containing all the 
sentences passed in that court from iSOTto 1323, Lim- 
lorch resolved to pub^h it, as it furnished him with an 
occasion of adding the history of that dreadful tribunal, 
drawn from the #ritings of the inquisitors themselves '*'. In 
1693 our author had tbie care of a he^ edition, in one large 
folio volume, of the sermons of Episcopius, ifi Dutch ; to 

bats of Sion^ by James PniUier.'' There the translator has piefixed i. large in* 

is a long extract of the '* Theologia irodoction eonceroingthe rise and pro-^ 

ChtMtiana,'* by L^ Cletc, io BibL gresa of persecution, atidf the real and' 

Univ. torn. II. p. 81, et seq. pretended causes of it. In this edition,. 

' ♦ TheHttltt ii, "Bistona fnqiHiii- •Mir.' Chandler bad the atoistance of 

lioni^ ctti subjttnf itknr liber Senten^ sonie papera of our autlior coihmahi- 

timtmi Iriqullitionis Tboloianss ab An* eated to him by Anthony ColUns, esq. 

no 1907 iM 193S, Attsiel. 169S," fbf* add the correctiona lAod addliioils of 

it wai translated into English by VLn Franoii Llmborah, a rtf latioii of otsr 

Shvi. Cbandter^ and printed at Lon* authotw See Chsndkr^t pte£Ke» 
diM^ 17dl» ill t TblSi 4to^ to whicU 


I. i A$ B p H C li fSJl 

which be adde4» not only a preface, but also a rery loog 
history of the life of Episcqpius, in th^ same language: 
this has been since trauaUted iato Latin, and printed 19 
8v6 at Amsterdam, 1 70 1 . (See Episcopivs.) 

In 1694 a young genttlewpman at An^terdam, of twepty^- 
two years of age, took a fancy to learn Hebrew^ of a ,Je;nr j 
find w%s by frequent conversations with her tutor, indiicetf 
to quit diie Christian religion for Judaism. As soon .as hef 
mother understood this, she employed sevei-al divines, bujt 
in vain ; because they undertook to prove Cijgristi^ity froqi 
the Old Testament, omitting the authority of the New ; 
to which she, r^t.urning the common answers she had 
Jiearned from the Jews, received no reply that gave hej^ 
satisfaction. While the young lady was in the midat 0^ 
jthis perplexity, Djr. Veen, a phy:siGian, happened to hf 
aent for to the hou^ ; ^nd, hearing her motb^r spe^ 
With great concern, of the doubts which disturbed h^ 
.daughter, bfi mentioned Limborch'^ dispiii,te with Orobio. 
,She immediat^y applied to Limborci)^ in hopes that he 
would be able to remove her scruples, and bdijig her bac^ 
to the Christian religion. Limborcb a^^^^^^^g'y used the 
$ame train of atgunient which he had pursued with Orobio^ 
^d quickly recovered fa^r to Jber former faith. In 1^98 h^ 
was accused of a calumny, in a book coocei*aing the 2^ay«( 
in St. John's gospel, by Vander Waeyen, professor of di- 
vinity at Franecker, becansje he bad said, that Francis 
Burman, a divine a^d professor at Ley den, had, in bj^ 
.^ Theologia Christiana," merely .transcribed .Spinoza with- 
.out any judgment. JLimborqb^ producing passages from 
both, endeavopred to prove ^l^t be bad said nothing which 
was not strictly true ; but when this ,was printed at Amster- 
dam iu 1693^ the two Burmans, o^^ professor of history 
and eloquence at jUtrecht, and the other minister at Am'- 
j^terdam> published a hoo\i in vindication of their lather's ' 
jnemOiry, entitled " Burmannorum Pietas," " The Piety 
of the Burmans y'' to which Limborqh made no reply. In 
170d be. published, in P.utch, at Amsterdam, a bqok of 
piety, co^laining instrivctions for dying peu'^pn^, or means 
of preparing lor death ; with a discourse upon tl;ie death 
of John Owens, ininister of the remonstrants at Gouda. 
At the same time he began a commentary upon the Acts of 
the Apostles, and Aipon the Epistles to the Aomans an^l 
Hebrews, which was published in i7ll. 

Having pursued the strictest temperance through life» 

278 L I M B O R &H. 

he preserved the vigaiir of bis mind, and health of bis 
body, to a considerable age» but in the autumn of 1711 
hc^was seised with the St. Antbony^s fire ; wbicbi growing 
more violent in the winter, carried him off, April 30, 17ri, 
His funeral oration was spoken by John Le Clerc, who 
l^ives him the followin^g character : ** Mn Limborch had 
many friends among the learned, both at home and abroad, 
especially in England, where he was much esteemed, par«> 
ticularly by archbishop Tillotson, to whom his history of 
the inquisition was dedicated, and Mr. Locke. With-Mr. 
Locke he first became acquainted in Holland, and after-* 
wards held a correspondence by letters, in which, among 
othier things, he has explained the nature of human liberty, 
a subject not exactly understood by Mr. Locke. He was 
of an open' sincere carriage^ which was so well tempered, 
ivith humanity and discretion as to give no offence. In 
his instructions, when professor, he observed the greatest 
perspicuity and the justest order, to which his. memory, 
which retained whatever he had written, almost to a word, 
contributed very much; and, though a long course of teach* 
ing had given him an adthority with those about him, and 
his advanced age had addea a reverence to him, yet he 
was never displeased with others for differing from him, 
but would both censure, and be censured, without chagrin. 
Though he never proposed the understanding of languages 
as the end of his studies, yet he had made large advances 
in them, and read over many of the ancient and modern 
writers, and would have excelled in this part of literature, 
if he had not preferred that which was more important. 
Ife had all the qualifications suitable to the character of a 
divine. Above all things, he had a love for truth, and 
pursued the search of it, by reading the Scriptures with 
the best connmentators. As a preacher, bis sernxons.\fere 
methodical and solid, rather than eloquent If he had. 
applied himself to the mathematics he would undoubtedly 
have excelled therein ; but he had no particular fondness 
for that study, though he was an absolute master of aritb- 
metic. He was so perfectly acquainted with the history of 
his own country, especially for 150 years, that he even 
retained the most minute oircumstanoe.% and the very time 
of each transaction ; so that scarce any one could deceive 
him in that particular. In his manner he was grave with- 
out pride or suUenness, affable without aOectation, plea- 
i;ant and facetious, upon occasion, Without sinking into ^ 

LIMBO R C H. 279 

vulgar lowness^ or degenerating into malice or iH*nalur!e. 
By these qualifications he was agreeable to all who coiv- 
ver^d'witb him ; and his behaviour towards bis neighbours 
was such, that all who knew him, or bad any <iealhigs witft 
him, ever c6mmended it." * 

; LINACRE, or LYNACER (Thomas), one of the mosi 
eminent physicians and scholars of his age, descended from 
the Linacres of Linacre-hall in the parish of Chesterfield, 
Derbyshire, was born at Canterbury about 1460. Having 
completed his schooUeducation, under William de Selling, 
a very eminent master, in his native city, he entered at 
Oxford, and was chosen fellow of All Souls* college in 
1484. Being desirous of farther advaticement in learning, 
he accompanied De Selling into Italy, whither the latter 
was sent on an embassy to the court of ftonie by Henty VIF. 
De Selling left him at Bologna, with strong re<!^dmtiienda^ 
tions to Politian, one of the titost elegant Latini^ts ih 
Europe; and removing thence to Flovetide, Linafcre' ac- 
quired the favour of that munificent patF6n of literature, 
Lorenzo de Medicis, who granted him the privilegli of at- 
tending the same preceptors with his own sons ; an opp5r- 
lunfty, by which he knew how to profit ; and under Denied 
trius Ch^lcondylas, who had fled from Constantinople ^hen 
it was taken by the Turks, he acquired a perfect know- 
tedge of the Greek language. He then went to Rotne, and 
studied medicine and natural philosophy' undet Hermolaus 
Barbarus. He applied particularly to the works of A'Hs* 
totle and Galen, and is s?iid to have been the first- English- 
man who made himself master of those writers by perusing 
them in the original Greek. He also translated and pub^ 
lished several of Galen's tracts into most elegant Latin, 
and along with Grocyn and William Latimer, undertook a 
translation of Aristotle, which, however, ' they left imper- 
fect. On his return to England, he was iwdrparated M. D; 
at Oxford, which degree he had taken' at Paduk, gave tem- 
porary lectures on physic, and taught tJhe Gre^ languagii 
in t^at university. His reputation soon became so htgh^ 
that king Henry VIL called him to eourt, and eiitrtisted 
btm with the care both 6f the health and education of his 
son, prince Arthur. He is said also to have instructed 
phncessjCatherine in the Italian language. He was ma^e 

I Life, by Lfs Clerc io Bib!. Choisie» vol. XXIV. — Ger\. Dick. — ^Mow,ii,— 
^icerQn, vol. Xi,— Sax'u OoQiaasU-TrChs^ndl^r's Preface to tht H^ittory flMbv 


$i^0^etimp\y phjaician to the kings Henry VII*,. H^tty¥lU<y 
Aod Edward YL, and to the princess Alary. 

In the reign o£ Henry VIIL indeed, he appears to hams 
flood above all rivalsbip at the head of his profession ; and 
lie evinced his attachment to its interests, as well as to the 
fMiiWip good, by various acts j bat especially by founding 
-two lectures on physic in the university of Oxford, and 
one ill that of Cambridge. That at Oxfiurd was left to 
Merton college, and the Cambridge lecture was given to 
St. Jobn^s^ at which college it is said by Wood and Knight 
that Linacre studied for some tima The ^endowment oi 
Jboth is the manor of Tracys, or Tcacies, in Kent ; but al<- 
though be bequeathed these at his de^ in 1524, and dus 
lectures were actually read even in his life-time, they were 
not established until December 1 549, by Tunstall, bisbop 
jof Durham, Linacre also may be reputed the founder of 
^be <royal college of physicians in London. R^pretting 
that there was no proper check upon illiterate mooJcs and 
.empirics, licences being easily obt»ned by improper per* 
sons,^ when the bishops were authorised to examine and 
license practitioners in an art of which they could not he 
M^mpeteot judges, Linacre obtained letters patent in ] 5 18 
firo^ Henry VIII. constituting a corporate body of regur 
Jarly bred physicians in London, in whom was vested the 
sole right of examining and admitting persons to practise 
^hin the city, and seven miles rauAd it; and also of 
lic^sing practitioners throughout the whole kingdom, ex^ 
Mypt such as were graduates of Oxford or Cambridge, who 
by virtue of their degrees were independent of the college, 
except within London and its precincts. The- college had 
likewpse^uthortty given to it to examine prescriptions and 
drugs in ^kpotheoaries" shops. Linacre was the first presto 
^leot of the new college, and c<mtinued in theoflSioe during 
Ibe remaining smren years of bis life ; and, at his death, be 
lie^ueatbed to the c<dlege his house in Knight-rider- stj^eet, 
jjSi wbiqh its meetings were held. 

After raeeiiuog ail these honours^ as attestations and re* 
fsarda of SMliierior .mewt.iM bis profession, he resolved tp 
pbange it for that of divinity. To this study be applied 
in ibe latter part of biaiife* ; and, entering into 

* Sir John Cbeke, ia insuring Uus reading the 5tb, 6ih, and Tth chapten 

change, pbserrpiL that he did. pot be- of St. MaUhevr» he threw the bodk 

gin UiiH 'study tAl lift was brolien by away wHb TioleDoe, and twore, ikix 

age and infitfiniticai and Uiat,-tn^B tliiawas either not the Goipel, or we 

L I N A C R S. 28i 

iht priettllobd, obtained the rectory of Mershaiq, Oetobier 
1509 ; but| resigning it within a moptb, be was iQstalied 
into the prebend of £aton in the church of Wells, and 
afterwards, in 15 id, into another of York; he <vas aliie 
precentor in the latter ch jrch, but resigned it in balf |i 
year. He bad other preferments in the efaurob, sodae of 
iwbicb he receired froia archbishop Warham, as he grate:* 
fuUy acknowledges in a leuer to that prelate* Ur» Knight 
infcMrms usy tbat he was a prebendary of St Stephen^ ' 
Westminster; and bishop Tanker ^vritcs, that b^ was also 
ineclor of Wigatii in Lancashire. He died of the stone, in 
great paiii and torment, Oct. 2Q, 1524, atid was buried in 
St. Paulas cathedral ; where a handsome monument wa$ 
«fterwanls erected to bis osemoiy by his admirer and aucr 
cessor in fame, Dr. Cains. 

^ In his literary character, Linacre stands eminently dii^ 
tinguished ; as be was one of the ' first, in conjunctioii 
widi Golet, lily, Grocyn, and Latimer, who revived, or 
iratber intxoduoed, classical learning in this island. iT^t]^ 
Jations from the Qreek auibors into Laiin were the chief 
:OCGupation^ of the literati of those times} and Liiiacre, 
as we have already observed^ conferred a benefit on bk 
profession, by transUtung several . of the most valuable 
{tteees ef Graleur These were the treatises, ^* De Sanitate* 
tueada,'* . in siK books, wUeb was printed at Cambridge ih 
1517, and dedicated to kiog Henry VUI.| *'De Mor^s 
enrtodis,"' in fourteen books, priinted at Paris in i5S€; 
tfairee books ^^ De Tempeiamentis," and one *^ De initfi- 
^[i}ali Temperie," first printed at Cambridge in 1521, and 
inscribed to pope Leo X. A copy of this on vellum, which 

Linacre presented to Henry VI 11. is n<^w in tbe Bodleiail. 
There is another edition, without date or punter's nam^. 
^< De naturalibus Facultatibus," three books, together witji 
one book *^ De Pulsuum Usu," without ^ate, but they we«e 
rq> Colinseus in 1,528, as well as his posthumous 

translation of the four books ^^ De Morborum Symptomattr 
bus.*' In these versions Linacre exhibited .a Latin style so 
pure and elegant, as ranked him among tbe finest inters 
jof bis age. In the polish of bis style he was rather fe^si^ 
dious^ imd bis friend Erasmus deseribes him as ^* Vir oon 

• iMi^ not Christiam . Cheke, '* De as appears from hit projecting the coVr 
•Frdoiue. Grmen liogac" However, lege of pbysielaot, ^ud being prtsidient 
*^ ^ " ksA bis Umtgkli opsii pbytiv, ^ ttei^^ai m 4«sih, 

1 1. < 

S82 L I N A C' R E. 


exact! tantum, sed scveri judicii ;** and Hu'et, in Hi« learned 
treatise " De claris Interpretatoribus," gives him the praise 
of extrat)rdinary elegtuce and chastenesiis of style, bat in- 
timates that be occasionally sacrifices fidetitj' to thes6 qeia- 
litie». ' . '- 

It was^ indeed, on his reputation as a philologist, that 
be seems chiefly to have valued himself. His first essay 
>vas a translation of . " Proclus on the Sphere,** dedicated 
to his pupil, prince Arthur; and he also wrote a stnat 
book of the rudiments of the Latin grammar, in English, 
€br the use of the princess Mary, which was afterwards 
translated into Latin by the cele^brated Buchanan. -^ But 
the work which appears to have engaged a veiy large por- 
tion of his time, and wa9 universally acknowledged to be 
a work of the most profound erudition, was a larger gram- 
matical treatise, entitled '^ De emendata structura Latini 
Sermonis, libri sex." This work,- which was not printed 
till after his death, in December 1524, when it appearefd 
with a recommendatory letter from the learned Melanc- 
tbon, was received with mt|ch applause by menof erudi-^ 
tion, and passed through several editions;. The originat is 
very scarce; but from the translation of it, by Buchahali^ 
it appears to be little more than the present tfceidenc^ ' 
taught in schools, and still retaining the title, of ^^Rudi<^' 
ments, &c." His friend Erasmus, indeed, in his ^^ Moriae 
Encomium,*' bestowed some good-natured raillery Upon tlie 
author, for having tortured himself for twenty years by the 
subtleties of grammar, and, after forsaking other niore im- 
portant objects, thought himself happy in living long 
enough to establish certain rules for distinguis\)ing the 
eight parts of speech. 

In his professional character, Linacre acquired univercal 
reputation, among his countrymen and contemporaries, for 
skill and practical ability, as well as for his learning ; and 
he was equally the subject of applause and estimation 
as an upright and humane physician, a steady and affect 
tionate friend, and a muni^cent patron of letters. It 
were sufficient of itself to justify this eulogium, to men* 
tion that he was the intimate friend of Erasmus. That 
great and worthy man frequently 'takes occasion to-express 

bis affection and esteem for his character and abilities ; 

'. -• . '.'1. 

*and writing to an acquaintance, when seized witU an ijt^ 
ness at Paris, he pathetically laments hh- iibsence from 

L I N A C R E. 


Linacfe, from whose skill and kindness he nnight receive 
equal relief*.* 


LINDSAY (John), a learned divine, of St. MaryVhall 
at Oxford, officiated for many years as minister of the 
Qonjuring society in Trinity-chapel, Aldersgate-street, and 
is saifl to have been their last minister. He was also for 
some time a corrector of the press to Mr. Bowyer the 
printer. He finislied along and useful life, June 21, 1768, 
at the age of eighty-two; and was buried in Islington 
ohurch-yard. Mr. Lindsay published "The Short History 
of the Regal Succession," &c. with " Remarks on Whiston'^s 
Scripture Politics," &c. 1720, 8vo; which occurs in the 
Bodleian Catalogue. His -valuable translation of Mason^s 
•* Vindication of the Church of England^'* 1726, (reprinted 
in 1728,) has a large and elaborate preface, containing " a 
full and particular Series of the Succession of our Bishops, 
through the several Reigns since the Reformation," &c. 
He .dat4^s the second edition fronn " Islington, I'A Dec. 
1727," In 1747, he published, in the same si^se, " Two 
Sermons preached at Court in 1620, by Francis Mason ;^* 
which he recommeods, ^< as well for their own intrinsic 
value^ as to make np a complete Collection of that learned 
Author's Works." He had a nephew, who died curate of 
Waltham abbey, Sept. 17, 1779." 

LINDSAY, or LYNDSAY (Sir David), an ancient 
Scotch poety descended from a qoble family, was born in 
1490, at Garmylcon in Hadingtonshire, and received bis 
early education probably at the neighbouring school of 

* The following epitaph, written by 
paius, will b& acceptable to the learned 
reader, from the elegance of its com- 
position ; . 

<* Thomas Lynacrui, Regis Henrici 
Vl[[. medicus ; yir et Orsec^ et Latind, 
a^que in f« medica looge eradittssimos. 
Mull OS et^te sua langoentet, et qai 
jam animam despondisrant, vits resti- 
tuit. Malta Gaieni opera in Latinam 
liogiiant mira et stngnUri faeundia, 
vertit. Egregium opus de emendata 
structnra Litini aermonis, amicorUm 
rogatui pattlo> ante mortem edidic 

MediciniB studiosis Oxonite .publicas 
lectibnes duas, Cantabrigite uiiam, in 
perpetunra stabilivit In hac urbe Col- 
legiam Medicoram fieri sua industria 
curavit, cnjus et Prtesidens prostimut 
electus est. Fraudes dolosque mirdi 
peroisus $ fldus amicia ; omnibus jtixta 
charus : aliquot annos anteqaam obi* 
erat' Presbyter factus; plenus annis, 
ex hac Tita migrarit, moltum deside- 
ratns, anno 1624, die 91 Octobris. Vi^ 
vit post fiinera virtus. Thomas Lina- 
cro darissiiDo Medico, Johannes Caius 
poeuit, anno 1651.'' 

1 Atb. Ox. vol. I. newedit.*^Diog. Brit^^Fallee*s Worthies. ^Freind's Hkt. 
of Phy^ic-r- Wood's Annals by Gutcb.-^Aikia^ Biog. Memoirs of Medicine.-^ 
llHes*8 dyclopedia. 

2 NtchoU*s Bowyer, In irhich is a portion of his correspondence with Th, 


Coupar. In 1505 be was sent to the umve^rsity of j^t* A^^- 
draw's, which he is supposed to have left in |^9L He 
then entered into the service of the courts where, in iSH^ 
he was an attendant, or page of honour to James Y^ tl^ei^ 
an infant In this situation be Continued until 1524, wfaep,: 
by the intrigues of tbe queen mother, the young* king w^ 
deprived of his servants, Bellenden, Lindsay, and Oi^^ersy 
for whom he seems always to have entertained a just ce* 
jgard, and whom he dismissed with a pension, tbe payment 
of which bis majesty was studious to enforce, while bis 
means were few, and bis power was liftie. From 1524 to 
1528, Lindsay was a witness of tbe confusions and oppres** 
sioDs arising from tbe domination of the Douglasses over 
both the pnnce and bis people. From that thraldom tbe 
lung, at the age of sixteen, made his escape, by bis own 
address and vigour, in July of 1528, after eve^y other 
exertion bad failed. Lindsay bad now liberty and spirits 
to sup[>ort him in tbe cultivation of bi^ muse, and abput 
the end of tbe year just mentioned, produced bis ^^ Dreme.'* 
In tbe following year he presented bis ^' CPQ^playnt'Vto 
tbe king, and in 1 530 be was inaugurated lion ki^igof ^irais> 
and incidentally became a knight. In December pf this 
year be published bis satire oa the cj#rgy, ciUled ^' The 
CfOmpIaynt of tbe Papingo.^' 

Sir David was soon employed in discharging tb^ proper 
functions of hon herald. In April 153), he was seol with 
Campbel and Panter, Mo Antwerpi to renew the ancient 
treaty of commerce with tbe Netherlands, and they w<^c 
so well received by the emperor Charles y. ^ to in^vre 
tbe success of their mission. Lindsay returned to Scotland 
IQ tbe latter end of 1 531, and not long after. married. This 
marriage does pot appear to have been either fruitful, or 
liappy. Sir David leift no issue, and he every where speaks 
with^ a sort of Turkish contempt of women. He was now 
occupied upon a poem, wbiich displays much of that senti- 
ment, a drama of a very singular kind, which be qalled, 
what be intended it to be^ ^' A Satyre of tbe three Estatis.'* 
Some of his biographers have affected to consider him as 
tjie first dramatist of his copntry. But moralities existed in 
Scotland before be was bora ; aiKl weie very comfxion in 
bis timte. In 16^, probably, be prinlueed bis ^^' Answer 
to tbe King's Flyting," and iiis ** Complaynt of fiasche,'* 
which sbew the gloominess of bis temperaipent. 

In tbe mean time be was sent as lion king, wi^ sir John 


Cimpbel of Laudon» in 1535^ to the emperor, to demand 
in marriage one of the princesses of his house. The king, 
fao#ever, not being satisfied with the portraits of the prin- 
cesses presented to him, or perhaps, as Mr. Chalmers 
thinks, being attracted by a more useful connection with 
f^rance, sent Lindsay, in 1536, to that country to demand 
iti nfearriage a daughter of the house of Vendome ; but the 
king himself, arriving the year following, made choice of 
Magdalene of France, who died in about two months after 
her marriage ; and this lamentable event occasioned Lind- 
say^& next poem, the ^* Deploratioun of the Deith of quene 
Magdalene."' The king, however, married again in 1538, 
and Lindsay's talents were called forth in the rejoicings 
And ceremonies consequent to that event, and afterwards 
on the birth of a prince. During the remainder of the 
reign of James V. he appears to have retained his majesty's 
favour, and to have been, frequently employed in his cha« 
racter. of herald ; but few of these incidents seem of suffi-r 
cieiit importance to be detached from his biographer's nar* 
rative. During the regency, he appears to have espoused 
the cause of the reformers, and after the assassination of 
Ordinal Beaton, wrote his " Tragedie of the late Cardinal,'* 
to strengthen the prejudices of the public against that ec* 

In 1548 he was sent, as lion herald, to Christian, king 
of Denmark, to solicit ships, for protecting the Scottish 
coasts agaihst the English, and to xiegociate a free trade^ 
particularly in grain : the latter purpose only wa$ accom* 
|»Ushed, but at Copenhagen, Lindsay had an opportunity 
of becoming acquainted with the literati of Denmark. He 
at length returned to his usual occupations, and was pro- 
bably no more employed in such distant embassies. About 
tbis^time he published the most pleasing of all his poei(bs, 
^* The Historie and Testament of Squire Meldrumi" In 
1553 he finished his last and greatest work, "The Mo- 
ildrchi'e." When he died, seems a matter of great uncer- 
tainty. His latest and best-informed biographer is inclined 
lo place his death in or about 1557 ; but others say that 
hcf lited tiH 1^67. It is rather sin^lar that a man of so 
nduch celebrity, a great public officer, one of the reformers, 
or who at least contributed to the reformation, and the 
Aiost popular poet of his time, should have died in such 
obscurity, without even a tradition as to when or where he 
was buried. Little of his personal .character can now be 



known^ but what is to be gleaned from his writings. I}9, 
entered with great zeal into the religious disputes of his 
time> but is supposed to lean rather to the Lutheran than 
Calvinistic principles of reformation ; his satires, however, 
were powerfully assisting in exposing the vices of the 
clergy, and produced a lasting effect on the minds of the 
people. We shall not enter very minutely into his cha^ 
racter as a poet. In his works, says Mr. Ellis, we do not 
often find either the splendid diction of Dunbar, or the 
prolific imagination of Gawin Douglas. Perhaps, indeed, 
the ^* Dream'' is his only composition which can be cited 
as< uniformly poetical; but his various learning, his good 
sense, his perfect knowledge of courts, and of the world, 
the facility of his versification, and above all, his peculiar 
talent of adapting himself to readers of all denominations, 
will continue to secure to him a considerable' sh^re of that 
popularity, for which he was originally indebted to the 
opinions be professed, no less than to bis poetical merit. 
The most ample information respecting Lindsay, his per-r 
sonal history, and works, may be found in the very accu* 
rate edition of the latter published in 1806, by George 
Chalmers, esq. in 3 vols. 8vo. It has be/^ justly remarked 
that if the learned editor had executed no more than the 
glossary prefixed to this edition, he would have been amply 
entitled to the gratitude both of English and Scotch scbo* 
lars. A more elaborate, learned, and satisfactory produc- 
tion of the kind has certainly not appeared since that of ' 

LINDSEY (Theophilus), a Socinian writer, was boro 
at Middlewich, in Cheshire, June 20th, 1723, old style. 
His father, Mr. Robert Lindsey, was an opulent proprietor 
of the salt-works in that neighbourhood ; his mother's name 
was Spencer, a younger branch of the Spencer family, in 
the county of Buckingham. Theophilus was the second of 
three children, and so named after his godfather, Theo- 
philus earl of Huntingdon. He received the rudiments of 
grammar-learning at Middlewich, and from his early at«^ 
tachment to books, and the habitual seriousness of his mind, 
he was intended by his mother for the church. He lost 

^ Life prefixfd to Mr. Chalmerses edition. — Ellis's Specimeni. — ^Wartoo't 
Hist, of Poetry.— Brit. Crit. vol. XXIX. — Robert Lindsay of Pitscottie, wbo was 
a contemporary of air OaTid, is the reputed author or editor of wh^t has been 
hitherto published as a *' History of Scotland from 1436 to 1565, &c." Of this 
a recent and very correct ediMon has been published by John Graham Dalyell» 
esq. F. S. A. E". in 2 vols, ivo^ with its proper title pf ** The Chronicles of Soou 


L I N D S E Y- , 287 

soine ,tiine. by a change of schools^ until he was put under 
the care of lAr, Barnard of the free-school of Leeds, under 
whom he made a rapid progress in classical learning. At 
the age of eighteen he was admitted of St. John's college^ 
Cambridge, where, by exemplary diligence and moral 
conduct, he obtained the entire approbation oC his tutors. 
As soon as he had finished his studies at college, taken 
his first degree, and bad been admitted to deacon's orders, 
he was npmii^at^d by sir George Wheler to a chapel v in 
SpitaUsquare London. Soon after this, he was, by the 
recommendation of the earl of Huntingdon, appointed do- 
mestic chaplain to Algernon duke of Somerset; Tb« duke, 
from. a great regard for his merit, determined to procure, 
him a high rank in the church, but an early death deprived 
Mr. Lindsey of his illustrious patron. In 1754, he accom« 
panied the present duke. of Northumberland to the con* 
tinent, and on his return he supplied, for some time, the 
temporary vacancy of a good living in the north of Sag- 
land, called Kirkby-Wisk: here he became acquainted 
with Mr. archdeacon Blackburne, and in 1760 married his 
daughter •in-law. From Kirkby Mr. Lindsey went to Pid-» 
dletown, in Dorsetshire, baying been presented to the 
Jiving of that place by the earl of Huntingdon: this, 
through the interest of the same patron, he exchanged, in 
1764, for the vicarage of Catterick, in Yorkshire* Here 
be resided nearly ten years, an exemplary pattern of a pri- 
mitive and conscie.ntous pastor, highly respected and be- 
loved by the people committed to his charge. Besides his 
various and important duties as a parish clergyman, Mr* 
Lindsey was ever alive, and heartily active, in every cause 
in which a deviation from the formularies and obligations 
of the church was considered as necessary. With this 
view, in 177 T he zealously co-operated with Mr. arch- 
deacon Blackburne^ Dr. John Jebb, Mr. Wyvil, and others, 
in endeavouriqg to obtain relief in matters of subscription 
to the thirty-nine articles. Mr« Lindsey bad, probably, 
for some years, entertained doubts with respect to the 
doctrine. pf the Trinity, and other leading topics of the 
established faith; and these pressed so heavy upon him 
that he could no longer endure to remain in a church, 
partaking of its emoluments, which he could not deserve, 
and preaching .its doctrines, which he could not believe^ 
He tber^efore, in November 1773, wrote to the prelate of 
his .4iocefe, informing him of his. inte^uiion^ to quit th^ 

a$M L I N D S £ Y* 

nhurch, and signifying, that in a few ilays he should trttis* 
mit to him his deed of resignation* The bishop endea* 
Toured to persuade him to remain at his post, but he had 
made u^ liis mind that duty required the sacrifice, and be 
was resolved to bear the consequences. When the act was 
done, he said he felt himself deliyered from a load which 
bad long lain heavy upon htm, and at times nearly over* 
whelmed bim. Previously to his quitting Catterick, Mr. 
Lindsey delivered a farewell address to his parishioners, 
ih* which he stated his motives for quitting them in a sim« 
pie and very affecting manner, pointing out the reasons 
why be could no longer conduct, nor join in their worship, 
without the guilt of continual insincerity before God, and 
endangering the loss of his favour for ever. He lefb Cat-* 
terick about the middle of December, and after visiting 
some friends in different parts of the country, he arrived 
in London in January 1774, where he met with friends, 
who zealously patronized the idea which he entertained 
of opening a place of worship, devoted entirely to unt« 
tarian principles. A large room was at first fitted up for 
the purpose in Essex-street in the Strand, which was 
opened April 17, 1774. The service of the' place wa» 
conducted according to the plan of a liturgy which had 
been altered from that used in the established. church by 
the celebrated Dr. Saitouel Clarke, whose conscic^nce was 
not quite so delicate as that of Mr. Lindsey. Mr. Lindsey 
published the sermon which he preached on the opening of 
bis chapel, to which was added an account of the liturgy 
made use of. About the same time he published his 
*^ Apology,^' of which several editions were called for in 
the course of a few years. This was followed by a still 
larger volume, entitled ** A Sequel to the Apology,'* which 
was intended as a reply to his various opponents, and like* 
Wise to vindicate and establish the leading doctrines' which 
he professed, and on account of which he had given up 
his preferdaent in the church. This work was published in 
1776 ; and in 1779 he was enabled, by the assistance of 
his friends, to build the chapel of Essex-street, and to pur« 
chase the ground on which it 'stands. Till the summer of 
17d3, Mr. Lindsey, with the aid of his friend the Rev. Dr^ 
Disney, conducted the services of the place, upOn strict 
unitarian principles, to a numerous congregation. He 
then resigned the whole into the bands of his coadjutor, 
tkotwithstandiog the earnest wishes of his hearers that he 


L I K 1>'S E V. 28# 

ftiioidd still contifiue a paTt of tbcf services. Though \^b 
had quitted the duties of the pulpit, he continued to labour 
in the cause, by his publications, till hie had attained bis 80th 
yean In 1802, he published his last work, entitled '< Con- 
rersations on the Divine Government, shewing that everv 
thing is from God, and for good to all.*' The professed 
object of this pi^ce is to vindicate the Creator from those 
gloomy notions which are too often attached to his provi- 
dence, and to shew that the government of the world i^ 
the wisest that could have been adopted, and that afflict 
lions and apparent evils are permitted for the general 
good. From this principle Mr. Liiidsey derived consola^ 
tioQ' through life, and upon it he acted in every difBciilt 
and trying scene. On his death-bed he spoke of his suf^ 
ferings with perfect patience and meekness, and i^hed 
iremitided, by a friend, that he doubtless was enabled 
io bear them With so much fortitude in the recollection 
of his favourite maxim, that " Whatever is, is right ;'* 
^^No,** said he with an animation that lighted up'his coun- 
tenance, ** Whatever is, is best." This was^ the last sen^ 
tence which he was able distinctly to articulate : he died 
Novembers, 1808. Besides the works already referred 
to, he publiisbed tw6 dissertations : 1. On the preface to 
St. John's Gospel ; 2. On praying to Christ : *• An Histo- 
rical View of the State of th6 Unitarian Doctrine and Wdr- 
ship from the Reformation to our own Times ;'* and seve- 
lul other pieces. Among controversial" writers Mr. Lindsey 
takes a place ; as his '* Vindicise Priestleianse,^ and his 
" Examination of Mr. Robinsoh's' Plea for the Divinity of 
Christ,'* will shew. Two volumes of his Sermons have beep 
published since his death. 

Mr.'Lindsey was a nian of mild and amiable manners, 
and very highly respected by every person who knew hida. 
As a writer on the side of unrtariamsm,^it cannot be said 
that he'brought many accessions of Hew matter and argu- 
ment, but his honourable conduct in the resignation of his 
preferment rendered him peculiarly ah ornament to the 
iect he joined, and the loss of such a man might be justly 
ifigretted by the church he left.* 

' LlKGLEBACH (John), a Dutch pfainter, or at least 
one who painuid much in tfa^ Dutch manner, 'was born^at 

% ' . ■ , * • , . ■• ^ • » . 

. '^ M^eomnm^ ToL V;«-*S£es'ft CfclOF«iaia.«r^M9a9iri liy Mr. JlalihaA> 

Vol, XX- l} 

S9Q L I N G L £ B AC H. 


JFfankfort on the Maine, in 1625, and learned bis act iq 
fiolland, but afterwards went to Rom^, where be.stu^f 
liliously observed every thing that was curious in art^ 
ture, and continued at Rooaetill he was twenty-five yea^rs 
of age. His usual subjects are fairs, mountebanks, sear 
prospects, naval engagements, and landscapes. Hisland« 
;scapes are enriched with antiquities, ruins, animals, an4 
elegant figures ; his sea-fights are full of expression, ex* 
citing pity and terror; and all his objects are well-de- 
signed,. His skies are generally light, and thinly clopded^ 
and his management of the aerial perspective is extremely 
judicious; bis keeping is usually good; his distances of. a 
clear bluish tint ; and the whole together. is masterly, pror 
ducing an agreeable effect. In painting figures or anir, 
mals, he had uncommon readiness, and on that accQi|n| 
he was employed by several eminent artists to adocn th^if 
landscapes with those pbjects j, and whatever he insertefdw 
the works of other masters, was always well adapted to.tb^ 
scene and the subject His pencil is free, . bis touch cii^aa, 
and light, and his compositions are in general esteem*. ;I|i 
nay be observed, that he was particularly fond of intro-. 
ducing into most of his compositions, pieces of ar^hitec-' 
ture, the remains of elegant buildings, or the gate4 of the. 
sea-port towns of Italy ; embellished with statues, placed, 
sometimes on the pediments and cornices, and sometiines 
in niches. He also excelled in representing Italian fairs 
and markets, inserting in those subjects abundance .oft 
£gures, well grouped and designed, in attitudes su^b]e 
to their different characters and occupations; and although 
)ie often repeated the same subjects, yet the liveliness, of: 
his imagination, and the readiness of his invention, always ^ 
enabled him to give them a remarkable variety. He| died ^ 
in 1687.* . 

LINGUET (Simon Nicholas Hjenry), a French advo- 
cate and political writer, was born at Rheii)|i^, July. 1^-^ 
4736. His father was one of the professors ot the .college 
of Beauvais, at Paris, and had his son educated un^er \dm^ . 
.who made such proficiency in his studies as to gsUn^th^v 
three chief prizes of the college in 1751. This early-^p^^* 
Jebrity was noticed by the duke de Deux-Pont, .thei^at>/ 
Paris, who took him with him to the country ; but Ling|ia||; ^ 
soon left this nobleman for the service of the prince d^ , 
fieavau, iwho employed him. as bis aide-de-camp in the* war • 

> Argenville, ViA, 111.— Pilkington. 


iit Portugal, on account of his skifl in odalheinaticsu 
JDuring his residence in that country, Linguet learned, the 
language so far as to be able to translate some Portuguese 
dramas into French. Returning to France in 176^, he wa$ 
admitted to the bar, where his character was very rarious ; 
but amongst the reports both of enemies and friends, it 
appears that of an hundred and thirty causes, he lost only 
nine, and was allowed to shine both in oratory and compor 
sition. He had the art, however, of making enemies by 
the occasional liberties he took with characters ; and at 
one time twenty-four of hi^ brethren at the bar, whether 
from jealousy or a better reason, determined that they 
would take no brief in any cause in which he was con*- 
cerned, and the parliament of JParis approved this so far 
as to interdict him from pleading. We are not sufficiently 
acquainted with the circumstances of the case to be able to 
|orm an opinion on the justice of this harsh measure. It 
appears, however, to have thrown Linguet out of his pro«> 
fession, and he then began to employ his pen on his nu-^ 
merous political writings'; but, these, while they added to 
his reputation as a lively writer, added likewise to the 
number of his enemies. The most pointed satire levelled 
at him was the " Theory of Paradox,*', generally attributed 
to the abb6 Morellet, who collected all the absurd para- 
doxes to be found in Linguet's productions, which it must 
be allowed are sufficiently numerous, and deserve the cas- 
tigation he received. Linguet endeavoured to reply, but 
the iaugh was against him, and all the wits of Paris en«- 
joyed his mortification. His *^ Journal," likewise, in which 
.most of his effusions appeared, was suppressed by the mi- 
nister of state, Maurepas ; and Linguet, thinking his per- 
sonal liberty was now in dauger, came to London ; but the 
English not receiving him as he expected, he went; to 
Brussels, and in consequence of an application to the count 
de Vergennf 8, . vas allowed to return to France, He bad not 
been here long, before^ fresh, complaints having been mad^ 
pf his conduct, he was, Sept. 27, 1780, sent to the Bastille^ 
where he remained twenty months. Qf his imprisonment 
and the causes he published^a very interesting account^ 
which was translated into English, and printed here ii^ 
1783. He was, after being released, exiled to Rethel, 
bat in a short time returned to England. He had beeii 
exiled on two other occasions, once to Chartres, and the 
pther to J>f ogent*le-Rotrou. At this last place; he seduced 

«« 1 1 N G U fi T. 

t ttftdame ButI, the, wife of n mannfflictdrtr, who aedoiti* 
|»at)i<ed bim to England; From Eofgiand be went again tb 
' l^rtrsseh^ and resnm^ his journal, or ** Annates politiqtic^,^ 
in ^icb he endeat^otired to pay his court to the emperor 
Joseph, who was so much pleased with a paper be bad 
MFritten on his faTourite project of opening the Scheldv^ 
that he invited bim to Vienna, and made him a present df 
1000 ducats. Linguet, however, soon forfeited the empe<- 
*tdr*» favour, by taking part with Vander Noot and the otbetr 
insurgents of Brabant. ObKged, therefore, to quit the 
Netherlands, he came to Paris in 1791, and appeared at 
the bdr of the constituent assembly as advocate for the c<^ 
lonial assembly of St. Domingo and the cause of the blacks. 
In February 1792, he appeared in the legislative assembly 
to denounce Bertraud de MolevillC) the minister of the 
itiarine ; but his manner was so absurd, that notwithstand* 
itig the unpopularity of that statesman j the assembly treated 
it With contempt, and Linguet itrdignantly tore in pieces 
bis memorial, which he had been desired to leave on the 
table. During the reign of terror, he withdrew into the 
country, but was discovered and brought before the revo- 
lutionary tribunal, and condemned to death June 27, 17^4^ 
for having in his works paid court to the despots of Vienna 
and London. At the age^of fifty -^seven he went with ste«> 
Irenity and courage to meet bis fate. It is not very easy 
to fdrm an opinion of Linguet^s real character. His 
being interrupted in his profession seems to have thrown 
him upon the public, whose prejudices he alternately 
opposed and flattered. His works abound in contradict 
tiont, but upon the whole it may be inferred diat be was a 
lover of liberty^ and no ineortsiderable promoter of those 
opinions which precipitated the revolution. That he was 
not one of the ferocious sect, appears from Ms escape, fttid 
his death. His works are very numerous^. The principal 
are, 1. " Voyage au laAyrinthe du jardin du roi,** Hagile, 
(Paris,) 1755, 12mo. 2. « Histcire dtt slecle d'Atex-. 
andre,** Paris, 1762, l2tno. 3. <^ Projetd^un tanfcl ct 
d'un pont sur les cotes de Picardie,*' 1764,' 8r^6. 4. 
« Le Fanatisme de Phil0st)phes,'^ lf64, 8vo. 5. *« Mte* 
cessit^ d'une raforme dans Padministra^n de' la justice 
et des lois qiviles de Prance," Amst. 1764^, Sto. 6. ^ La 
Dime royale,*' i764, reprinted in 17M. 7. « Hi&tbire 
des Revoltttidtis de Pempii'e Romain,*^ 1766, 2 ^ols. I2ma 
This is one of his patudotical wbrka, in i^rhtclv tyiutiny and 

L I N G U E T. 29% 

shv«ry axe represented in the iii03t &vour»ble li|^t B. 
. ^* Theorie des Loi%'^ 17^7, 2 vols. Svp^ repristed in J1774« 
f. << Histoire isppartiale des JesittUe%*' 1763, 8vo« 10^ 
** Hardioo's Uoiversal History,'' vob. 19>h and ^Otb« IK 
<< Theatre Espagnole," 1770, 4 voR It^o. 1£. '< Theorie 
4u Libelle," Amst (Paris), 1775, 12ii»o, gp answer to the 
abb£ Morellet*. 13. " Du plus beureux giwverniaent^'' &c. 
1774, 2 .vok. 12IOP. 14» ^^ Essai pbii.osgpbique ^ur l(e^ 
Monacfaisme," 1777, Svo. Besides these he wrot^ several 

Eieces on the revoUuuon in. Brabaqt, .an^ a cplle^tipa of 
iw cases. 


. LIN^^Y G^ohn), an emineDt music profesisor and or- 
ganist, ]oog reseat at Bath, adhere he had served van ap^ 
prentioesbip under Chilcpt, the organist pf that city, was 4 
studious majx, equally versed in the theory and practice 
pi bis art Having a large family of children, in ^om he 
found the seeds 9f genius had beea planted by aatdre, and 
the gift of voice, in order to cultivate this, he pointed 
bis studies to singing^ and became the best siogiug-n^st^ 
of his time, if we may judge by the spedmens of his 
fucceas iu bis owp family. He was not only a masterly 
|dayer xxi the organ au^ harpsichord, b^t a good composer^ 
as. his elegies and several -coi^positions for Drury*laoe 
theatre evinced. His sou Thomas, who was placed under 
l^fardini at Florence, -the celebrated discipk of Tartipi, 
was a fine performer tm the violin, with a talent for com-* 
position, which, if be had lived to develope, would have 
giyeii loBf^vity to bis fanae. ^ein^ at Grimsthqrpe^ ia 
Lincobisbice, at the se^ of th^ duke of Ancaster, wher^e 
)ie oftea ^uaaused himself iu rawing, fibbing, and sailing i^ .^ 
boat on a piece of water, io a squall of wind, or by some ac«- 
cident, the boat waf, overset, aud this amiable and promising 
youth wasdrowued at ^a early a^, to tjjije great ^Uction 
of bis family and. firic^odfiy paruculaily.bis l^atcbless sister* 
jl^rs. Sheridan, whom this calamity rendered miserable for 
a long time^ during wljucb, ?her affection aud grief ap» 
peared in verses of the most sweet and affecting kind oa 
the sorrowful ev«Qt The beauty, talents, and mental 
endowments of this ^' Saucta CsDcilia^rediviva,*' will %be 
f emembered tp the lastv hour of all who heard, or even saw 
. and conversed with her. The tone of her voice and ex- 
prcfssive manqer of singing were as encbauting a9 her 

I Dictt Hist^Bipgraphit Moderne. 

fi9* L I N L £ i. ■'• 

countenance and conversation. In her singing, w^ sf 
nAellifldous-toned voice, a perfect shake and intonation, 
she was possessed of the doable power of deh'ghting an 
audience equally in pathetic strains and songs of brilliant 
execution, which is allowed to very few singers. When 
dhe had heard the Agujari and the Danzi, afterwarda ina- 
dame le Bran, she astonished all hearers by performing 
their bravura airs, extending the natural compass of her 
Voice a fourth above the highest note of ^the harpsicfaordy 
before additional keys were in fashion. Mrs; Sheridan 
died at Bristol in 1792. " 

- Mrs. Hckel, her sister, was but little inferior to her in 
beauty and talents ; and Mr. Linley^s other daughters con* 
tinned to excite the admiration of all who knew them, in 
ft manner worthy of the family from which they sprang. 

Mr. Linley, the father of this nest of nightingales, fmni 
being assistant manager of Drury-lane theatre, lived to 
become joint patentee, and for some time sole acting ma^ 
nager ; in which capacity he gave satisfaction, and escaped 
censure, pablic and private, by his probity and steady 
conduct, more than is often allowed to the governor of stidhi 
a numerous and froward family. This worthy and ingenif 
ous man died November 1795.' - ' 

LINN^US (Charles), afterwards Von LiNNfi', the most' 
eminent of modern naturalists, was born at Rftshult, in 
the province of Smaland, in Sweden, May 1 3tfa, 1 707. 
His father, Nicholas Liiinseus, was assistant minister of tfa^ 
l^rish of Stenbrohult, to which the hamlet of Rft^hult be^ 
longs, and became in process of time its pastor or rector ; 
having married Christina Broderson, the daughter of his- 
predecessor. The subject of our memoir was their first-bom 
child. The family of Linnasus had been peasants, but some' 
of them, early in the seventeenth century, had followed' 
literary pursuits. In the beginning of that century regulat 
and hereditary surnames were first adopted in Sweden^ on 
^bich occasion literary men offcen chose one of Latin or 
'Greek derivation and structure, retaining the termination' 
proper to the learned languages. A remarkable Linden^ 
tree, Tilta Europaaj growing near the place of their resi^ 
dence, is reported to have given origin to the names of 
Lindelius ami Tiliander, in some branches of this family ;- 
but the above-mentioned Nicholas, is said to have first 

1 Rees'f CjrclopflMlia, by Dr. Burnejr. 

L INf N ^JE\J S: 391 

taheh that of Linnsras, by which bis son becanfe so exten-A 
stvely known. Of the taste which laid the foundation of 
bis bappiness^ as well as his celebrity, this worthy fatbet 
#a« the primary cause. Residing in a delightful spot^ oo. 
Ibe blanks of a fine lake/ surrounded by hiljs and vaHevSi^ 
woods and cultivated ground, his garden and his fidfdr 
yielded him l)oth amusement and profit, and his infant sbn« 
imbibed, under his auspices, that pure and ardent love ol^ 
^iature for its own sake, with that habitual exercise of the; 
mind in observation and activity, which ever after.mark^d^ 
his character, and which were enhanced by a rectitude o^ 
prineiple, an elevation of devotional- taste, a warmth of 
ieeling, and an amiableness of manners, rarely united iiv 
iiiose who no transcendantly excel in any branch of phi** 
losophy or sciienee, because the cultivation of the hearci 
does by no means so constantly as it ought keep pace with^ 
that of the understanding. The maternal uncle of Nicholan 
Liona^us, Sueno Tiliauder, who had educated him witb 
his own children, was also fond of plants and of gardening)^ 
so that these tastes were in some measure hereditary. From 
bis tutor he learned to avoid the error of the desubory* 
speculators of nature.; and his memory, like his powers oi 
perception, was' naturally good, and his sight was always 
rematicably acute. He does not appear, however, to have 
been very happy under this tutor, and at seven year$ of 
age grammar bad. but an unequal contest with bo^ny^ ia^ 
ifae mind of the young student. Nor was he much, morer 
fortunate when removed, in 1717, to the grammar-^scbobl 
of Wexio, the master of which, as his disgusted pupil, 
lelates, ^^ preferred stripes and punishments to admOf^ 
uitions and encouragements." In 17^22 he was admitted 
to a higher form in the school, and his drier studies 
were now allowed to be intermixed and sweetened witb 
the recreations of botany. In 1724, being .seventeen 
3^earsof age, he was removed to the superior seminary or 
Gynmasiuni, and his destination was fixed for the churchy 
but, having no taste for Greek or Hebrew, ethics, metar . 
physics, or theology, he devoted himself with ^ success tor 
mIMrliematics, natural philosophy, and a scientific pursuit 
o€ his- darling botany. The " Chloris Gatfaaca" of Brome*^ 
lius, and <^ Hdrtus Upsaliensis'' of Rudbeck, which made 
apart^of his little library, were caJculated rather to fire 
than to satiisfy his* curiosity ; while bis Palmberg and Til-i 

kthds'migkt mal^Q faip sensible bow m^cM still remiii^ed m 

sm VI N N« U Si 

be^Me. Hit «wn copies of tbese4>ooks,^ii)ied wkhdiejiife*^ 
tikOBi care^aad neatness, are now in sir Jamea Smith's library^ 
LiiKDssns's literary reputation, therefore, aoade so little pro^ 
gfess^ that his tutors having •pronounced him a dance, fa»: 
ifould probably have been put to iKiine handicraft tradOf 
bed not Dr. Rotlunann, the lecturer on natural philosof^yy 
taken him into his own house, with a view, to the study of 
|ihyncy and given him a private course of instruction kk 
fbysialogy. He first suggested to LinnaBUS the true priu*' 
eipie^ upon which botany ought .to be studied, founded on 
Ihs parts of fructification, and put the system of Tpurnen 
{art into his hands, in the knowledge of which he made a 
flapid progress. 

- In 1727 LinnsBus was matriculated at the: university of 
Lund, and devoted himself to the suidy of medicine. He 
lodged at the house, of a physician, Dr» Stobaeus, and 
having acoesp to a library^ and museum of natural history^ 
wab indefatigablein his application, and Stobss^s being infirm 
inheidthand sfurits, Linnasus was eUowed occa^jionally 4o 
leUeve him from the labours of his profession, and* 
eaone a great favourite. In the ensuing summer be passed 
Hhe vacation under his paternal roof, and jneeting^ there 
with his foroser patnoU' Bothmann, by his advice he quitted 
Lund for Upsal, as a superior school of medicine and ha- 
tany; But in this situation, owing to his father's poverty, 
he waa reduced to grant necessity, and although he csxaie 
well reconunended, could only obtun a royal scholarship, 
which was so insuificient for his maintenance, that he often 
wanted the necessaries of life. He nevertheless studied 
with great persererance, and at last, in 1729, obtained a 
fibenu patron in Dr. Oknis Celsius, professor of dimity, 
who met htm by chance in that acsdemic i^den, the fame 
•f which he was destined to immortalise. I>c. Celsius 
discorering hia merit, took him under bis protection,! and 
aoon leeommended him to pupils, by which ooeasure his 
finances were improved. 

- While under the roof of Dr. Ce}riusy he aaet wHh a rer 
view, of Vaillant's treatise on the sexes of plants,, which 

' first led him to consider the importanci& and vaisioua forma* 
tion of the staaaeas and pistik, and thence to form a «ew 
acheme of arrangement fi>dnded on those essential organs. 
He drew up an essay in opposition to the librarian of the 
university, who had publiriied a work ^f De nuptiis filen* 
tssnanV* and thU performance beia|( iq^iuroTal both by 

L I N N £ U S. im 

Cdsiuft and. Kodbeck, led thf way to bis being a^ppoliHe^ 
in 1730 to lecture in the botanic g«jrdeo» as an aAsi^taajt 
to Rudbeck. He was also taken into Eudbeck's bouse ag. 
tntor to his younger children, and his leisure time was em- 
ployed on some of those botanical works which be after** 
wards ^published in Holland during bis stay there* 

The frequent cooyersations bf Rudbeck, concerning die 
natural history of Laplaiid, and the curiosities be bad se^ 
ibere^ t^scited an ieresis^ble desire in Linmeus to visit th^ 
saaie eouotry* To this he was perhaps the more imme* 
diately prom|>ted by some little circumstances which made 
bis residence at Upsal uncomfortable. These were, the 
jealousy of Dr» Rosen^ who was ambitious of sucoeedie^ 
Rudbeek whenever his professorships should become va* 
eant, ai?d who by his success as the only practising pbyip 
sician at Upsal, was likely to prove a formidable rival ; ai 
well as some domestic chagrin, which be thus relates: 
^' The faithless wife of the librarian Norrelius lived at tbii 
lime in Rudbeck*s bouse* and by her Linneeus was made 
so odious to his patroness, that he could no longer jsttajr 
there/' In the end of 1 7 ^ 1 , be retired to bis native place» 
and soon received, from the academy of sciences at Upsal^ 
an appKHmment to travel tbi^ugh Lapiand, under tbe 
royal authority, and at the expence of the academy* He 
accordingly set out from Upsal, May 1 2th, on this expe* 
dition ; and after visiting the Lapland Alps on foot, and 
descending to the coast of Norway, of which be has given 
a most picturesque and striking description, returned by 
Tornea, and the east side of tbe Bothoian gulpb, to Abo, 
and so to Upsal, which he reached on tbe iOth of October, 
having performed a journey of near 4000 JCngUsh miles^ 
^he particulars of his interesting expedition have lately 
^een given to tbe public, in an English translation of the 
original joui^ey written on the spot, aUustrated with 
wooden cttts from his own sketches, making two octavo 

, Having Jeamed the art of assaying metals d uriog ten days* 
residence at the mines of Bi(»rknas, near Calix, in tbe course 
of Juis tour, he next year gave a private course of lectures 
'pm that subject, which had never been taught at Upsal be« 
fern. Tbe jealousy of Rosen, however, still pursued b^m ; 
and^this rival descended so low as to procure, partly by, in* 
treaties, partly by threats, the loan of bis manuscript lee* 
tares ion botany) fbich Linnsenv dented him in surrepti* 

tious!y copying. RosTen bad taken by tbc hand a younjj 
man named Wallerius, who aftenrards becjame a distibi 
^uished mineralogist^ itnd for whom be now 'procured, ill 
opposition to Linnaeus, die new place of adjunct, orassisti^ 
^ant, in the medical faculty at Lund. But the basest actiokl 
of Rosen, and which proved envy to be the sole source t>f hti 
conduct, was, he obtained, through the archbisbop^s means, 
an order from the chancellor to prevent all private medical 
lectures in the university. Linnaeiis, deprived of his oolf 
means of subsistence, is said to have been so exasperated 
as to have drawn his sword upon Rosen, an affirpnt with 
which the latter chose to put up ; and Linnseus, after hav^ 
ing for some time indulged feelings of passionate reseats; 
ment, entirely subdued these; and Rosen, towards the close 
of his life, was g)ad of the medical aid of the man he bad 
in vain endeavoured to crush. 

Disappointed in his views of medical advancement, Lin* 
ns&us turned his thoughts more immediately to the subject 
of mineralogy. In the end of 1733, be had visited some 
of the principal mines of Sweden, and had been introduced 
to baron Reuterholm, governor of the province of Dalarnesj: 
or Dalecarlia, resident at Fahlun, at whose persuasion and 
ezpence^he travelled through the eastern part of Dale^ 
carlia, accompanied by seven of his ablest pupils, a jonrnal 
of which tour exists in his library. At Fahlun he gave a. 
course of lectures on the art of assaying, which was nome^^ • 
rously attended ; and here he first became acquainted with * 
Browallius, then chaplain to the governor, afterwards bishop ' 
of Abo, who advised him to take his doctor^ degree, in" 
order to pursue the practice of physic, and further recom-^ 
mended him to aim at some advantageous matrimonial con- 
nection. In pursuit of the first part of this advice,: Lin^ 
ns?usi having scraped together about 15/. sterling, no#< 
entered on his travels, with a view of obtaining his degree 
at the cheapest university he could find, and of seeing as 
much of the learned world as his chances and means might 
enable him. to do. Id the beginning of 1735 -he set out, 
a.t]d after a short stay at Hamburgh and Amsterdam, - bd 
{nroceeded to Harderwyck, where, having ofFerefdhiBnaelf 
^ a candidate, and undergone the requisite examinations^ 
he obtained his degree June 23. On this occasion he p«b* 
lisbed and defended a thesis, entitled " Hypoihests xt&fk 
de Febrium Intermittentium Caus&," in the dedication ^f ^ 
which) to bis << Ma^xenates etPatrones," it i»«emiNrkab(4 ' 

LIN N'JE U S: ^99 

tbat^ among the names of Rudbeck, Hothmann, Stobseusv 
MorsBus^ &c; we find that of Rosen. The hypothesis here 
ftdvaisoedy most correctly so denominated, is truly Boer- 
Imxmn. Intermitting ferers are supposed to be owing to 
fine particles of clay, taken in with the food, and lodged 
ift the terminations of the arterial system, where they cause 
the symptoms of the disorder in question. 
f'In< Holland Linnaeus became acquainted with Dr. John 
Frederick Gronovius, who assisted him in publishing thd 
first edition of the celebrated *' Systema Nattirse,*''consist« 
ihg of eight large sheets, in the form of tables ; which' 
edition is now a great bibliothecal curiosity. He also pro- 
enred access to the illustrious Boerhaave, who encouraged 
Inm to remain in Holland ; but this advice could scarcely 
kaye been followed, had he not met with a patron in Bur- 
roann, of Amsterdam, who was then preparing his " The- 
saurus 2eylanicus,'' and who received Linnaeus into his 
house as his guest for some months, during which period , 
be printed his ^^Fundamenta Botanica,'' a small 8vo, which 
dontains the very essence of botany, and has never been 
superseded or refuted. After he had been a few months 
under BnrmaTtn's roof, he was introduced by Boerhaavie to 
Mr. George Clifford, an opulent banker, tvho had a capital 
garden at Hartecattip, and invited Linnaeus to superintertd 
it. This situation, which he acceptied, appears to have 
been in all respects agreeable and profitable to his studies, 
aod^iere he wrote and printed his *^ Flora Lapponica.'* In 
1796^ after having written his " Musa Cliffortiana,*' Lin- 
lUBus was sent by Mr. Clifford to England, and was intro- 
duced to the lovers and teachers of natural science at Ox- 
ford and . London, Shaw, Martyn, Miller, and Collinson^ 
&c. They admired his genius, and valued his friendship, 
Md supplied him with' books and plants, both for his own 
herbarium, and the garden of his patron at Hartecamp. 
'^On bis return to Holland, he continued the impression 
atins^^ Genera Plantarum," which appeared in 1737. In 
Oct. 1736, he was made a member of the imperial academy 
Natura Curwsorum^ by the title, according to the custom 
of that body, of " Dioscorides Secundus." He printed 
almoin 1737, the ** Viridarium ClifFortiaiium," an 8vo cata- 
logtie of his friend's garden, disposed according to his own 
se^raal system, of which he published, later in the same 
year, at Leyden^ an exemplification under the title of 
^^Metbedns "Sexualis,- in which all the known genera of 

300 L I N N JE U S. 

plants are so aminged by name only. Tbia year also bd 

; reduced his magnificeDt ^' Hortjas ClifFortiaous/' folio* 
'bis splendid voluine» wbicb was priated by Mr. Clifford 
ooly for private distribution^ - was begun and finished io 
sine mouths. In the same year Linnasus wrote and pub- 
lished bis *^ Critica Botanica/* a sequel to part of the 
^' Fundamenta ;*' but these labours, and perhaps the tur of 
Holland not agreeing with bis health, be lefttbe hospitable 
roof of Mr. Clifford, and for a while assisted professor 
Adrian Van Roy en at Ley den in the garden there, aad 
about the same time printed the ^' Classes Plantarum,'' a 
view of all the botanical systems ever known. Here also 
lie published his friend Artedi's " Ichthyologia." . (See 

LiunsBus remained at Leyden till the spring of 1738^ 
when be bad an interesting interview with the great Boer- 
haave, then on his deatb«bed« Linnseus's departure, how- 
ever, from Leyden, was prevented by a very fonaidable 
intermittent fever. The skill of Van Swieten, and the 
renewed attentions of the amiable Clifford, who veceived 
bim again under his roof with the most liberal and indul* 
geot kindness, after soipe weeks restored him so far, that 
he was able, though still weak, to set out on his journeys 
carrying with him an introductory letter from Van Roy^sn 
to Anthony de Jussieu, the physician, who made him aor 
quainted with bis brother, the famous Bernard de Jussieu* 
He inspected the botanic garden, the herbariums of Tourne- 
fort, Vaillant, the Jussieus, &c. ; visited the ueigbbour- 
bood of Fontainbleau, formed an acquaintance wi£ Reai^ 
mur and other distinguished naturalists, and was admitted 
a corresponding member of the academy of sciences. 

How be conversed with Reaumur and others, who knew 
no language but their own, and how he contracted so clcpa 
a friendship with Mr. CoUinson at London, it is not easy to 
conceive. He confesses a peculiar inaptitude, and cer- 
tainly a blameable indifference, for the learning ef lai|^ 
guages, declaring in his diary that in all his tiayeis be 
learnt '' neither English, French, German, Laplandisby npr 
even Dutch, though he stayed in Holland three whole yeaok 
Nevertheless, be found bis way every where, well and hap- 
pily." By the journal of bis Lapland tour, and other ma- 
nuscripts, it appears that Latin was sufficiently familiar to 
him ; and as some fastidious critics have censured the style 
of the '^ Amoeniutes Academicse^*' it is fair to remark that 

L I N N -iE U S. 301 

idke essays which compose those volames are chiefly writteti 
by the pupils whose inaugural dissertations thev were, and 
4are therefore ifljnproperly quoted as the works of our author. 
- After leaving Paris, Linnsus took his passage at Rouen 
fer Sweden, and landed at Helsingborg, from whence he 
proceeded to Fahlun, visiting his father for a few days th. 
hk way. His reception from the lady of his choice, the 
■daughter of Dr. Morseus, a physician of the place, wis 
'faTOorable, and they were formally betrothed to each oth^f, 
hot it was necessary that some prospect of an advantageonii 
establishment should be discovered. The scientific merits ^ 
of Linne&us were not overlooked, as be was unanimously 
chosen a member of the Upsal academy, the only one then 
in Sweden ; yet the homage he had so lately received 
abroad, seems to have made him a little unreasonable on 
this head, and he declares that he would certainly have 
quitted his native country, '*< had he not been in love/* To 
this all*powerful deity, therefore, and not to his merits, tit 
io the wisdom of his countrymen in discerning them, was 
Sweden, in the first instance, indebted for the possession 
of her Linnseus. After passing the winter of 1738 in Stock-* 
holm, he began to make his way in medical practice, so 
dMit by the following March he had considerable employ- 
slient ' At this time a plan was formed for establishing a 
^erary society at Stockholm, which afterwards' rose r to 
great eminence. Triewald, Hapken, and Alstroem (whose 
finnily was ennobled by the name of Alstroemer), were, ^vith 
Linnseus, the first members : and the infant society, being 
incorporated by royal authority, was augmented with all 
the most learned men of the country. 

A most flattering mark of public approbation was^ soon 
sUter, conferred on Linnaeus, without any solicitation. 
Ckmnt Tessin, marshal of the Diet, which was then sitting, 
gave him an annual pension of 200 ducats from the board 
of mines, on condition of his giving public lectures on 
botafiy and nuneralogy at Stockholm. The same nobleman 
also obtained for him the appointment of pbysiQian to the 
Havy, and received him into his house. His practice now 
Increased' greatly among the nobility, and be found himself 
in so prosperous a condition that he would no longer delay 
%u marriage, which took place at Fahlun, June 26/ 17S^. 
After a month he returned to Stockholm. He Wasr, by lot, 
the first prettd:ent of the new academy ; and as that office 
was to be but of three months' dutationr, after the French 

302 L I HN M-U 8. 

^ • ■ .. • * ■ 

.plan, .he resigned it in September, and. on that ocoa$t<li 
delivered an oration in Swedish, on the wonderful economy 
of insects, which was printed in the Transactions ;. end « 
Latin version of it may be found in the ^' Amcsnitates Aeade-' 
micffi," V. 2. His example was followed by all the sud^ed-^^ 
ing presidents. 

The death of professor Rudbeck in 1740, gave Litmmu» 
.a hope of succeeding to the botanical chair at Upsal, ooie 
of the greatest objects of his ambition. The prior claims^ oif 
his former rival, Rosen, on account of iiis standing in ^he 
university, could not, however, be set aside. Wallerinsako 
.rpsje up in opppsition to the claims of Linnaus. It hap<- 
pened, however, that Roberg resigned the professorship of 
physic about this time, and by the exertions of count Tes- 
sin, a compromise took place. Rosen obtained the pfi>^ 
fessor$hip of botany, aud Linos^s that of medicine^ aifd 
these two afterwards divided their official duties between 
,theip, so as best to. suit the talents of each. > 

In 1741 Linnaeus received an order to travel tlirongh^ 
iEIand, Gothland, &c. for the purpose of investigatifrg the 
natural history and produce of those countries. > O&lhis 
he spent four months, accompanied by six of his pufUts, 
and published an account of it at Stockholm in 1745. Be« 
fore he began. his lectures at Upi^al, to which place he ^re^^' 
moved in the autumn, be delivered a Latin oratioii. ^^ On 
the benefit of travelling in one's own country,^' which is 
translated by Mr. Stillingfieet in his miscellaneous tracts* 
In 1742 he undertook the. reform of the Upsal garden^ 
which in the following year was put in a staite to receive 
those many exotics which his extensive foreign correspond^ 
.ence procured* In 1745 he published his *^ Flora Snecica^ 
and in 1746 his ^^ Fauna Suecica;'' the second editiona^of 
which valuable works were enriched with many addi^Mi 
His reputation was now followed by corresponding. hoT 
hours. He was chosen a member of the academy at Mont* 
pellier, and secretary to the Upsal academy ;. a medal of 
him was struck in 1746, and soon after he received ,th^ 
rank and title of Archiater from the king, and was the only 
Swede chosen into the new-modelled academy of Berlin; 
He also acquired about this time, what he perhaps valued a$ 
highly as these honours, the herbarium made by HeniMUia 
in Ceylon, now in the possession of sir Joseph Banka* 
From this originated LinnsBUs^s ^^ Flora Zeylanica,'' Stock'? 
holm, 1747. In 1749 appeared his ^rMateria Medica,!; 

b I .N' N .£ u ». %e» 

YnBtteR tA the same systematic and didai^tie* style as tlie^ 
l^ his works. > Of this numerous editions have beeU: 
publUbed on the continent, but none with any additions 
on corrections from the author himself, though he left be-* 
bind him copipus manuscript notes on the subject. In the 
s^me year he 'had a violent attack of the gout, which en« 
dapgered his life ; and such was his anxiety to promote 
science^ that he dictated from his bed-side, the manuscript 
of: his " Philosophia Botanica," which afterwards received 
his own corrections, and was published in 1751. 

About this period the queen of Sweden, Louisa Ulricay 
having a taste for natural history, which her royal consort, 
king Adolphus Frederick, also patronized, shewed muchf 
favour to Linnaeus. He was employed in arranging her 
collection of insects and shells, in the country palace of 
Sipotningholm, or Ulricksdahl, add was frequently honoured 
with thef company and conversation of their majesties, 
during bis-stttendance there* The queen interested her-' 
seJf in the education of his son, and promised, to send him 
to tcavel through Europe at. her own expence. She also 
}istened very graciously to any recommendation or petitiori 
of-.-Linnasus, in the service of science. Linnaeus devoted 
some of his leisure time in winter, to the arragement of his 
friend count Tessin's collection of fossils, at Stockholm, of 
which an account in Latin and Swedish, making a small 
folioi with plates, came out in 1753. The result of his 
labours at Drotningbolm was not given to the public till 
17,^4,^ when his ^^ Museum Regime" appeared, in 8vo, be^ 
ingasortof iVW7W}»i^ of an intended more splendid work^^ 
that was-ruever ereciited. His most nagniBcent publica-. 
tiQn appeared in 1754, being a large folio, entitled ^* Mu^^ 
se^m- Regis Adolpbi Frederici," comprehending descrip- 
tions of Uie rarer quadrupeds, birds, serpents, fishes, &c. 
of the king's, museum, in Latin and Swedish, with plates, 
and an excellent prefece^ which was translated by Dr. (now 
sir James) Smith, and first printed in 1786;;; appearing 
s^aio, in a volume of *^ Tracts relating to Natural History," 
in 179d.t In the mean time, Linnaeus was preparing a 
lastijpg^inoaument of his own talents and application, the 
'^ SpecKes Plantarum," of which the first edition was 
{Minted in 175^, the; second, icr 17d^2,< each in two volumes 
jpyQ4f ,:The work is tpo.well known to need any description^ 
f nd'Autst ever be iiiemoniJ[>le for the adaptation of specific, 
or a^. they i^ere at fint.c^ll^,- trivial^ names. . This con- 

i€4 1 I K N iE U 8. 

trivancey wbicfi Liniteus first tned m bis ^ Piui SaeeidQ^ 
II dissertation printed in 1749, extended to minerals in tali 
^ Musetrm Tessinianum/' and subsequently to all the dd^ 
partments of soologj, basperbaps rendered bis works more 
popular tban any one of tbeir merits besides. His speeifie 
differences were intended to be used as names ; but ttieit 
Imavoidable length rendering this tmpractipable, and tbe 
application of numeral figures to eaeh spedies, in HitteiPs 
manner, being still more burtbensome to tlie memorj,- ril 
. natural science would have been rained for want of a^eoiB^ 
Kaon language, were it not for this simple and bappjr in- 
vention. By this means we speak of every natural pib* 
duction in two words, its getieric and its specific name. No 
ambiguous comparisons or references are wanted, no pre* 
supposition of any thing already known. The pbiiosophi-^ 
eal tribe of naturalists, for so they are called by themsebes 
and their admirers, do not therefore depreciate Lisnsetu; 
when they call him a nomendator. . Whatever- may ham 
been thought of the Linns^n trivial nanies at their firat 
appearance^ they are now in universal use, and 'their prtft*^ 
eiple has been, with the greatest advantage^ extended to 
chemistry, of which the celebiated Bergman^ the friend 
of LinnsKus, originally set the example. 

These Herculean ' literary labours, combined with die 
practice of physic, were more than the bodily conslitution 
of Linnseus could support He was attacked with the stone» 
and bad also, from time to time,- returns of gouf, bttthe 
considered the wood strawberry as a specific for both- dis« 
orders, and they never greatly interfered with his comfort 
or his duties. On the 27th of April, 17^3, he received^ 
from the hand of his sovereign, the orderof the Polar Star, 
an honour which had never before been conferred fer4ile^ 
rai^ merit A still more remarkable cdmp^^nt was 'ftid 
him not long after by the king of Spain, who iavifed'hini 
fo settle at Madrid, with the dFer of nobility, tbe free ex^ 
ercise of his religion j and a splendid botanical appoint- 
ment This proposal, however, he declined^ from tfn ^* 
tachment to his own country, and in November 1 756,^ h6 
was raised to the rank of Swedish nobility, and- took the 
name of Von Linn6. . . • . - 

Hie ** Systema Natur®^* had already gone tbrongh^nify* 
editions in different countries. Its author hod, forsevetd 
years, a more ample edition of the arrimai departm^eotJ^ 
contemplation, on the plan of his <^ Species Plantintfa/ 


L I N N jE U S: i03 

ind tEis constituted the first volume of the tenth edition^ 
l^ublished in 1758. The second volatile, which came oiit 
the follotving year, was an epitome of the vegetable king- 
dom. Thii skme work appeared still more enlarged, in sL 
twelfth edition, in 1766 : to this the mineral kiiigdom was 
added in a third volume on the same plan with the fiirst. 
We can readily pairdon the i$elf-complacency of its author, 
when, in his diary written for the use of bis friend Me* 
rtan^er, he calls the ** Systema Nature** '< a v<rork to which 
natural history never hud a felldw.'' We may venture t6 
predict, says his learned biographer, that aA this was tbe 
first performance of the kind, it will certainly be the last; 
the science of natun£il history is now become so vast, that 
tto man can ever takie the lead again as an universal natu- 

The emoluments of Linn^us by his various pliblicationii 
were not great, as be is reported to have sold the coplyrighi 
of most of them for a ducat (about nine and sixpence) a 
printed sheet. Hk different appointments, however, for 
be soon laid aside the general practice of physic, had 
raised him to a considerable degree of opulence. In 1758 
be purchased the estates of Hammarley and Sofja, for 
above 2330/. sterling, and having chosen the foiriher for 
Dfis country residence, be received the visits of . distin- 
guished foreigners, and admitted bis favourite pupils, to 
several of whom he gave private courses of lectures, and 
completely laid aside the state of the nobleman and pro- 
fessor while he discoursed with them on bis favourite topics. 
In 1760 he wrote a prize dissertation on the ^^ sexes df 
plants,'' which was published in English in 1786 by Dr. 
(nowsir James) Smith, the possessor of his library. Liri- 
nteus's patent of nobility did not receive his majesty's sign 
manual till 1761^ though it was antedated 1757. It was. 
Confirmed by the Diet in 1762, and he then took a coslt of 
arms expressive of the sciences which he cultivated. - He 
became also about the same time one of the eight fbreign 
members of the French academy* of sciences^ an honour 
never before conferred on a Swede. 

In 1763, he was permitted to avail himself of tbe assist- 
etice of his son, now twenty»one years of age, in the bo- 
tanical professorship, and the young miin was thus trained 
up for his future successor. . In 1764, the sixth edition, by 
far the most complete, of the " Genera Plantarum," was 
pttbliAed, and be never jirepared another. It was intended 
Vol. XX. X 

S0$ L I N N ;£ U S. 

as a compaD^on to tb^ << Species Plaptartmiy^* but wa| 
greatly superseded by tbe more con(cise atui commodious 
Aort characters of genera, given in the vegeti^ble part of 
the " Systema Naturae,'* published with the titl^ of " Sys« 
tema Veg^tahilium/* edition ISth^ in 1774, and reprinted 
inrith additioQS in 1784. 

Although, as a physician^ luiniueus appears to advaur 
ta^e ip bis ^/Clavis Medicins** and, his ^Genera Mor* 
borum/* bis abilities are piore striking in his classific||t^n 
of liataml objectg. He eifcelled in a happy perc^ptioq of, 
supb technical characters as brought together things most 
qatu|rally alUed. His lectures on the nati|ral order of plants 
wer^ published long after his death in 1793, at Hstinburgh, 
and evince bis 0eep consideration of a subject then in the 
infancy of cultivation. In the zoological department, his 
classincatipQ of birds and insects is' the mpst original as 
v^eli as. the best of the whole.* The arrangement pf fishes 
was an original idea of Lirinasus; and in the arrangement of 
shells, he lias succeeded at least as well s^ any of his felr 
low-labourers ; though we are, si^s bis biographer^ by no 
, m^ans inclined ip justify some pf bis tern^s, which are bor- 
rowed frpm an anatoinical analogy, not only false in itself, 
but tp^ily exceptiopable. This leads ut^ to consider a ' 
charge^ otttj^ brought against this great man, of pruriency 
of phraseology iumaqy parts of bis works. The most at- ] 
tentive conteipplation of bis writings has sausfied us that! 
ki s^ch instances be meant purely to be anatomical and 
physiological ;^ and if his fondness for philosophical analo- ^ 
gi^s sometimes led him astray, it was not in pursuit of s^ny 
tiding to contaminate bis own mind, much less that pf others* 
That the mind of Linnasus was simple and cbast^, as bis 
morals were^ con,fessedly pure, is evinced by his Xapland 
TouA written only for ^^ own use, .but which is now, as. ^ 
we have already mentioned, before the public. This, is 
suc^.a picture qf his heart as will ever render any justifi* 
catipn..Qf his mori^l cban^acter, and any elabprate display of. 
his reii^io,us priuciples or feelings, alike superfhious. ^ig. 
apparent vanity, as displayed ^n his dia^y^, pulj^Hsbed ii^. 
Dr. Maton^s valuable edition of ,Dr. PuUep,ey's " View of 
hi9..Writings,'' is perhaps £ar less justifiaj^le. All. we can,, 
say for (lim is, that this paper w^s drawn up.for t^e pse of^ 
his intimate friend Menande^ as materials froni^ vfjaifh }^w>, 
life was to be. written. If it be unbecoming, and indeed, 
bi^bljr ridiculous ill o^ny instances, for s^ man t^ spf^a^.M., 


LI N N iE U S. > 3W 


h^ does of biaiself, the JosliGe and aocuraey of his aisei"* 
t^qu^, had th^y come^from any other person, could in no 
cane be dUpmedk < 

As the Jiabita of LinoeMis w6ne temperate and regnho^ 
he retained liis health and vigour in tolerable pevfection, 
notwithstanding 4be immense lidioum Of bis mlnd^ till b^ 
y(H)d Jbis sixtieth year, when his memory begin in some 
degree, to fail him. Id I774>^at the age of sixty-sc^en, 
an Mtack of apoplexy greatly iitipaired his consMtitution. 
Two years afterwards a Second attack rendered 'jyitaii^ai^a** 
lytic on.tfa^ rigfbt side, and materially afiectedhiifaicirfties. 
The immediate caase of his deaths' which hapfieibed J»- 
tiuary l^th, 1 778, in the seveitty-^fimt yeat of bis ag#, was 
tin liberation of the bladd^. His retiaidns were d^esited 
in a Tadlt near the wesb en j of the oatbedral of Upsal, Whar^ 
a monqment of Sneedisb parphynr was erecSedliy his pt^ila. 
His obse^ies were performed, in' the moat Mspectfulmnn^ 
Der, by the whole, university^ the -pall' bdng aupported by 
siicteea doctors of physic, all of whom bad been bis p«qpil^ 
A.general .mounting took plaee4m^ tbe^ eccatoioli at^ Upsat. 
Hb >soyereigq^ Gustavus IIL oetnmanded a uedatto be 
atcudk^ expressive of the pubHc id^^ and iiooont^d the 
academy of soienoeaat S^pckhohn^ i^Mx his presenMKe^ wheA 
the eulogy of this celebrated loin^ waajNwaoilticed tb<0r« by 
his ihtimate friend fiadk« A still higher eomplhttent was 
paid to bis .memojsy by tbe king in^ a'»sp6#c^ fffom* ib6 
throne, whereiiv bis oiajesty puUicly celebrated tbe talenti 
of his deceased subject,' and lamented the »10ss whidh his 
CQUfiJUj^ had so rec^eiitly.flmstiiiaed* Vaiibus tessiitfoffles 4ji 
respect were ^ the mecitsof Linsseos In the different 
pacts of Eorope^ eveii where rival systems or interests had 
hereto&re triamplied at Jus expence* The oelebrated 
Condorpet delivered an oration in^Us {iraise*to the'Pa<*> 
risiaoiacadedsy of sciences, which is prksted in its mtemeifSk 
We cannot wonder thathk memory was aheriiBh.ed in Etig-^ 
famd, X where hp bad k>Dg had fiuikieroiis eoreespOfldeMsi 
afid.wheietwpof his most diaun^ished pU{>fisr S<^landef 
aad Piyandar, iiave^.iin their ow» talents and character; 
cooferrod sengular faonoar upon tbekr preoeptor. * Ten years 
afiiep his decease a aew^ society <tf naturalists^ distifyguisbcrd 
byolfis aame^ was founded iit Loddoii, isnd has since been 
incorporated by royal ebastAr^ whose pi^Micatibns, in ten 
quarto volumes of Transactions, sufBciendy evince that its. 
ttiembers are dot idle venerators of tbi& name they bissr* 

X 2- 


30» L t N N ^ u a . 

This tMabf in imitation of theoii has been adopted by 
8cv«'al similar institutions in other parts of the world. 

The appellation of Linnsan Society was^ with the more 
propriety, chosen by this British institution, on account of 
the museum of Linnssus having hHea into the hands of sir 

, James Smith, its original projector, and hitherto only pre* 
sident. . This treasure, comprehending the library, harr 
barium, insects, shells, and all other natural curiosit^ei; 
with all the manuscripts and whole correspondence of the 
illustrious Swede, were obtained by private purchase firom 
his widow, after the death of his son in 1783. The autho- 
ri^ which such an acquisition gave to the labours of the 
in&nt society, ai well as to all botanical and zoological 
publication!!^ the authors of which have ever been allowed 
freely to, will readily be perceived. Nothing 
perhaps could have more contributed to raise up, or to 
improve, a taste for natural science, in any country. 

Linnseus bad by his wife Sarah Elizabeth, who siirvivf d 

. to extreojie old .age, two sons and four daughters. His 
eldest son Charles succeeded him in the bptanicat prpfes* 
sorship. Tbejouoger, John, died March?, 1757, in the 
third year, of .his age. His eldest daughter, Elizabeth 
Christina, ia recorded, as having discovered a luminous 

.property in the flowers of the nasturtium, tropaeolum ma- 
jus, which are sometimes seen to flash like sparks of fire in 
the evening of a warm. summer's day. Of the other daugh* 
ters we know nothing materially worthy of record. ^ 

LINNjEUS, or VON LINNE' (Charles), the oldest, 
and only sunfivipg son of the preceding, was bom January 
20, 174.1^ at the bouse of his maternal grandfather, at 
Fahlun. His jfather was anxiously desirous of his excelling 
in natural history, more particularly botany;, and com- 
taitted him, when about the age of nine or ten, to the 
more particular care of some of his own most favourite 
pupils^ . By theni be was taught the names of the plants in 
the Upsal garden, and sUcb of the principles of natural 
sci^fv^e as were suited to his period of life, as wdl as to 
converse habitually ipc Latin*^ He appears to have giveit 

. satisfaction to his father,, who procured for him, at the 
age of eighteen, the appointment of Demonstrator in the 
botanic garden, an oflice then first contrived on purpose! 
for him. Having learned .tQ draw from nature, he because 

' ^ Tafe, by the I'resideiit of th« Linnean fociety, io Rees'i Cyelops^a, wbkl^ 
f nperatfiks tbe necessity of soy t>tber rd!«:reoofli»» ' * • - 


L I N N iE U S. 


' in Wtitbor «t the age of twenty-one, publishing in 176^ his 
first '^ Decas Plantaitun Rarionim Horti Upsaliensis/' the 
plates of which, in outline only, wore drawn by his own 
^hand, and are sufficiently faithful and useful, if not oma* 
' inentad, while the descriptions are full and scientific. In 
1 763 another ^' Decas," or collection of ten species, cam^ 
out on the same pbm, but, for whatever reason, he printed 
nothore numbers under this title* In 1767, however, he 
published at Leipsic ten more plates and. descriptions, like 
^tbe above, entitled '^Plantarum Rariorum .Horti Upsa- 
liensis Fasciculus Primus,'* but no second fasciculus ap* 
peared. In 1763 he was nominated adjunct professor of 
botany, with a promise, hitherto unexampled, that after 
his father's death he should succeed to all his academical 
functions. In 1765 he took hb de^ee of doctor of physic, 
and began to give lectures. 

< His progress would probably have been happy, if not 
briUiaitt, but for the conduct of his unnatural mother, who, 
not content with dbbonouring her husband^s bed^ and 
making his home as uncomfortable ns she could, by the 
meanest parsimony and disgusting petty tyranny, conceived 
a hatred for her pnly son, which she displayed by every 
Affront and persecution that her situation gave her the 
means of inflicting on bis susceptible and naturally amiabte 
mind. According to Fabricius, , she forced her husband, 
who by such a concession surely partook largely of her 
guilt and meanness, to procure the nomination of his pupil 
Solander to be his future successor, in preference >to his 
own son; and it was a part of her plan that he should marry 
her eldest daughter. Solander, how'ever, disdained both 
the usurpation and the bait, refusing to leave England ; 
fud the misguided father recovered his senses and autho- 
rity, causing his son, as we have said above, to receive this' 
truly honourable distinction. The mind and spirit of the 
young man nevertheless still drooped ; ao4 even when he had 
attained his thirtieth year, he would gladly have escaped 
from his miseries and bis hopes together. The authority 
of the king was obliged to be exerted, at his father's soli- 
citation, to prevent his going into the army. This mea- 
sure of the parent was happily followed up by kindness 
and encouragement in his botanical pursuits, to which 
treatment the son was ever sensible^ and he revived from 
his despondency before his father's death, which happened 
when be was thirty-seven years of age. 

ua h IN N iE U §, 

I Tbottgk oiiUged hy bis mother to tpiurohaie, at her qwii 
IBriee; the library, .manuaoiiptg, herbarhjin^ &c. wbfch be 
QUgbt by etety tiltle to have iniiorited) he rose above evety 
knpedbBenty idnd betook himself to the useful apf^catira 
o£ the means now in his hands^ for hta own reputat^ und 
adarancemen^ His fatbei hadabeady prepared great psU't 
of a tbicd botanicai appendcicy or. ^^ Mantissa ;" from the 
oomnnimGatiops of Mutis^ Koenig, Spsrmann, Forster^ Pai- 
lasy and^ibers* Hence originated the ^* Supplementani 
Piatitarum/^ printed at Brunswiok, under the care of Ehiw 
bart in 1751. The ingenious editovinsefrned his own nev9» 
dhaisaoters of some genera of mosses; which Hedwig baa 
fiince confirmed^ except that some of the names have bfBeif 
justly rejected. This sheet was, in an eril iHiur, sxxp^ 
P«esse4 by the mandate of Lina^s-from Loodou, wbereg 
at that period, the subject of generic charactersof mossea 
wa5 nei^er studied nor understood, whatever superior 
kiiowledge was' displayed oonceming their species. Th^ 
pknts of the -^^ Supplementam'' are admitted into die 
feuTteenth edition of the ^' Syistefioa Vegetabsliupa'' bf 
Murray, and figures of some of the most curious have been 
published by. sif J. Stoiith) in-iiis' ^ iptontarum Icoaeaex 
Herbario Linmeano^V Tbree botanical dissertations jj89 
s^peared under the: presidency of th^ younger* Linns^D% 
oh' grasses, on tayandula, ^ and the celebrated Metbodua 
musconnn, wfaieh- tastf ijras the work, and. the inaugoraii 
tb^sis, of the present pr6fe8«or Swarts of Stockholoi. 
Tbeee Ibrm a sequel to the 1S6 similar essays, which mosi 
of them compose %he seven Tokimes> of the Amoeiiitates 
Academicse, the rest being* published by^ ScJirebeE ia^thBte 
additional ones. 

r ^ The subject of our memoir had always felt a aftron|p 
desire teyisit the chief countries of learned a^ civili^a 
Europe.? For this purpose be was obliged to pawn bis j«** 
venile herbaritiVn, made from the IJpsal garden, to bis 
friend Alstroemer, for the loan of about fifty or Hs^tf 
pounds. He arrived at London in May 17-Bl, and ^ was- 
received with enthusiasm by the surviving friends and[^edr«» 
respondents of his father, and was in a maufner dbmesvi* 
cated under the roof of sir Joseph Banks, whose 6iend^ 
ship, kindness, and liberality eould not be exceeded; 
neither couJd they have been by any one more gratefully 
rQcetved. Here the ardent Swedish' risitor; bc^ every, as- 
sistance for the preparation of several works oft* wlftich t^ 

tfns rni^t, as a system of thi mahbkiMffil, ^ hdimicA 
ireat&e or the lily and and pahnf triV¥iy itbd riev^ edft?6i/| 
6f several of hk fathered st^nclaM hddki: Noncf of tttesi^, 
however, have yet been printed. Arf attack of the j^n- 
dtce rendered hatf his stay in England uncomfortable aii 
well as useless to bim. He proc^dM to Ptfris in the lUMi 
end of August 1781, accompanied by tb^ Mriabfe'and 
celebrated BroUssonet, with whom he became acquainted 
M London. His reception in FhMce wa^ nbtf h^ fhtterin^ 
thaty what he had expefreneed m England. The ne:^ 
place in which he made a Ay litay #as Hamburgh-, wher^ 
several of his own friends were akeady seMi^d ; and fi^oni 
hence be returned by Copenhilgen and Stockholm, visiting 
hfs friend l*abrictus at Kiel, and his pfttron baroii AFstroe- 
zAidr at Gottenburgb, finally arriving^ at Upsal in Feb. 178S. 
But hitr career was cut short by a bil^bus fi^er, followed by 
iipdplexy, Noir. 1, 1789', in the forty-second year of his 
age. Bodied veijr much respected and lamented. His 
museum and library reveited to his mother and sisters, a^ 
he had never beleh married, aild #ere' purchased By sii^ 
Jambs SMith. ' 

LKyPARl> (John StepAbn); ^ pklntei^; daHed fVofar hi^ 
dfestt •• th^ Turk," was borii at Gbnevi^ in* 1702^. He 
fremf td^ F^ris to study in 1 72^, and thence^ a6cbm^anied 
the miitquis di^ Pdi^ieux to Ronve, Where the ^drl^ of 
SiftridWieh ^A Blisboro'ugH' engsig^ Him^ td accooipah^ 
tHem tb Constantinople. There^ he became ac^uattiti^d 
wfth'sir Bferard*FaWkener, our ainbassadof, who perstiifded 
him to coik)6 td England; where he remaitied two y^aiV. 
f paihtied aUnliHibfy in miniaturi^,' and in 'edamel; though 
BC>ldotii pni^^tised' the" lakt, butf he" is be^t kubv^n by his 
cn^tis. The earls' of Harrington arid Besborough have 
sofiie ot his tAo9t capital works. His pbrtraits, boireV^i', 
were so e^aCt as to displease those whasa:t to him, for he 
iMhr^r coiild' coitcctvte the absence of any imperfection or 
nwC iff this fabci that presented itself. S'ucH a man could 
ifot' be' Ibug* a ftvdiirite, arid therdbre, according to lord 
Orfofd, aMiough be h^d- grea^ btksiness the first year, he 
had v^^ liMe the secof^l^ and went abroad: It is istaid that 
ht bwcfdmuch of hisr ^clouragemeht io his diakiiHg hiifls^ff 
Miispicudus by adopting' the manners and' babitb of thd 

1 Reet'f Cyclop9di»— FaneralontioB for bin inTirapp^s edition of StoeTer's 
lik ot LiftiUBas. 

312 L I O T A R !]►. 

Levant He came to England again in 1772, and brooglif ' 
a. collection of pictures of different masters^ which he sold 
by auction ; and somie piec<^s of glass painted by himself 
with surprizing effect of light and shade, but more curioa$ 
than useful, as it was necessary to darken the room before / 
they could b^ seei^ to advantage. He staid two years like- 
wi|e on this visjt. He went to th^ continent afterwards, 
but we find no account qi his death. He carried his love 
of truth with him on all occasions ; and we are told that bX 
Venice and Milaui and probably elsewhere, a\l but first- 
rate beauties were afraid to sit to him, and he wopld havei 
starved if he had not so often found customers ^q wer^ of 
opinion that they belonged to that class. ' 

LIPENIUS (Martin), a learned German divine, lya^ 
born Nov. 1 1, 1630,' at Goritz in JBrandenburgh, and stu^ 
died at the schools of Brandenbiirgh and Ruppin, whence 
be went to Stetin, and made great progress in his studies 
under Micrelius and other eminent professors of that col- 
lege. In 1651 he studied philosophy and divinity at Wit- 
temberg, and after two y^ars residence was admitted tq 
the degree of master of arts. He had now some advan- 
tageous oifiprs of settlement in other places, but he could 
not bring himself to quit an university wbene he was so 
likely to add to his stores of knowledge. At lengthy, how^ 
ever, in 1659, he accepted the ofiice of corrector at Hallci^ 
ijrhich he retained until 1672, when he was appointed rec- 
tor and professor in the Caroline college at Stetin. This 
be quitted in 1676, and accepted the office of corrector at 
Lcubeck, where he died, Noy. 6, 1692, nforn out, as Ni- 
ceron informs us, by labour, chagrin, and ^i^^^^* ^^ 
works a^e ye^y numerous, consisting of disputations, efoges, 
and^ other academics^l productions j b\it be is now princi- 
pally known by his ** Bibliotheca realis Th^ologica," Franc-^ 
fort, 1685, 2 vols.; " Biblioth. Juridica^'Mb. 1679 ; "Bibl. 
. Philosopbica/ ibid. 1682 3 and ff Bibliot^. Medica,'' ibid. 
1679, making in. all si^ folio volumes, containing an ac- 
count of works published in each of these departments. 
The ^^ Bibl. Juridical' was reprinted at Leipsic in 1757^ 
2 vols, and corrections and a supplement were published 
by Aug. Fr. Scott, in 1775 ; another supplement was pub- 
lished by Senkenberg in 1789, making in all four volume^ 
. . ,f . 

t Walpole's AD««lotefl.-.Dict. ^t8t 

H P P L Hi 

foUOi . jBAojchoff speaks favourably of tlie original work^ and 
^IB ^ BibU Juridical' is doubtless greatly improved. * 

LiPPI (Fra. FaiPPO), an eminent . historical paiixter,. 
y99s born at Florence, probably about the beginning of the 
fifteenth century^ as he was a scholar qf, and of course 
pearly contemporary with, Masss^ocip. At: the age of six- 
teen, being entered a noviciatie in the convent of Carme- 
lites at Florence, be had there an opportunity of i^eeing 
that extraordinary artist at work uppq the astonishing fres-* 
cbes \vi|h which be adojrned the chapel of ^ri^ncacci, in the 
pburch there ; and being eager to embr^ice (he an, such 
was his success, that after the death of his master, U .^^. 
said> by common consent, that the soul of Massaccio still 
abode with Fra. Filippo. He now forsook the habit of bia 
<:bnvent, and devoted himself entirely to punting ; but his 
studies were for a time disturbed by his being unfortunately 
takeuy while out on a party of pleasure, by some Moors, 
^nd carried prisoner to Barbary ; where he remained in 
slavery eighteen months. But having drawn, with a piece, 
pf charcoal, the portrait of his master upon a wall, the 
latter was so affected hf the novelty of the performance, 
and its exact resemblance, that, after exacting a few more 
specimens of his art, he generously restored him to his 
liberty. On bis return home he painted some works for 
Alphonso, king of Calabria. He employed himself also in 
Padua ; but it was in ^is native city of Florence that his 
principal works were performed. He was employed by 
Ifhe. grand duke Cosmo di Medici, who presented bis pic* 
tures to bis friends; and one to pope Eugenius IV. He 
was also employed to adorn the palaces of the republic, the 
phurchesi and many of the houses of the principal citizens ; 
amiong whom his talents were held in high estimation. He 
jvas the first of the Florentine painters who attempted to 
design figures as large as life, and the first who remarkably 
fiiversifie^ the draperies, and who gave his figures the air 
pf antique?. It is to be lamented that such a man should 
'^t last perish by the consequences of a guilty amour he 
indulged in at Spoleto ; where he was employed at the 
cathedral to paint the chapel of the blessed virgin. This 
. js differently told by different writers, some saying that he 
^educed a nun who sat to him for a model of the virgiD,^ 
and others that the object of his passion was a iharrieGL 

> i^riqeroD, ?ol. i^lX.— .MorbofltPolyhist— Saxii OnomasU 

914 L t y t» t 

woman. Irr eithar eaare, it m eartseitt tlrtrt te wift« [Sbltofied bjr 
the r^iatioffs of the bdjr wlf ds^ fef ocirs Ir6 was sirptidsect t^ 
itnJ9y. Lorenza di Itfedrrt etect^ ar ifittrble tdmb hi the 
eathedral xo \A% nrremofyy wbiefa PuMiai^ atdoitiecf witlri 
LatiiY epkaptr. His son' Lippi PiLifl^a, ws(s reifov^ed fot 
excellent imitattons of arcMteeturat ordamattis. He died 
itt 1305, at the age of foi^t) five. Theife was also a Fl<s»r€«- 
tin^e p^nter^ L0KEM20 LfPPi, bonr iti 1666, and likewise 
a grestt musician and a' poet hi the latter character be 
jrabfisbed '^ I( Mafmawtife tacqui^tato,^ which id comi- 
d^ed as a classical work in the Tuscan language". Rc^ (Hed 
id ia64.* 

LIPPOMANI (L^wis), a Venetian, diMidgnisbed hiDa« 
self much at the councif of Trent, where be stirongfy op^ 
posed the plurality of benefices, add was one of the three 
presidents of that council under pope JuUus^ III. Pad! 
iV. scfnt him into Poland as nuncio in 1556, and aftefwiirds 
appointed him his secretary. The sanctity <A LippooiadFi 
fife gained him no less esteettt thifcn bfs doctrine ; he wa^ 
fcisbop of Mondonedo, then of Verona, a^d aifterwartfe of 
Bergamo, and acquitted himself honourably in variou^ 
ntinciatures,< bur was jdstly accused of great cruelties tO« 
wards the Jews and ppotestant» when' in Poland. Re died 
in 1559. His works are, at compilation of <^ Lives of thii^ 
Saints,"^ in 8 vols, but httte valued; and' <^ Catena in Ge* 
nesim, in Cxodum, etin aliquot Psalmos,'*' 2i volb. foF. jtc* 

Ll'PSICJS (Jostus), a very liearned critic, was born ai 
Iscb, a country-seat of his fother, betweten Bruisseis' ihd 
Lpuvain, Oct. )8» 1547.> HeWasr descendisd from ance^* 
tors who' bad been ranked among the principal i^habttadt^ 
of Brussels. At sisr years of age he was sedt tbtbe pdblii^ 
school at Brussels add croon gave proo6 of uncommoa 
pait»: He telt^ us himsdf in' one of his lie^tens, that he 
acquired the French language^ without the' assi&taneeof a' 
master, so perfectly ar tb be abte tb write it before he wai 
eight yearir old. From Brusselk he was sent,, at ten y^at^ 
old, to' Aeth ; and, two years afiter, to Cologne, where at 
&e Jbstiits^' college he prosecuted his literary add'pMlbso- 
phicaj.studiies. Among the ancientsr, he Ibamed the pre- 
cepts of morality from £pictetus lind dime64, and th^ 
majims of civil prudeuce fiiom Tacitd^. AV si'&teen, he 

1 PiIkiDgtpn.----Vaiari.'---Ro8ooe*(i LorcDzo.'«--Boll«rt's Academie des 
▼ol. I. s €t«i(. Di4itv-^AMreni*->SaiiS? OttenML 

L I P S I U S. US 

• » - * " » ' 

wis_9eAl 10 the mmenity of Loufaan; .$mA luLving now 
aequirad a knowledge of the ttsomed langitagieB, applied 
hioiself to the eivil law ; but his pr incipail d:eligfat wm til 
belles lettres and ancient Hterafturef and,, therefore^ loskvg 
his parents^ and becoimng bis own itiavcer before be was 
eighteei^, heprcjeotedajoiirfBey tobafy, for the Sgke of 
culkivadng tbeoi. Before, however, he set out, he ^ pob^ 
lished three books of larions readings^ ^^ Variaran^ Lee« 
liornxm Libri tres," which kid the fofandblionf olt bis literary 
frflse ; and his dedication of thesa to oatrdinei P^evenettos^ 
ai great 'patiop of learned men, servedi to ftitroduce him t9 
the cardinal, on bis arrival in ise7, aft Rome, where be 
liaed iwo^ years vidi bioi,: was notnnated his seeretary, 
and treated with the utmostkioKlness^ and generosity. Hfs 
tiine he used to employ in the Vaticaav tte Faraesiafn, thd 
S&urtiaD, «nd othec principal libraries, which were operr to^. 
hiiii,>anlb wbene hecarefoUy coilated the manescr^pts of 
atKsieait aiutbofrs, of Seneca, Tacimt^ Kaotusi Piropertkis; 
&a. . < His leuuire boarshe spent in inspecting the most re^ 
lEmaricable aasiqmtiei, or ia cultivating tbe^ aei^aadfitMe^ 
of. the literati then residing at Rowfe^ Antewipe» M uretes^ 
Paelus Manutius, Folvins Ifrsinns, HiefDiiyttiu» Merctiri-^ 
4.1t«^ Carohis Sigonins, Petros Victorios, sttidr otbens, A'oait' 
vBhose eevtversatibn be could iratfail to reap adirantage aodl^ 
encouragement in his. stecbea; 

;In 1569 he retunaed to Lou^inMn, and spent* dn^yeatr ytk 
habits of disMpation^ very unswitable to bis charaeteri and! 
def^nsttle only asfae says by pleading the heat of youth. 
Sensible of bis folly, he resolved upon a journey to Yienna;' 
butJitappiugat Dole, a» universi^ in tbeFranehe^Comt^, 
]^.«elap9ed into an esces» which- produced si lit 6f 'illness. 
9^ > his recovery he pursued his journey to^Vieifna, an^l 
there fell into the acquaintance of Busbequius, and otbec^ 
learned naen^ who used many arg>uments to induce him^ttf 
Sivttle tbere ; bet the love of his own native soil premlecf; 
Md he directed his course through Bohemia, Misnia, and 
ThurlngiO) in order to arrive at it* But being in%iitedf 
of the diuDigeroua^ state^ of the Low Countries fiviat the 
war, and that bis own> patrimony was laid waste' by solcKer^,;^ 
be stopped, at the ueivevsiiy of JeniH where be wds invested' 
with t4e professorship of elidquenee^ and^becaofen disciple 
of Luchc^. This latter ci#ciMnstan>ce oMigiiig h'^ to leave 
JN^na, heiaurmvdd at Odogtt^, whepe he miitTied a widow in 
1574,, by wbom^ he had no childrem Daring his stliy at 

316 L i P S I U & 


Cologne, he wrote .his ^'Antiqase Lectiones,'* which diiefty 
consist of emendations of Plautus.; he also began there his 
notes upon Cornelius Tacitus, which were afterwards so 
universally applauded by the learned. 

}I^ then retired to. his own native seat at Isch^ in« 
(ending to devote, hioiself entirely to letters ; but the war, 
which > was still raging, ^iisturbed his plans, and be was 
obliged tQ go to Louvain, where he resumed the study of 
the civil law, though with no intent to practise. At Loti* 
yain he published his ^M^istoIicfeQusstiones,^' and some 
othe^r things ; but, being again obliged to quit his resi- 
dence, went to Holland, and 'spent thirteen years at 
Leyden, during which time he composed and published, 
what he calls, his best works. These are, '^ Electorum 
Libri duo ;'* '' Satyra Menippaea ;^' '^ Saturnalium Libri 
duo ;'' ^* Commentarii pleni in Cornelium Tacitum ;" 'f De 
Const^ntid. Libri duo;*' *^ De Amphi theatre Libri duo;"' 
*^ Ad, Valeriiim Maximum Not® ;^' *^ Epistolarum Centurisa 
duas;^^ « Epistolica Institutio ;'' *^ De rect& Pronunciatione 
Linguae Latinae ;^' *^ Animadversiones in Senecae Trag«- 
dias;'* ^^Animadversiones in VelleiumPaterculum;'* <^Po« 
liticorum Libri sex ;*' ** De uo& Religione Liber/' These 
he call his best works, because they were written, he sayn, 
ip the very vigour of his age» and when he was quite at 
leisure; ^^ in flore aevi, & ingenii in alto otio;" and 'he 
^dds too, that his health continued good till the Jatter 
part of his life ; *' nee valetudo, nisi sub . extremos annos, 
titubavit*'' The intolerant principles, however^ which he 
divulged here, raised so much indignation against him that 
he was obliged, to retire suddenly and privately from Leji* 
den, in 1590; and, after some stay at. Spa, went and 
settled at Louvain, where he taught polite literature, as 
he had done at Leyden, with the greatest credit and repu* 
tation. He spent the remainder . of his life at Louvain, 
though he bad received powerful solicitatioes, aiul the 
off&rs of vast advantages, if he would have removed else- 
where. Pope Clement VUL Henry IV. of France, and 
Philip II. of Spain, applied to him by advantageous pro- 
ptosals. Several cardinals would gladly, have taken him 
under their protection and patronage; and all the learned 
in foreign countries honoured him in the highest d^ree* 
The very learned Spaniard, Arias Montanus, who, at the 
command of Philip II. superintended the reprinting the 
Cpmplutensian edition of the Bible at Plantings piess, 

L I p s I y s. 3it 

1»ad such a regard for him, that be treated him as a son 
rather than a friend^ and not only admitted him into all 
his concerns, bat eren offered to leave him all he bad. 
Lipstas, nevertheless, ^continued at Lou vain, and, among 
others, wrote the following works r ^* De Cruce Libri tres;** 
^^ De Militia Romana Libri quinqoe f' ** Poliorceticon- 
Libri quiiique ;" *' De Magnitudine Romana Libri qua-^ 
tuor ;'' ^< Dissertatiuncula & Commentarios in Plinii Pane* 
gyricuih ;** <^ Manaductio ad Stoicam Philosopbiam,'' Sec. 
AJl his works have been collected and printed together, in 
folio, more than once. The best,edition is that of Vesel, 
1675, 4 vols. foL usually bound in eight. His crittodtl 
notes upon ancient authors are to be found in: the bdst 
editions of each respective author; and several of his 
btli<$r pieces have, for their peculiar utiUty, been reprinted 

Lipsius died at Louvain, March 23, 1606, in his 59tti 
year, and left, says Joseph Scatiger, the learqed ifirorld 
and his friends to lament the loss of him. LipMus is said 
to have been so meaa in his countenance, his dress, and 
his conversation, that those who bad accustomed them- 
selvies to judge of great men by their outward appearance, 
asked, after having seen Lipsius, whether that was really 
he. But the greatest blot in his character was his incon* 
stancy with regard to reiigion. He was educated a RoiiHia 
Catholic, 'but professed the Lutbemn religion while h9 
was professor at Jena. Afterwards retumihg to Brabant, 
ha appeared again a Roman Catholic ; but when he ac- 
eepi^ ia professor's chair in the university of Leyden, he 
published what was called Calvinism. At last, he removed' 
from Leyden, and went again into the Low Countries, 
where he adopted the extreme bigotry of the Roman com- 
munion. This is obvious from his credulous and absurd 
accounts of the holy virgins, in his '^ Diva Virgo Hallen* 
sis,** &c. and " Diva Schemiensis,** &c. in both which he 
admits the most trifling stories, and the most uncertain 
traditions. Some of his friends endeavoured to represent 
how greatly all this would diminish the reputation he haid 
acquired ;: but be was deaf to their expostulations. He 
even went so far as to dedicate a silver pen to the Holy 
Virgin of Hall ; and on this occasion wrote some veif^ses 
which are very remarkable, both on account of the 
elogies . he bestows on himself, and of the extravagant 
wQrsbip .he pays to the Virgin. By his. last will, he 
left his gown, lined with fiir, to the image of the same 

318 L I P S I U S. 

1«^. > With Aete superstitioDs he joined an inconuitency 

<(f 3 niore KiHoDs nature j for when, a* we hare Blreadv 

iNticed^ be livcNl at Leydeta io an outward profession of 

the reformed rdig:ioD, be gave bi> public approbation of 

the peneauting principies whic^wsre eAerted, tlirougboiit 

^ £un^, against the professors of it, mait 

•tate ought to suffer a plurality of religtonti, 

mercy towards those who diatnrbed tbc estab 

hut pursue them witb 6re and sword, h bi 

one.membcr should perish rattier tliui the 

'* Clementt* non hie loess'; tire, seca, i 

potiuB aliquod quam totiim cotpns conruiu|: 

■ttafcked for these priitciptes and expressi 

Toared to explaih ^etn in a very erasive mi 

iog that tbc wontif ttre uid seca were or 

rowed from cbinn^ery, ilot literaHy to- si 

siBard, bun only some eifcctual remedy. All 

are to b« met with in -his trratise" De n 

the wont of bis writli^. His works in ge.r 

aut^ectaof anti<{nily and criticism. la bis i 

imitated, with tolerable success, the style < 

aftieiwuiUs sfaose rather to adopt the conois 

nMBoerrof Seneca aodTacitns. For this cor 

he waa severely- oensBted by Buopptus ai 

jriteitt ; but his ezami^ was foflowed by • 

irarary .writers. On tUs iuiiovation Haet , 

that ahfaoiqgh the abrupt and antithetical ' 

tain the apphuaea of unskilfol youth, or an 

tttde^ itcamotbepleafing to ears whicfa.t 

inarad to g<^iiiae Ciceronian eloqaenee. 

Captivated, says Brooker, with the appec 
rior wiadom and vtrtne wUefa-he observed 
acbootof Zeao, Lipsius sought for oonsoli 
preoepls of the Stoic philosophy, aadatteni 
eileits doctiiaes with those of Gbristmnity 
ioipoaed upon by the vaumn^ language u* wh >. -ig. 
ooneemtng fsoe^wid pttevidMiee; aad exphiins its tene^^ ■' 
... . ■,,....,... -"VTT^" 

a BsaBoeT'whidi oatMot bercconcUed with the history '>^^7*^«t i,^ , 
geteral mtem af Stoicism, in order to revive an a'^|^?^<K 1^^. 
tioa to the doctrines of this ancient sact^ be wroW^^T^ to ^ 
treaBsei, " Manudactio ad Fbilosophiaoi Stokamfit^^ «^ f„ 

Intruditction to the Stoib PhitoBopfay; and " Bis_ ^'^<*b«v, 
tioees de Physidlo'gia Stoica," 0isscrtatio||UP ^'''^'•^^lo^ 
aidogy ; to wtiieh he intended to hatr ''"''^^^^i^^^ '^ 

L I P 8 I U S. 31» 


tbe fnom) doctrine of |be stoics, but wm |ijreT^nt^ Iqr 
^eatb. Hit edition of Seneca is eiiriohed with mwy valM** 
^biie notes, bi!it he w^ too oaucb biased by bis p^krtiility 
for stoicism to perceive tbe feeble am} qn^^ufid pwUot 
the systenip.aQd g4ve too easy credit tQ the #rrojriait olaimil 
of this schpQiy to b^ a judicipus and useful lot^rpit^ifMr of 

its (Jot^itrine. ' 

LISI.E {CtAiJDf; D^)| histoT^gr^pber and cwMor foyfd» 
an$i| the first qf a family of men of cpnaidemble emioraoe 
in iFriincey WM born Nov, 5, 16H| at Vwopuleiirs. He 
g^ve private lectures pn history ^ud gepgrmphy At PfHiifl, 
and bad npt oply the prinqpa| Iprd^ pf t|]# couit mpug hit 
pupils, but the dukp of Qrlei^ps^ afterwf^ds regpiit ^ 
France^ who. always retained a particular valu^ for biiHy 
and gave him frequent proofs of bis ^stam. |Ui di«d at 
P^is, M^y ^ 17?0, ag^d 76, t<iaving twQlvf^ cbildien, pf 

wbooi thrive ^on^ will form tbe mty^ot of the ^suing arti'* 
client His works are^ ^ Relation bi{|toiiqu9 du Ho'^uipe dt 
Siam/* \^^^f 12010; ^* An Abridgement of tlie Uotversal 
history/' n^\f 7 vo}s* ISmo, and a Gem«ilQgie»l and 
Di^torical AtlaSf on eqgnived pUtes*' 

LJSt^ (Wii4fV^M !>*), spu to the preceding, and » ipery 
learned French geographer, w?is bppo at P#ri4 feb. giy 
1675. His faiher being much oecttpied ip lbp> same way, 
ypung Lisle b^gan at^ uinp yf ars of f^ge to draw maps, and 
spon m^d^, a gr<9at prpgr<iss ip this art. In 1699 be fira^ 
distinguished himself by ei(;ecuting a Piap pf tbe wortd^ 
^l\^ otb^r pip^e^ which proourpd biiP a piapp in the aPA« 
denqy of spiepces, 1702, Be w«» af^erwai^ds appptnted 
gppgrapber to the l^ing, with « peusipn, and bad thci 

honour of in^tru^ung tbe king hio^elf in gWgi^phy, for 
whogp particular M&e i>e drew up i^everal wpirks« Qp Lisle^a 
reputation was 59 great, that scarcely any histpry PC Iravela 
caPi^e put without the embellishi»ent of bis caape^ .Nor waa 
his namf lefs celebrated abroad tbpn iu bis pwp eenniry« 
Many sovereigns in vain attempted tp draw him put of 
France^ The Caar Peter, when at Paris pn h^ .travels, 
paid hiix^ a vi^i;, to eompuipipate |o him SPQia fOiMf ka 
upon M^sppvy ; but esppA>ialiy, says Fpntepplie^ to leatfi' 
from h(na» better taan he could anywhere pls^, thp eaueui 

> tipnii Vita li M'lpBo^ Aniw. 1 608.— MelcMor Adam.— Gen. Diet.— -IV^ererh 
-^NiMron, yoI. XXIV.— ^BjfM. i5«lg.— Bloniit'« Cei»ur«.-^Brucdter.— Bonart's 
Academie des Sciences, vol. il.-^axii Ouomaat. 

t Mwe^i.— Diet. HitH. . . 


Aid situation o£ bis own dominions. De Lisle died of an 
apoplexy Jan. 25, 1726, at 51 years of age. Besides the 
excellent maps be published, be wfote many pieces in th^ 
Mebioirs of the Academy of Sciences. ^ 

LISLE (Lewis de), brother of the preceding, and art 
astronomer, promoted the interests of science, by som^ 
very hazardous journeys and voyages. In 1726 he wenttd 
Russia with his brother Joseph^ who had been appointed 
astronomer to the laead^my of sciences at Petersburg. 
Lewis, at this time, made excursions beyond the utmost 
boundaries of ihe immense Russian empire. He took 
several journeys to the coasts of the Icy sea, to Lapland^ 
and the government of Archangel, to determine the situa- 
tion of the principal places by astronomical observations. 
He afterwards* traversed a great part of Siberia, with M^ 
Muller and M. Gmelin, professors of the academy at Pe* 
tersburg. In 1741 he proceeded alone to Kamtschatka, 
and thence to Cape Beering, to examine the unknown 
northern coasts of America, and the seas between them 
and the Atlantic continent. He died in the same year. 
On account of his great merit he obtained a seat in the 
academy of sciences, and was the author of some papers in 
the ^' Memoirs'' of that learned body, and of the academj 
of sciences at Petersburg.* 

LISLE (Joseph Nicholas de), younger brother of thef 
preceding, was born at Paris April 4, 1688, and at first 
educated under his paternal roof. He then pursued hb 
studies at the Mazarine-college, where the eclipse of the sun 
in 1706 seems to have directed his attention to "astronomy, 
for which he soon displayed so much genius, as to be ad«r 
mitted into the academy of sciences, to the memoirs of 
which' he contributed many valuable papers. In 1715~he 
calculated the tables of the moon according to the theory 
of sir Isaac Newton. He also, in Ae course of his pur-> 
suits, made many observations on the spots of the sun, and 
from them formed a theory to determine the sun's rotation 
on his axis. In 1720 he delivered a proposal to the aca- 
demy for ascertaining in France the figure of the earth, and 
some years afterwards this was carried into execution. In 
1724 he paid a visit to England, where he became ac^ 
quainted with Newton and Halley, who shewed him eveiy 
mark of respect, and Halley in particular highly gratified 

i ^ficerao, folf. I. aod X.— Diet. Hist.— Huttoo's Diet. * Moiwt. 

LIS L E. 3ii' 

* * 

himtiy a present of a copy of his astronomical tablet, o^^ 
the suBy moon, and planets, which be had printed in' 
ni9j but which were not published for many years after*' 
hi 1726 he was appointed astronomer royal in the imperial 
academy of sciences at Petersburg, where for twenty-one 
yearly he residied in the*iobservatory*hou8e built by Peter 
tfae^ Great, incessantly occupied in the improvement of- 
astronomy and geography. During this period he pub* 
lished ** Memoirs illustrative of the History of Astronomy,'*' 
2 voIs« 4to ; and an atlas of Russia, first published in th^ 
Russian language, and afterwards in Latin,> He constructed 
aiso a thermometer, differently graduated from those in 
use, tbe degrees beginning at the beat of boiling water, - 
and thence increasing to 150, which was the freezing point.' 
la 1747, after mvLck ill-tteatment on the part of the Rus- 
sian, government, he obtained bis dismission, and arrived 
in Paris in September of the same year. He was then ap- 
pointed professor of the mathematics at the college royal, 
in wbich situation he lived to render the greatest service to 
the interests of science, by training up some learned pu- 
pils, among whom was the celebrated M. de la Lande. lot 
1^.499 his pupil, M. Monnier, took a voyage to Scotland to 
observe. an annular eclipse of the sun, and on this subject' 
De Lisle published a large advertisement, which was reck-' 
oned a complete treatise on annular eclipses. He after*' 
u4rds entered more fully on the consideration of the theoryj. 
of eclipses, and he commuuicated a part of his researches 
on the subject to the academy in 1749. He was so expert 
in calculations, that he. made many founded on the pbser^ 
yations of Greenwich, Berlin, Scotland, and Sweden. In 
1750 and 1753 he published ^' New charts of the Disco- 
veries of admiral de Fonte, or Fuente, made in 1640, and 
those of other navigators, Spanish, Portuguese, English, 
Dutch, French, and Russian,* in the Northern seas, with 
explications." In 1753 appeared his map of. the world, .in 
which he represented the effect of the parallaxes of Mer- 
cury in different countries, in order to point out the proper 
peaces for making such observations on the then expected 
transit, as should furnish a method of determining the dis- 
tance of the sun, in a manner similar to that applied by. 
Halley to the transit of Venus. Another work of his, jmb- 
li^ed in the Transactions of the Academy, was on the 
comet of 175S, which was visible several months; but he was 
principally attentive to the one predicted by Dr, Halley, 
Vol. XX: Y 

324 L I S T E R. 

expenaient$i iit "various branches of natural pbilosophyv^^ 
.the same friend ;> who commumcadng some of tbekhtQ tfafe 
royal society^ our. author was recomtnended, and elected 
a fellow. In 16^4, resolving by the advice of hi? frkaidg 
tp iremoye to Lobdon, he was cra»ted doctor of pliysie, by 
diploma, at Oxford ; the chancellor himself recommending 
him as a person of exemplary loyalty, of high esteem 
among the most eminent of his profession, of singular merit 
to t^t university in particular, by having enriched their 
museum and library with presents of valuable books, both 
printed and manuscript, and of general merit to the lite- 
rary , world by several learned bboks which he published. 
Soon after this, he was elected fellow of the * college of 

In 1685 he published his " Historia sive Synopsis -Con- 
chy liorum,^' 2 vols. fol. containing: very accurate figures 
of all the shells known in his time, amounting to^npwii^ds > 
of a thousand ; and what renders the book a singular cur 
rio$ity is, that they wei^ all' drawn by his t\Vo daughters, 
Susanna and Anne. The copper-plates of this work* be^ 
coming the property of the university of Oxford,' a new 
ediiion was published there in 1770, und^r the care of 
.Huddesford/ keeper of the Ashmolean museUm. This 
editipn wants two or three of the plates belonging to the 
original ; but to make up for this deficiency, two or three 
new plates have been added, and notwithstanding the pro- 
gress \vbich the study has since made, the work, still re- 
tains its valu^, and is indispensable to the student of con- 

In 1698, he attended the earl of Portlai^d in his embassy 
from king William to the court of. France ; and having 
the pleasure to see his ** Synopsis Conchyliorum** iti the 
king^s library, he presented that monarch with a second 
edition of the treatise, much improved, in 1699, not long 
after his^ return from Paris. Of this journey he publiAed an 
account, with observations on the state and curiosities of that 
metropolis ; which, containing some'things of a trifiing nar 
ture, was pleasantly ridiculed by Dr. Wm. King, in another, 
entitled " A Journey to London." In 1709, upon the in* 
disposition of Dr. Hannes, he was made second physidian ifk 
Ordinary to queen Anne ; in which p<|st he continued to 
his death, Feb. 2, 1711-12. He was buried in Glapham- 
church, near the body of his wife Hannah, who died in 
1695, leaving six: children. One of bia daughten> who 

. L I S.T.E R. 325 

• t 

4i6d in lISS^ was the wife of the rev. Owen Eva^s, o£ 
8i.' .Martinis, Canterbury. Besides the books already 
meftlio^ed, be published^ l. 'MlistorisB AnimaUum Angli® 
tret Tractalus," &c. 1678. 2. <^ John Goedertius. of In- 
sects,^' &c. 1682, 4to. 3. The same book in Latin. 4. 
^< De Fpntibus medicalibus AnglitB/' Ebor. 1682^ There 
is. an account of most of these in Phil. Trans. Nqs. 139^ 
143, 144, and 166. 5. *^ Exercitado anatomica, in <)ua 
de Ccfchleisagitur/' &c. 1694, 8vo. 6. *^ Cochlearuoi & 
Limacum Exercitatio anatomica; accedit de Variolis Exer- 
<^alio^" 1695, 2 vols. 8vo. 7. ^^ Conchyliorum Bivalvium 
litnorque Aquse Exercitatio anatom. tertia,'* &c. 1696, 
4to« . 8. ^' Exercitationes medicinales,^' &c. 1697, 8vo. 
In his medical writings he is rather too much attached to 
bypotfaeses, and preserves too great a reverence for an-* 
cient and now untenable doctrines ; but his reputation is 
well minded on his researches in natural history and com- 
jaavative anatomy.^ 

, LITHGOW (Wiluam), a Scotchman, born the latter. 
eind of the fifteenth century, whose sufferiiigs by impris;on*'. 
ment and torture at Malaga, and whose travels on foot 
over Europe^ Asia, and Africa, seem to raise him almost 
to the rank of a martyr and a hero, published a well-knpwnk, 
account of bis peregrinations and adventures. The iirst 
dditipn of this was printed in 1614, 4to, and reprinted, ia 
tbent^xt reign, with additions, and a dedication to (Ibarles L 
Though the author deals much in the marvellous, the ac-^ 
counts of the strange cruelties, of which he tells us he wa$; 
the subject, have, however, an air of truth. Soon after, 
his., arrival in England from Malaga, he was carried to 
Theobalds on a feather-bed, that king James might be aoi 
eye-witness of his martyred anatomy, by which he means 
bis. wretched body, mangled and reduced to a skeleton. 
The whol^ court crowded, to see him ; and his. majesty or* 
der^d him to be taken care of; and be was twice sent to^ 
Bath at his e^pence. By the king's command, he applied 
to.Gondamor, the Spanish ambassador, for the recovery o| 
mon^y and other things of value whic^ the governor o^ 
Mals^had taken from him, and for a thousand pounds 
for his support ; but, altboiigh promised a full reparatioa. 
£or the.daouiges he had sustained, that minister never per- 
fo^ed his promise. When he was upon the poin^ ot 

1 Ath. Ox. vol. T. and II.— -Biog. Brit. — Granger, and Granger's Letters, p. 
14iO| and 400,-«Thom8on's Hist, of the Royal Society^^-Lysons'i JSuviions, toI. I. 

Stf L I T H G O W. 

bnvitig Ebgland, Lithgow upbraided him with ^e breach 
0f Wf wotA^ in the pretence**cbaiiiber» before ieveral gea-^ 
llemeii cf tbe ooort. Tbit occasioned their fighting tty«a 
Ae spot ; and the ambassador, as the traveller oddly ex* 

Csssed it, ** bad his fistula Contrabanded with his fist ;*' 
t the «infortunate Lithgow, although generally com-' 
asended for his spirited behaviour, was sient to the Mar* 
idiakea, where be continued a prisoner nine months. At 
the conclusion of the &vo edition of his travels, he informs 
US, that ** in his three voyages his painful feet iiave traced 
over, besides passages of seas and rivers^ thirty-six tbon* 
sand and odd miles, which draweth near to twiee the circum* 
lerence of the whple earth/' Here the marveUoua seems 
to rise to the incredible ; and to set him in point of vera^ 
city below Coryat, whom it is nevertheless certain that he 
fiMr outwalked. His description of Ireland is whimsical 
and curious. This, together with the narrative of his 
sufferings, is reprinted in Morgan's '^ Phceqix Brita&ai*. 
Ciis.'* He published also an swecount of the siege of Breda, 
M37, of which the deader wiU find a notiee iu tbe << Re^ 

LITTLETON (Adam), ale«t)ed scholar, wiM descended 
fiom the Westcot family of Mounsjow, in Worcestershire, 
and born Nov. 8, 1627, at Hates-Owen, in Shropshire^ of 
which place his father, Thomas, was vicar. He was educated 
under Dr. Busby, at Westminster-school, and in 1 644 was 
thosen student of Christ^church, Oxford, but was ejected by 
file ptrliament visitors in Nov. 1648. This cgeetion, how- 
ever, does not seem to have extended so for as in other cases, 
for we find that, soon after, he became usher of Westmin* 
ster-school; and in 1658 was made second master, having 
for some time in the interim taught school in other places. 
In July 1 670, being then chaplain in ordinary to the king, 
be accumulated his degrees in divinity, which were con- 
ferred upon him without taking any in arts, as a mark of 
respect doe to his extraordinary merit. This indeed had 
Wn amply attested to the university by letters from 
Henehosan, bishop of London, recommending him as a 
man eminently learned, of singular humanity and sweeter 
ness of mahners, blameless and reKgious life, and .of 
genius and ready ftculty in preaching. In Sept 167#, he 
was inducted into the rectoiy of Chelsea, was made a plre« 

> 6nui|er.— ResUtuts, No, 11, p« 19^ 


h^nitiry ot W0stmin«ter» end afterwards sub -dean. Ibl 
16$S Be was licensed to the churcb of St> Botolph Alders- 
gafee$ which he held about four years, and tbea- resigned 
itf pqssibty On account of some decay in his ceD«titu(ii|j^. 

He dieid Jane 30, i€94, aged <sixty-*seven years, and 
wiM buried on the north side of the chancel of Obelsea 
chiaircfh^' where there is a handsome monumeati with an 
epkaph to his metnory. He was an excellent philologi^ 
aod-^giaminarian, patrticularly in the Latin, a^ appears from 
his Dictionary of tbett language ; be appaars a4so to have 
studied the Gr^ek with equal minuteness, a. Lexicon of 
wbMi he had ioAg been compiiing> and left unfinished at 
•his deadi. Hd was also wi^U skilkd in the Oriental laa- 
Jff»^gt8 ahd in rabbinical . learjiing ; in pr^seeuti^m of 
which he exhausted great part of bis fortune in purchasing" 
liiMlts.Md manuscripts from all p«*ts of Europe, Asia, and 
Africa. The consequence of this improvid^ce^ we mtp 
8orr)fr, however, to add, was bis dying lasol^nt, and leaav^. 
iiig Mb widow in viery distressed oircumstamces. - Sonne 
time before hfiA death, he made a ««iaU essay^tewards. fa^' 
dfitsting the knowledge of the Hebrew, ChaU^e,; and 
AnMc tongues, which he intended to hftve brought into 
a narrower compass. He was versipd also in the abstrust 
parts of the mathematics, and wrote a great many piecei-. 
concerning mystical numeration, whica came into< i^ 
hands of bis brother-in*law. Dr. Hockin. lu private li^* 
be tims exti^einely charitable, easy ot access, cammui^mt" 
tive, aiffiiUe, feeetious in conversation^ free from passaoi^; 
of a st9»ng cottstitutioi^ and a teoerable countenaoceb 
Besides his << LaUn Dictieaary/' .wbicb appeaired: first ia^ 
I678,'4to, and was often reprittted,.but is now superseded 
by Ainsw!ordi% he published, i* ^' Tragicodiiedia Oxo* 
niensis/* a Latin poemion.the Parliament-Visitors,",! 64S^ 
a single sheet, 4to, whicb^ how^i^, was afterwards attri^^" 
botad to a Mr. John Carrick^. a sliMleat of Cbfist-churclw 
SL ^ Pasor meiricus, me. Ttoces oiiioea Nor. Test* pritno^' 
geniss hasametris versibus comprehensB&,^' 1658, 4to> 
Greek and Latin. 3. >^ Diatriba in octo Tractatus di8tri>-^^ 
biita,V &e. printed with the former. 4. '< Elemeitta Re* 
l^dais, stTe quatuor Capita ca4»cbetica totidem Linguis 
deKi^pta, in usum ScboIarum,'\ J 6.5S, 8vo, to' which, is 
added^ i. >< Complicatio Radicum in primseva HebraBOruBi 
Lingua.** 6. ^< Solomon's Gate, or an entrance into the 
Church/* &c. 1662, 8vo« Perhaps tbis title was taken 


'from the north gate of Westminster-abbey, so calM. 
?. "Sixty-one Sermons,** 1680, fol. 8. "A Sermon at 
'a solemn meeting of the natives of the city and county of 
Worcester, in Bow-church, London, 24th of June, 1680," 
4to. 9. " Preface to Cicero's Works,** Lond. 1681, 2 
vols. fd. 10. "A Translation of * Selden's Jani Anglo- 
rum Facies Altera,* with Notes,** which for some unknown 
reason be pablisbed under the name of Redman Westootie, 
1683, foL With this were printed three other tract* of 
Selden, viz. his " Treatise of the Judicature of ParHa- 
ments,*' &c. ^* Of the original of Ecclesiastical Jurisdic- 
tion of Testaments.*' *^ Of the Disposition of Intestates* 
Goods.** 11. " The Life of Themistocles,*' from the 
Greek, in the first vol. of Plutarch's Lives, by sevl^rai 
bands, 1687, 8^0. He also published ** Dissertatio epi^to- 
laris de Juramento Medicorum qui C^KO£ 'inilOKPATOT£ 
dicitur,'* &c. ; also A Latin Inscription, in prose and verse, 
intended for the monument of the fire of London, in Sept 
1666. This is printed at the end of his Dictionary ; with 
an elegant epistle to Dr. Baldwin Hamey, M. D.' 

LITTLETON (Edward), LL. D. an English diviae 
and poet, was educated upon the royal foundation at Eton- 
school, where, under the care of that learned and excellent 
master. Dr. Snape, his school- exercises were much ad- 
mired, and when his turn came, he was elected to King's 
college, Cambridge, in 1716, with equal applause. Here he 
took his degrees of A. B. 1720, A. M. 1 724, and LL. D. 1728. 
•Having some talent for poetry, he had not been long at 
the university, before he diverted a school-fellow, \^om 
be had left at Eton, with a humourous poem on the subject 
of bis various studies, and the progress be bad made in 
academical learning, which was followed by his more cele- 
brated one '^ on a spider/' Dr. Moreli, the editor of bis 
^' Discourses," and his biographer, procured a genuine 
copy of them, as transcribed by a gentleman then at Eton 
school from the author's own writing, with such rena^ins 
as could be found of a Pastoral Elegy, written about the 
«ame time by Mr. Littleton, on the death of R. Banks, 
scholar of the same college. The two former are now cor- 
rectly printed in the edition of Dodsley's Poems of 1782, 
edited by Isaac Reed. Dr. Moreli found also a poetical 

. 1 Aih« Ox. Tol. II.— 'Bio;. Brit.-rFreface to Ainsworth's Dictiooafy.-^^ 
fions's Eavirons, vol* II, 

L I T T L E T ON. 329 

n^)li»tle sent from school to Pehyston Powney, esq. ; but 
-aS'tbis was scarcely intelligible to any bat those who were 
tbeti at Eton, he has not printed it. In 1720 Mr. Little- 
ton was recalled to Eton as an assistant in the school; in 
which office he was honoured and beloved by his pupils, 
and so esteemed by the provost and fellows, that on the 
death of the rev. Mr. Matcher, in 1727, they elected him 
a fellow, and presented hioi to the living of Mapledurham, 
in Oxfordshire. He then married a very amiable woman, 
Frances, one of the daughters of Barnham Goode, who 
was under-master of Eton school. In June. 1730, be was 
appointed chaplain in ordinary to their majesties. Though 
an admired preacher and an excellent scholar, he seems to 
have been little ambitious of appearing in print. He died 
of a fever in 1734, and was buried in his own parish church 
of Mapledurham, leaving behind him a widow and three 
daughters ; for whose benefit, under the favour and en- 
couragement of queen Caroline, his '^ Discourses" were 
first printed by Dr. Moreli, with an account of the author, 
from which the above particulars are taken. Dr. Burton, 
Mr. Littleton's successor in the living of Mapledurham, 
afterwards married his widow, as we have noticed in his 

LITTLETON or LYTTLETON (Thomas), a cele- 
brated English judge, descended of an ancient family, was 
the eldest son of Thomas Westcote, of the county of De- 
von, esq. by ^Elizabeth, daughter and sole-heir of Thomas 
Littleton or Lyttleton, df Frankley in Worcestershire, in 
compliance with whom she consented that the issue, or at 
least the eldest son, of that marriage should take the name 
of Lyttleton, and bear the arms of that family. He was 
born about the beginning of the fifteenth century at Frank- 
ley. Having laid a proper foundation of learning at one 
of the universities, he removed to the Inner<-Temple ; and, 
applying himself to the law, became very eminent in that 
profession. The first notice we have of his distinguishing 
himself is from his learned lectures on the statute of West- 
minster, ^^ de donis conditionalibus,^ ^^ of conditional 
gifts." He was afterwards made, by Henry VL steward 
pr judge of the court of the palace, or marshalsea of the 
king's hpusehold, and, in May 1455, king's serjeant, in 

1 Life by Morell, prefixed to tbe ** Discourses," 1736/ 2 vols. 8vo.«— Life of 
Br. John Barton^ vol. VII. p. 424.*DodsIe7's Poems, vol. VL 

S30 LI T T L t T O N; 

irhich capacit J be went the Northern circnit as a judge of 
ihe assize. U||)on the Terohitton of the orown, from the 
house of Lancaster to that of York, in the time of Edward 
TV. our jddge, who was now made sheriff of Worcester^, 
ihire, received a pardon from that prince ; was continued 
in his post of king^s seijeant, and also in that of justice of 
assize for the same circuit. This pardon passed in 1462", 
the second year of Edward IV.; and, in 1466, hewasap^ 
poShted one of Ae judges of the court of Common neas*. 
The same year, he obtained a writ to the commissioners <^ 
the customs of London, Bristcd, and Kingston-upon-Buli, 
enjoining them to pay him a hundred and ten marks annu- 
aiiy, for the better support of his dignity ; a hundred and 
si^ shillings and eleven pence farthing, to furnish him 
^wKfa a furred robe ; and six shillings and six*pence mor^ 
for another robe called Linura. In 1473, we find him re^ 
siding near St. Sepulchre^s church, London, in a capital • 
mansion, the property of the abbot of Leicester, Which he 
held on lease at the yeaiiy rent of 165. In 1475 he Wai 
cteated, among others, knight of the Bath, to grace the 
solemnity of conferring that order upon the king's eldest 
son, then prince of Wales, afterwards Edward V. H6 
continued to enjoy the esteem of his sovereign and the na^ 
fion, on account of his profound knowledge of the laws of 
England, till his death, Aug. 23, 1481, the day after the 
date of his will. He was then said to be of a good' old 
age, but its precise length has not been ascertained^ tie 
was honourably interred in the cathedral church of Wor* 
cester, where a marble tomb, with his statue, was erected 
to bis memory ; his picture was also placed in the chuirh 
of Frankley; and another in that of Hales-Owen, where 
his descendants purchased a good estate. 4Ie married, 
and had three sons, WilKam, Richard, and Thom'asi 
Richard, bred to the law, became eminent in that ptofes^ 
sion ; and it was for his use that our judge drew up his 
celebrated treatise on tenures or titles, which will pro^ 
bably hand his name down to the latest posterity. The 
judge's third |W)n, Thomas, was knighted by Henry VIL 
for taking Lambert Simhel, Ae pretended e*rl of War* 
wick. His eldest son and sucbessor, sir William Littleton^ 
after living many years in grea* splendour, at Frankley^ 
died in 1508 ; and from this branch the late celebrated lord 
Ly ttelton of Frankley co. Worcester, who was created a ^ 
baron of G^eat Britain^ Nov. 1756, derived his pedigree; 


but wboy omog to the akeratioD in the spelitng of the 
name (which, however, appears auneoessary) will occar in 
a future part of this work. 

The onemory of judge Littleton it preiervefi by fait 
^Teoacet;^* and the various editions dbrough which bit 
book has passed are the best evidence of itt worth. Dr. 
Iliddlelon supposes the -first edition to have been that 
printed in French by Lettou and Machlinia, near the 
Ohurdi of AlUSaints, or All-Hallows, in London, without 
date: and be thinks that it waa put to press by the aeithor 
hianself in 1481, the year he died; but lord Coke tup^ 
poses the French edition in folio, printed without date, at 
llouen, by W. Le Taitleur, for R. Pinson, to have fa^eeu 
tihe fimt. The point however has not yet been settled ; 
and perhaps- cannot now be settled with precision. The 
various opinicnia on the subject may be found in our au- 
thorities. That it was often reprinted is a matter of less 
doubt: the editions from 1539 to 1639 only, amount to 
twenty-four. The origiual composition of this celebrated 
work is jattly esteemed as the principal pillar on which 
the superstructure of the law of real pr(^>erty in this 
kingdom is supported ;- and the valuable '^ Commen* 
tary" of lord Coke has uniformly been considered, by the 
most eminent lawyers, as the result and repository of all hi* 
learning on the subjects there treated. Of this work a re- 
publication waa made in folio, 178S, iidiich, independent 
of the valuable annotations, of lord Hale and lord chancellor 
Nottingham, has been greatly improved by the learning 
and indelatigabie labours of Mr. Hargrave and Mr. Butler« 
There was a book written in the reign of Edward IIll 
which, it called ^-^ Old Tennres,*^ to distinguish it from 
Littleton's book. It gives an account of the various tenures 
by which land was holdeo, the nature of estates, and some 
other incidents relating to- landed property. It is a very 
acanty tract, but has the merit of having led the way to 
Littleron'a famous work. ' 

LITTLETON, or LYTTELTON (Edward), lord keeper 
of the great seal of England in the reign of Charles I. was 
descended, by a collateral branch, from tfie preceding 
yudge Littleton, being grandson of Johu Littleton, parson 
Otf Mouudk>w in Shropshire, and son of sir Edward Little^ 

. > Bjog. Brit— Dibdin'i Typographical Anliq^tliet.— Bridpnsn'f Ltgttl Biblifv 
frtpbjr.-»-Be«f fD*t Hiit. of Ei^lish JLawi, 

^32 L I T T L E T O.N. 

toil of Henley in that'county^ one of the justices of Att 
marches, and judge of . North Wales* He waB-bDrn iin 
1589, and admitted a gentleman commoner of Cbristf. 
church, Oxford, in ]606, where he took the degree of 
bachelor of arts in 1609. Some time after, being de- 
signed for the law by his father, he removed to the Inner- 
Temple, and soon became eminent in his profession, la 
1628, we find him in parliament; and on the 6th of May 
he was appointed, together with sir Edward Coke and sir 
Dudley Digges, to carry up the petition of right to the 
house of lords. He had also the management of the charge 
made against the duke of Buckingham, concerning king 
James's death ; on which occasion he behaved bimseif 
with universal applause, although he had to consult . bolh 
the jealousy of the people and the honour of the court* 
His first preferment in the law was the appointofient to 
succeed his father as a Welch judge; after which he was 
elected recorder of London, and about the same time 
counsel for the university of Oxford. . .In 16.32, he was 
chosen summer-reader of the Inner-Temple, and in- 16349 
appointed splicitorrgeneral, and receiv^ the honour of 
knighthood in 1635. In 1639^ he was constituted lord 
chief-justice of the common-pleas ; and, in 1640, on the 
Sight of lord-keeper Finch from the resentment > of the 
parliament, the great seal was put into his custody, with the 
same title. In February following, he was created a peer 
of England, by the title of lord Littleton^ baron of Moan^ 
slow in Shropshire. 

In this station he preserved the esteem of both parties 
for some time, and the two bouses of parliament agreed to 
return their thanks by him to the king,- for passing the 
Uiennial bill, and that of the subsidies ; but, as he concur- 
red in the votes for raising, an army, and seizing the mili* 
tia, in March 1641, measures very hostile to the royal 
pause, the king sent an order from York to lord Falkl^nd^ 
to demand the seal from him, and to consult about a suc- 
cessor with Hyde, afterwards earl of Clarendon ; - bat thisT 
last step prevented the former order from being put into 
execution. Hyde, who always/entertained a great regard 
for the keeper, had, upon his late behaviour, paid him a 
visit at Exeter-house, on whijch occasion the keeper freely 
disclosed his mind, lamenting that be had been removed 
from the common-pleas, of which court he was acquainted 
with the business and the persons with whoa/ he bad tor 

L J T T L E T O N. 5SS 

itea), ioraor Interoffice, which involved kim with another 
soffttsf men, aiid in affains to which he was a. stranger ; and 
this witfabutliis having one friend among tbeo% to whood 
he^could confide any difficulty that occurred to him. Ad- 
y^rting Ukeivise to the unhappy state of the king's affairs, 
he, said that the party in hostility to the court '^would 
never: have done .what they had already, unless they had 
beep deitermined to do more : that he foresaw it would not 
be long Jbefore a war would break out, and. of what impor* 
tanceitwas, in that season, that the great seal. should bft 
with his majesty ; that the prospect of this necessity bad 
made. him comply to a certain degree with that party ; that 
there bad btely been a consultation, whether, in case the 
king might send for him, or the great. seal be taJken froaar 
himi^.it.w^e advisable to keep it in some, secure place^ 
where the keeper should . receive it upon occasion, they 
having no: mind to disoblige. him: that the knowledge of 
Ais bad induced him to vote as he did jn the. late debates ; 
luid by that . compliance, which he knew would give the 
king 1^ bad. impression of bim> he had .gained so. much cre- 
dit with them,, that he^ should be able to preserve the 
ieal in his omix bands till his majesty, should demand it, and 
then he: would be. ready to wait on the. king with it, declar-, 
ing that ao man should be mpre willing to perish with 
tod for ,his majesty than himself." Mi:. Hyde acquainted 
lord- -Falkland with this conference; and, being confident 
that the lord-keeper would keep his promise, recommended 
tO: advise his majesty to write a kind invitation to the keeper 
to came to yock, and. bring the sea) with him, rather tbaot 
think of giving any other person^ The advice was 
embraced by the kiiig,. who,, though he $tiU had his doubts 
ef Littleton^s sincerity, was influenced by the reasons as~ 
•igaed ; and accordingly the: seal was sent, to York on the 
22d, . and fotllbwed by the keeper on the 23dotf May, 16421 
' ^ But, notwithstanding this piece of service and eminent 
proof of his loyalty, at the risk of his life,, he could nevejr 
totally regain the king's confidence, or the esteem of the 
eo^urt-party. He continued, however^ to .enjoy his post, 
in wbiqh be attended his msyesty to Oxford, was there 
created doctor of laws, and made one of the kins*s privy- 
council, and colonel of a regiment of foot in the same 
Service, some time before his death, which happened Aug. • 
27, 1645,^ at Oxford. His body' was interred in the cathe- 
dral of Christ church } on which occasion a funeral oration 

SM £ ITT ^E TO Nt 

pmiiMiioecF by the oelefarated Bn HanloMmdl, ihcb 
iNTi^Qr to tke onirerstty^ In May 1683, t momiiii^nt was 
•reeled these to his memory, by hts only daughter aoii 
beiress, the Iitdy Anne Lyttelton, mdoEvr of w Tboma* 
]i.yttelftoQ 'y and the same year came out his ^* Reports^^* ia 
feiio^, which, however, Mr. Stevens, in M^ introduction 
iDtlbvd Bacon's Letters, editvon- 1703, p. 21, tbhiks #ere 
Bot composed by him, many: of the cases being the sam^ 
verbatim as in Hetley's reports. Lorot Clarendon si^ of 
ut Edward Littleton, that ^* he was a man' oi great x>eptita-s 
tion in the profession of the Ibw, for learning, a&d all o^er 
adrantages which attend the most eminent men. He was 
of a very good extractioQ in Shropshire, and inherited • 
£nr fortufie and inheritance from bis father. He wpA a 
baiidspme and a proper man>, of a ?^ry graeefbl preseiiee^ 
and > notorious eourage^ which in his 3fdOth he bad maniNb 
fasted with his sword, fie had taken great pavMs in tM 
hardest and most knotty part of the law, aa weU as dial 
which wast most eostomary ; and was not only ready and 
expert in the books, bat exceedingly versed in reeords^ 
in studying and examining whereof he had kept Mr. SeldeH . 
company, with whom he had gn^ Ifriendsblp, and who had . 
juncb assisted htm : so that he wa» tooked upon as tlie t^Mt « 
antiquary of his profession, who gave bimsetf up to prae« 
tice ; and, upon the mere strengUi of his abilities, be bad 
laised himself into the first of the prs^tiMrsof the common 
law courts^ and was chosen recorder of London befoi'e hd 
war called to the bench, and grew presently into thc^ 
bigbest practice in aH the other eonrts, as weH as those of 
Ae law.*' Whitelocke alisd^ observes, tha(t he #as a man of 
courage, and of excellent parts and learning. But we fear 
he cannot be altogether ak^qultted of unsteitdiness m some 
parta<of his <c<Miduct, although it must at the same time be 
owi9ed that when be found he eovM no longer retain the 
seal with credit, he delivered it, with his owii bauds, to 
bis unhappy sovereign, and died ftrmly attached to his 

He was twice fdarried ; fihit to Anive, daughter of John 
Lyttelton', by whom he bad a son and two dai%hters, who 

* Besidci. theM» wb l^ve aome book, eatided <* The Sorereigo^t V^ 
speeches ia parlmnient, and several ar- ' logative an^ Subject's Prifileges dis- 
gmneiits and disconraet, prublisbed iir cqssed/' 1657, fblio ; and **A Speech ia 
Boshworth, yol I. and appeadiic; and tb« Hoase gf Commont at U» pastlfeg 
by UkamaalTeB in 164S» 4Uk» aqd in a «f two bUV lHi» te^ ^ 


alleged inAmts. His sMond wife was- Ike h^y-BUnef 
Calveriey, reKct of sir George Calverley of Cheirbire, and 
daughter of sir William Jones, judge of the kiogVbeneb^ 
hy whom he bad the above-mentioned Anna, whose son 
Edward died in 1664, and lies interred -in the Temple 
ebnrcb. In the south window of tbe Inner Temple ball^ 
is a fine shield of the keeper's arms, with fifteen qiiar« 
terings, distinguished by a crescent within a mullet, which 
shews him to have been a second son of the third house.' > 


LIVINGSTON (John), a rigid but pious presbyter of 
the church of Scotland, was bom in 1603. In 1617, he 
was sent to the college of Glasgow, where he remained 
until he passed M. A. in 1621.. After this, he exercised 
the ministry in various places, as occasion offered, till 
1628, when he was, by the sentence of the general aB« 
sembly, sent to Ancrum in .Teviot-dale# He was twice 
suspended by bishop Down, and wais one of those who 
tendered the covenant to king €harles II. a little before 
he landed in Scotland. In 1663, as he would not «ttV* 
acribe or take the bath of allegiance, he was banished out 
of the kingdom, and retired- into Holland, where he 
preached to the Scots' congregation at Rotterdam till bis 
death, Aug. 9, 1672. His works are ^' Letters firom Leith, 
1^663^ to his Parishioners at Ancrum ;*' ** Memorable Cfaa* 
racteristics of Divine Providence;'* and a " Latin Tranda-^ 
tion of the Old Testament," not published.* 

LIVIUS (TiT03), tbe most celebrated of the Roman 
historians, was born at Patavium, or Padiia, and descended 
firom an illustrious family, which had given several consuls 
to Rome. Few circumstances of his life are knowti, as 
BOne of the ancients have left any thing about it ; and* s^ 
reserved has he been with regard to himself, that we sfaoaid 
be at a loss to determine the 'time when bis history was 
written, if it were not for one passage which seems to 
prove that he was employed on it about the year of Rom^ 
730.' He was then at Rome, where he long resided ; and 
aome have supposed that he was known to Augustus before, 
by certain dialogues, which, he had dedicated to him. 
Seneca, without noticing the dedication, mentions thes^ 

& Biog. Brit— .Lloyd's State WovUim Uogrd*0 Memoirs^ fol. 5S3.— Ath; 

Ox. ToL 11.— -Bridgman'f Legal Bibliography,— >Park't edition of tiie Royal and 
Noble Authon. 

. s 3iog.8ootiana»«»l4feoi; n<^iS«o^ 

336 L ly I U 5 .. 

4ialogueS} ^bioh t|e calls historical aadrphUq^ophidal ^ atld 
also Botne books^ written purposely an the subject Qf ]^i« 
•losophy. A)l this appeals cloub|;£uI) but there' is masoh 
to think that he began his history a^ sopn as'be was^tsuMl 
at Home; and he seems to have devoted himself entirely 
to it. The tumults and distractions of that city freqtieA% 
obliged him to retire to Naples^ not only tbi|t he might te 
less^ interrupted in bis historical labours, b^:^ enjoy that 
tranquillity which he could not have at Rome. Heappeatfs 
to have been much dissatisfied with the manficars of bis 
ag^9 and tells us, that ;*^ be should reap this i^wardjof his 
. labour, in composing the -Roman history, that it would 
. take his attention from. the present numerous evilS| atleast 
. while he was employed upon. the first and earliest ages." »• 
.It is said .that he used to. read parts of his h^ory., white 
he was composing it, to Ma&Cenas and Augustus^ and that 
liv^a conceived so* high aa opinion of him, aS'to intend to 
commit to him the education of young Claudius .thebro? 
iJier of 'Germanicus, but his daa^h prevented, his et^yhig 
tlliaL honour. Dn the demise of Augustus, he . returned to 
Padua^ where he was received with all imaginable honoiUT; 
9lid respect; and there died, A..D. 17, at the. age of sfr^ 
yenty, or seventy-six., . * 

Scarcely any man was ever more honoured, both ia ilia 
life-time and after his death, than this historian. PUuy 
the younger relates that a gentleman travelled from Ga(|^6»* 
the extreme part of Spain, to see Liyy ; and, thougb->R$^9^ 
abounded with more stupendous and curious spe;ctacles'tj^aa 
any city in the wor^d, immediately returned ; becaus^^ aft^/ 
having seen Livy, he thought nothing worthy of bi^ no^^i^f 
To the following ^tgry^ however, we cantiot so easily 
give credit. A monument was erected to this historian m 
the temple of Juno, where the monastery of ^t Justina was 
afterwards founded. There, in 1413, was discovered: tbe 
foUpwing epitaph upon Livy : . ^VQssa Titi Llyii Pata)Vi|ii» 
omnium mortaliivm judicio digiai, cujus prope.invicto .C^ 
Jamo invicti Populi Roman! Res ge^tss con«€;riberentur.V 
lu 1451, we are told that Alphoip^us, king of Arragon^^^^ijt 
Ibis/ambassador, Anthonj Panbrmita, to desire of the cUir 
.zes» of Padua the bone of that arm with which, this, their 
famous countryman had written bis history ; and, obtaining 
it^ caused it to be conveyed to Naples with thegre&te^^ 
c^remonVj as a n^ost invaluable relic. He is said to have 
been assisted in his recovery firom ^o ill sta^ ^ beaUh| hj 

LIVIUS. tit 

^e pteaioni be (biMid in retcKng. tbk'hiittMfy } ttnd ikett- 
imt$f Mt of gr«ikii<ie» Itab iiidticed td ptiy eztfa^iitofy 
JNMiOTM to tk# memory df the wfStdr.'^ 
- TMs ridiciiloiM flttory, wbtoh (MMbeen rdpeined Inihe 
Ifbifmer €dUttM6 0f thiit Dictiotfiary, a^ well as iA 6theirMlt» 
^ponts ef Livy, took its rise from the Igtioranoe of ktiiiH^^ 
of those who reported it; eod having been feftii^ Ihy Gift- 
<iies, and more ftilly by Morbof [*' ]>e Uvil P«ti¥> tt^. 
iu.), ought loog ago to have been displaced. The epitapb 
kt Padua was^ irheQ written without the Mntmciiofts, «< v|u. 
Vila fecit Titos Livius^ Liviie Titi ^ti» qtukru^^ liberty 
Halys, GOficordialis Patavi, sibi et sdis Onraibus ;** i. e, Thfk 
monaaietit was erected by himself and his ftin^Iy by Tile* 
Livies Halys^ the freedmati of Livia, a daughter ef OttO 
Titus Livius, who probably lived many age6 after the his'«» 
toriaa. Haly* was his name, while he dootiifued in servf- 
tude, and Titus Livius the name of bis patrOU or mastdf^ 
whieh' he assuiiiedy as was esual in those taases, wirto he 
reeeived his freedom* He bad p^b&ps borne some oAm 
iti t^ temple of Concordia at Padua, whidh tnight pes^^ 
biy have stood in the pknte wheVe the epiiaph Wa^ dis^ti*^ 
trered, and hence the title Concordialis. Bo% the mOAki 6f 
the fifBeeiitb century, who valued Iheoiselyet on b^ViO^ 
diseovered the bones of tke celebrated bisioriatt, attendel 
only to the naaie of Titos Livius ; liefer tefieclf ng; ttt^ 
this was a commoo namei aod might have belonged to 
tweti^ others ; riiat-in the Augtfstsili age^ d^ad bodies were 
utfualiy burnt, afrd not buried w4tt^io the wMs^ of bities ; 
S^ that, admitting Lfvy had been buried, it #as vety \th^ 
probable that any of his bones should have rethained uh* 
consumed io the ground above 1400 years. 

The History of Livy, like othei' gfe^t works of Atitk^trity, 
is thiMsmitted down to us exeeedingly miMfHated eiid Mi-& 
perfect. Its books were otigfioalty an htfnfdred atldforty^ 
two, df which lire extant only ihWty-five. The e^itotfiM 
ef % from which we learn (heir tHimber, all ttmAn^ Ok^ 
eopc those of the l ^th ctnd i S7tfcr books. They fakte bet$ii 
divided imo decades, whieh some tVMi wati done by Uv^\ 
Uittsrif, bieicfituse there is a ^efaee to evei^ decade ;' Hirife 
6ttfei« suppose it to be a modern contrlvahce^ Mnce no- 
Ihlog abbut it can be gathered fh>m thfo aneienti. The Ars( 
^eade, be^Minjg with the fountfatton of Rom^ i^ (^turif, 
ind t¥clal9 ef th^ JMbits of 460 ye^H. The fiebotiA Beende 
is losT, the yeari rf wbieb Are seventy-five. The Airtl 

Vol, XX. Z 

.4*8 . L J V I U S. • 

.^ecad^ is extant,. And contains the second Panic war, ior 
eluding eighteen years. It is reckoned die most excellent 
part of the history, as giving an account o( a very long and 
;a|^9|> w^r, in which the Ito'mans. gained so many advan- 
•ti^?s, tbajt no arms could afterwards withstand them. . The 
fourth decade contains the Macedonian war. against Philip, 
.and the Asiatic war against Antiochus, which takes up the 
spa^e.of about twenty-three years. The first five books of 
the fifth decade were found, at Worms, by Simon Gry- 
J3SUS, in 1431, but are very defective; and the remainder 
;Of Livy's history, which reachetb to the death of Drusus 
,io Germany,- in the year 746, together with the second 
decade, are supplied by Freinshemius. Many discoveries 
liave been reported of the lost books of Livy, but these 
have generally proved forgeries. The last, by Joseph 
.Vella', was very recently exposed, by Dr. Hager in Beis- 
ter's Berlin Journal. 

The encomiums bestowed upon Livy, by both ancients 
and moderns, are great and numerpus. Quinctiliah speaks 
of him in the highest terms, and thinks that Herodotus 
jieed not take i^ ill to have Livy equalled with him. In 
general, probity, candour, and impartiality, are what have 
distinguished .• Livy above all historians. Neither com- 
jplaisance to the times, nor his particular connexions with 
the empei;or, could restrain him from speaking so well of 
Pompey, as to make Augustus call him a Pompeian. T^hls 
we. learn from Cremutius Cordus^ in Tacitus, who relates 
also, much to the qmperor's honour, that this gave no in- 
terruption to their friendship. Livy, however, has not 
escaped censure as a writer. In the age in which he lived, 
Asinius Pollio charged him with Patavinity, a word va-- 
riously* explained by writers, but generally supposed to 
relate to bis style. The most con^mon opinion is, that 
Pollip, accustomed to the delicacy of the language. spokeu 
in the court of Augustus, could not bear with certaip pro- 
vincial, idioms, which Livy, as a Paduan, used in various' 
places of his history. Pignorius is of a different opinion^ 
and considers Patavinity as relating to the orthography of 
certain words, in which Livy used one letter for an other^ 
according to the custom of his country, writing " sibe^*, 
and " qoase" for " sibi*' and " quasi ;" which he attempts 
to prove by sevepl ancient inscriptions. Chevreau main- 
tains, that it does not concern the style, but the principles 
of the historian : the Paduans^^Iie says^ preserved a loaig^ 

L I V I U S. 33» 

■ * 

and constant inclination for a republic, and ver^ therefore 
attached to Pompey ; while Pollio, being of C«sar'3 party, 
was naturally led to attribute to Livy the sentiments of his 
countrymen, on account of his speaking^ well of Pompey. 
It seems remarkable that there should exist such di£ference 
of opinion, when Quinctilian, who must be supposed to 
know the true import. of this Patavinity, has referred it 
entirely to. the language of our author. MprhofTs elabo*. 
rate treatise, however, is highly creditable to his critical 
skill. The merit of Livy's history is so. well known, as to 
render it unnecessary to accumulate the encomiums which 
modern scholars bave bestowed on him. With these the 


schooi-boy is soon made acquainted, and they meet the 
advanced scholar in all his researches. His hi^itory was 
first printed at Rome, about 1469, by Sweynheym and 
Pannartz, in folio. Of this rare edition, lord Spencer is 
in possession of a fine copy ; . but the exquisite copy oq 
vellum, formerly in the imperial library at Vienna, no^ 
belongs to James Edwards, esq. of Harrow.; and is perhaps, 
the most magnificent volume of an ancient classic in .the 
world. Of modern printing the best editions are, that of 
Gronoviusy .^Vcurn Notts variorum & suis, Lugd. Bat» 
1679,'* 3 vols. 8vo; that of Le^ Clerc, at ^< Amsterdam^ 
1709,*' 10 vols. l2mo; that offCrevier, at " Paris, 1735,*» 
€ vols. 4to; of Drakenborch, Amst. 1738, 7 vols. 4to; of 
Ruddiman, Edinburgh, 1751, 4 vols. 12mo; of Homer^ 
Lond. 1794, 8 vols. 8vo; and that of Oxford, 1800, 6 vols. 
Svo. Livy has been translated into every language. The 
last English translation was that of George Baker, A. M • 
6 vols. 8vo, published in 1797, *.which was preceded by 
that of Philemon Holland, in 1 600 ; that of Bohun, in 
1686 ; and a third, usually. called Hay's translation, though 
no such name appears, printed in 1744, 6 vols. 8vo.^ 

LLOYD (David), a loyal biographer and historian of 
the seiventeenth century, the son of Hugh Lloyd, was 
born at Pant Mawr, in the parish of Trawsvinydd, in Me* 
fionetbshire. Sept 28, 1625. He was educated in grarn^ 
mar learning at the free-schqol at Ruthen in Denbighshire, 
and in 1652 became a servitor of Oriel college^ Oxford, at 
whiclv^^6» ^^^^ after, he performed the office of janitor. 
He tpok. one. degree in arts, and by the favour of the 

> Geo* Pict. art. Porcint and PanortBtta — ^VoBgius de Hist. Lat— Senece 
Epitt-^Suetonias in vita Claadii.»^Piiiiii Epist-^Qnintiliau Inst. Orat. — ^Ta- 
ciii Annales IV. 34*— •SudiOnomasL — Dibdin't Classio, and BibI, Sp«ncerian«» 

Z 2 . 


Wpi^m tni MCttftjrof MattM ooilege, wu pitsetit^d <p the 
Miet^ry of ilHliOfi fKmr Wftdlpgton in Oxfordst|ir«) hi May 
l%$%. Ncffi yaar be tuok bit master^s dagreor «im) after 
a ^ft:tiiM/ resigMd Ibtton, and went lo Lood<m» . wheve 
he waa ajipomted reader 9f tbe Charter4uiiiae. Afterwards 
be yetirad te Waleti and becaaae eba^ain te Dr^ iMac .Bar-^ , 
fevTy hkbof t^Sts A^p^fi^hOi besidea aeveral preferdMKyts-^ 
in faia (Keeeae^ ga«e btan e canooiy ib tbe obnrch-of St. 
Aai^,'i« Angnat l67iK On A«ig> 14, 1671, be waa made 
i^icar of Abe^elejf *nd on tbe aame day, aa is aupposed, 
f»febend Off Vaynol tn tbe ebwek of St. Aaapb, at wbioh 
time be reaigned faia cMonrf . He aftevwafda exohaoged 
Abergeley for the vioarage ef Koftbop in FMntabtre, where 
he aettled and taught the faee-aoheel, until bis health he^ 
gan' te deeay . He then returned, paobably to try tbe ef- 
iacl of hid native air, to Fani Mawr, where ht died Febi 16, 
1691, and waa horied there. 

Mr* Ueyd, eveo by Weod*a acetanl, laf^ an ea^ecQent 
diifteter behind him z ^^ be WM e V€ty hidoaferioiia and 
eealoua peraeo, ebarttahle to the poor, $m4 ready to dc» 
good eflSeea in his'neighboiarbaed $ he eommonly read ihe 
aernce every day in hit efanreb at Nordiep, when he waa 
at heme, and uieally gave money to sach peer cbildreo ea 
woHki come to him to be ealtoehiaed." Aa an author, Jmw^ 
erei^ Wood appeaie lo^ have been a little jealous of Lbyd ^ 
speakt of biili aa being *^ a oonceited and ecmfident per* 
aon *^^ who '^ toofc too much upon him to tranamit to poa^ 
terUy the. ^eotoira of gaeat pemonagea ;** by whioh <* he 
obtained^ among knowing men not only the ohara^ima ef a 
most hnpodent plagiary, bnt a lalse writer^ and a. mere 
8ihriM>ier, especially apen the pnblkatien of his ^ Memoira,^ 
w4bftrein jtre almost as meny errors aa Knes/^ /^ At leagthv'* 
adds Wood, ^< havii>g been snflloienMy adw>Ai9lMd m Ma 
said eitor^ and broiight into t^touble for SMiie exliwva« 
gancies in nis .books, h^ left off wrking, retired te Watea; 
and there gatve hirnadf m> to the gaiaitig of richea.*^ Tfaaa 
ail thb is not tree, mocmi in<)ui#eni of rapumttOB, wfbo 
have repeatedly deferred te Lloyd, aeem to be convinced ? 
he id in truth % compiler, like othera of hia eontemperariea $ 
bot^ aMbough he meat rank gieatly undev, he ceiaaJMly be- 
longs to tbe same class wiMi Fuller and Wood Umselft tla 
his style be pai;takes more o| tbe former than the latter, and 
having titled tb^ SMl^ect of hi^ pteu ^^ Wovtfaieat*' h^ 19% 
perhap!^ a litde tee eiiiiiotia to s«ipfei% thehr ehm^i aiid 

• - -♦ * 

rcg^rdles84>f those circumstMioes which forn » j&t^ if not • 
perfect; character. Lloyd has preserred many imaulfai of 
emineot meii, not to be found, or i>ot easily to be foiUHi» 
elsewhere* These remarks apply to bis taro principal wovbs^ 
so bhf n quoted by modern biographers, ** The StaiesWdi 
aiid favourites of England since the RefonnMioii» Juii'' 
I<»65j gvo, reprinted in 1670^ and his '* Memoiia i»f thje 
Liyes| &c." of persons who suffered for their loyalty dotiiig 
the rebellion, Lond. 1668, folia This last is the more Ta« 
luableof the two; and n so far from deserving the chamc- 
ter Wood has given, of containing as '' many errors as 
lines,^ that, while we admit it is not free from errpr% we 
baye loaud it in general corroborated by eontempormry 
Writers, and even by Wood bimself. Of the fifst of these 
works, ail edition was published by Oharl^s WhtfviEofthy 
65(]. in 1766, 2 vols. 8vo, with additions from other wiitefs, 
with a view to resiore the li^bt and ebade oF cbaraater. 
f ^ Mr. Lloyd," i^ys an anonymous critic, '^ is professedly 
the wbite^wasfaer of every character and personage that 
fiills under bis brush, particularly of the loyalists ef (iUMrles 
I. and 11. '; but his editor has seamed it with some seble 
Mrokes, some drawn from lord Herbert, and some from bis 
own stores, which are supplied from Rapin, and, other i>e* 
publican writers of little credit and less abilities* The .tnie 
tderil of Lloyd is, that notlvitbstandiug the saanenoss of 
most of bis characters, he serves tbem ep to bis. readiNrt so 
diff^ently dressed, that each seems to be a new di^ib^ aed 
to:have a peculiar relish.'' 

Lloyd's other publications were: L '' Modem r^eliey 
eompleated, or the public actions and councils^ fco; of Qe« 
neral MOnk/' Load. 1660, 8vo. 3. *^Tbe PounreictiM 
of his sacred Miyesty Charles IL &o." ibid* 1 e6Q, 8yo. . 3» 
^ The Countess of Bridgwater's Cbost^ &o." Lond. ie»3^ 
a character of this amiable lady, published, as Wood al- 
lows, ^* to make her a pattern for other women to imitate;'* 
but we can scarcely credit what he adds,' that 'Vtbe earl 
being much displeased that the meoiory of bis lady ribould 
be perpetuated under such a title, and by such ah obscure 
person, who did not . do her the right that was dtfe,f he 
brought bim into trouble, and oaused him' to sufier .««Jr 
mnuAs imprisonment /" We have not seen ^ this work ^ bui 
l^d it been a libel instead of a panegyric, ;whieb last ap* 
pears to have been the author's honest intention, it could 
not have been punttribed with mdfe ^evetiif^ 4. "Of Plots, 

I ' 



~hcV LonJ. 1664, 410, published under the name of OK<« 
ver FouHs, 5. « The Worthies of the World, &c." an 
abridgment of Plutarch/ ibid. 1665, 8vo. 6. " Dying and 
Dead men's Living Words ; or a fair warning to a careless 
world,'* 1665, and 1682, 12mo. 7. " Wonders no mira- 
cles ; or Mr. Valentine Greatrack's Gift of Healing exa- 
mined, &c.** ibid. 1665, 4to. 8. " Exposition, of the Ca- 
techism and Liturgy, &c.*' 9. ^^ A Treatise on Modera-^ 
tion," 1674.* 

LLOYD (Nicholas), a learned English writer in the 
seventeenth century, was son of Mr. George Lloyd, minis* 
ter of Wonson or Wonsington near Winchester, and grand- 
son of Mr. David Lloyd, vicar of Lockford near Stock- 
bridge in Hampshire. He was born at Holton in Flint- 
shire in 1634, and educated at Wykeham's school near 
Winchester, and admitted a scholar of Wadham college, 
Oxford, from Hart-hall, October 20, 1653. He afterwards 
became a fellow of Wadham, and July 6, 1658, took the 
degree of master of arts. In 1665, when Dr. Blandford, 
warden of that college, became bishop of Oxford, our 
author was appointed chaplain to him, being about that 
time rector of St. Martin's church in Oxford, and continued 
with the bishop till he \^as translated to the see of Worces- 
ter in 167 1. The year following, the rectory of St. Mary 
Newington, in Surrey, falling void, the bishop of Wor« 
cester presented Mr. Lloyd to it, who kept it to his death, 
which happened Nov. 27, 1680. He was interred in the 
chancel of the church there, leaving behind him the charac- 
ter of an harmless quiet man, and an excellent philologist. 
His ^^ Dictionarium Historicum,'' &c. although now obso- 
lete, was once reckoned a valuable work. The first edition 
was published at Oxford in 1670, folio. The second edi- 
tion was printed at London in 1686, folio, under the fol- 
lowing title : ^* Dictionarium Historicum, geographicum, 
poeticum, gentium, hominum, deorum gentilium, regio- 
num, insularum, locorum, civitatum, squorum, fluviorum, 
sinuum, portuum, promontoriorum, ac montium, antiqua 
recentioraque, ad sacras & profanas historias, poetarum- 
que fabulas intelligendas necessaria, Nomina^ quo decet 
ordine, complectens & iilustrans. Opus admodum util^ & 
apprime necessarium ; & Carolo Stephano inchoatum ; ad 
incudem yerd revocatum, innumerisque pene locis auctim 

> Atb. Ox. ToL II.— Whitworth's prefaoc-^-Cens. Literaria, yoL III. 

JL 1/ O Y a ^3 

. & ' ema^ulatiim per Nicohum Lloydtum,' Collegii Wad« 
faami in celeberriroi Academii Oxoniensi Socium. Editio 
nmssima.'* He left several unpablUbed MSS. consisting 
priacipally of commentaries and .translations* He had a 
younger brother, John, somewhat of a poet, who appears 
to have shared the friendship and esteem of Addison.* 

LLOYD (Robert), a modern poet, was born in West- 
minster in 1733. His father, Dr. Pierson Lloyd, was se« 
cond master of Westminster-school, afterwards chancellor 
of York, and portionist of Waddesdon in . Bucks, r His 
learniug^ judgment, and moderatioa, endeared. him to aU 
vi^ho partook of his instructions during a course of ahnost 
fifty years spent in the service of the public at Westminfi 
Bter-scbooL He had a pension from bis majesty of 5Q0k 
conferred upon him in his. old age, which was ordered to 
be paid without deduction, and which he enjoyed until his 
death, Jan. 5, 1781. ; r 

Robert was educated at Westminster-school, where im* 
fortunately he had for hh associates Churchill, Thornton^ 
Colman, and some others, to whose example bis erroneous' 
life may be ascribed. In 1751, be stood first on the list df 
Westminster scholars who went to Trinity coUejgey Gam^^ 
bridge, at the same time that his schooUfellow Colman ob^ 
tained. the same .rank among those sent to Oxford. 'la 
1755, he took the degree of bachelor, and in 1761 that of 
master of arts. While at the university, be wrote several 
of his smaller, pieces, and acquired the reputation of a, 
lively and promising genius. But bis conduct wa3 marked 
by so many irregularities, as to induce bis father to wish 
him more immediately under his eye ; and with the hope 
of reolaiming him to sobriety and study, be procured bins 
the plac^ of usher at WestminsterrSchooL His educattoa 
had amply qualified him for the employ oient, but his in* 
clination led him to a renewed couaection with such com- 
panions as deemed themselves exempt from the duties and 
decencies of moral life.^ 

. At what time he quitted the school, we are not told. Id 
1760 and 1761, he superintended the poveticalidi^pajrtmeul 
of a short-lived periodical p^iblication, entitled the . ^f Li* 
brary,'' of which the late Dr. Kippis ^^s; the editor. la 
1760 be, published the first of hisrprodiictions which 

1 AtbuOz. vol lI.^Anbrey'8 Surrey, YO^V. (^ ^O.-xQenU Mag. vol. J.XI, 
|>.59«. ' 

< 1. . 

8M laLQYiQ. 

tttirtcted oiuck noAioe, ^^ The Aetar.'V It vfds^ 
by ao easy and barmoniouft venificatioiiy ami by the itfa«4 
lality of bis eensarei^ which were levied :^t OlsjBttan jhm 
propiietids cammao to Actors in general. Bj' this paif mj 
CburohiU is said tQ have been sdnmlated to wriie* hia M BQa«- 
ciad,*' in wbich he descended irom general to-pefsonal 
eriticisn. , The subjects^ however, were sq «H1hi^; that 
Lleyd was foi* some lime suppesed te be the authdr it the 
^ lloaeiad," whiqh be liook an early epparteoiiy Id den^ 
and net only acknowledged his iaferiorityy bat :a^lacl)dd 
himself more closely t^baa ever to the famoiand foiMnea of 
Cb«ifabiU. In the same year, he attempted ari aoiatt pieee 
ef ^e musical kiad, ealled ^* The Team and TrimlplB of 
P^kt^nasiaus/^ and the ibilowiog seasoa had another Utiia 
^era performed at Dr^ry^laoe tbeatye^ ia boaeuir of th^t 
f>fesa»t majesties' nupiialsy eiUitled ^ Arcadia; op, TM 
Shepherd's Wedding/' The profit arising fi^in Aeit 
pieces was pot greats biit pcobably enea^ te Hidvee hint 
le hoeome an author by profession, although uo.aumetMi 
temuyed on that mode of life with' fewer qualifi«ma0it«l 
tti$ iioeiicai pfoduotiona warn of -such « tnflitfg :east M 
M bring him very saoall suppKes^ and he bad n^Hber laste 
ndr lAmstry for lilerary employmeai;. 

In 17dS^ be alitempted tq establiab a pei4odiotd lanAi 
^^ The St James's Magaaioe^'* wbicjh was tabe th# 4epDf^ 
ifMvy of bis own efiiiaioos> aided by the cootsibuttoiiMif 
his frieada. The latter, Ikowever, came in tatdily^ 
ChurphiHy from whom be bad great ^pectatlsmii t^m^ 
Imted nothing, although soeh of his poems aa hf^ pttbHrittd 
diifittg the sale of the magascine, wem liberally pmiiWi^ 
l^rtiton gavea vecy few pvose essays, and pofitical pieces 
wete furnished by I>eAis and £mily, swO' versi jl^m ^ fam 
gotten repatalfioa* Uoyd himself had none qftb^ steady 
kidiistry which a pef iodieat work requires^ and bia fisaga^ 
ai»a was oiiita made-up, partly' from books, >and paMtjf 
from the St. James's Chronicle, of wfateh <[?0fattati #ad 
Thornton «rere proprietors, and regalarcontnbatoM* I;loyd 
ats4^ translated some of ]Marmontel> talei foo tht Mogaainei 
and pan 6f a Tkeucb piny, in oi|der tn fix npen Mnf^y^tba 
tharg^ o^ plagiarisms. Thia miiganine^ aftai^edristing eibnat 
a year, nv^as dropped fbr want of e««oaifagament, as ihr as 
Uqyd wa$ concerQed ; b^t was continued for soipe tiipe 
longer by Dr.'KeriricI:. ' tilojrtl^s impruiJence andhecassl* 
ties were now beyond relief or forbearance, and bis ere- 



ditbrs ooofiaed liim wttinn the Fleet {irison, wkere he af;* 
Alfred » weiaiKJioly inatance of the tinstable friendsh'rp of 
witMs -iQr. Kenriek iofonils ils that ^< even Thornton, thoagk 
bi^4ia90fli friend firom their itifaocy^ refttsed to be his se^ 
ewity for the liberty of the rii4ct; a circumstance whicb^ 
gvri*g rise id some ill-natured altercation, induced tbk 
pMiCk^mfAnd to become an inveterate enemy, in the qua<i> 
Ui^ «f ht^ iDosc inexorable /creditor.^' I It was probably 
dmmg bia imprilBOomeot, that he published a very hidiffe* 
rimt tmedtttioo of KbpttoeL^s <^ Death of Adam." AAier 
thafe^ hb <* Gafirickiiis Lovers/' ' a comic opera, was acted 
for a few t}i|^t» at Drury^'lane theatre. Thisis an adapta^^ 
tloo cf Favart's Ninette d la Cour to the English stage, btit 
M^yd had no ortgmai powers in dramatic compositimil 
CliorahiU and Wilkes are said t6 have afforded him -a 
weddy stiptHid from the commencement of bis imprisoic^ 
Bieits ismil his final r^flease. How this was paidwe kna«r 
lion WiHcea had been long ost of the kingdom, m& 
Chtirohitt, who left Lloyd in a jail When he went tor Fratice^ 
bcqu^al&ed him a ring only as a remembrance ^r^^Itiii 
ftiore:probabie that his father assisted him on this occasion, 
aMtmiigb it might nbt be in his powef tapay bis debts. He 
had in «ain tried every misans to reclaim htm from idle'^ 
aessaiid- intemperance, and had long borne ^< the drain or 
iMirthen" urtiiah he was to hia family. The kitomi ' abili« 
lies'taf this unhappy son, ^ rendered this blow the tnor^ 
giieirotts to» so good' a father/' who is cbarac'teriaed iby 
hiAi9f Mawtioii >Ba a man thftt'^ with all bis troubles and 
di«^)fiattitmenl8, wMh all the sideness and distress in bia 
Ittiily,' still preserved his calm, placid countenance, hi^ 
easy oheerftit temper, and was at all times an agreeable 
frieiid and eompatiion, in all events a true Christian pfai- 

• Beseited by his assodates^ Lloyd became careless c»f his 
bealthf and fled for temporary relief to the exbilaratiifi^ 
glaas, which brought hvt fits of despondencrf. HHd recolf^ 
leetiona m^lst indeed have been truly paitifui, when he re* 
membered for w4iat andi for whom he had given tip the' 

ftuMV piospMis ef bia youth. He appears to havir beetl 
wholly uadaMvviiig iM-negleet of those with whoiit fae^ 

' - • ' ' - - * ''■ ' * ■ '■■".. 

. *J|^ni9JP^ «tb«r exjpe^M^a^ lbr^ht%^J.ti«ft4ind other ciroiinstaiicm^ it ftay 
ihAXtt, Ch'urr&iil promoted, with con< jt^etconje^tdred, ^at Lloyd's, tmpcisioii-. 
mA/HtMi^ tii«4^, ft «fib8«tr)^n fhi^ hi^t oottrtne&c^tiiithe'Uttier end of 

"> T 

:SiS L L O Y D. 

loved te associate. In his friendships he was wartn, ooir« 
'stant, and grateful, ** more sinned against than sinning ;*^ 
and it would be difBcult to find an apology for the con- 
duct of those prosperous friends to whose reputation he \ 
Jiad contributed in no inconsiderable degree by bis writings: 
Among these, however, Hogarth appears to have been 
unjustly ranked. An irreconciieable quarrel had long<sub« 
sisted between this artist and Churchill*s friends; and, much 
.decayed in health, Hogarth languished for some time at 
Chiswick, where he died nearly ^two months before Lloyd. 
The news of Churchiirs death being announced some- 
what abruptly to Lloyd, while he was sitting at dinner, he 
was seised with a sudden sickness, and saying ^< I shall 
follow poor Charles,'' took to his bed, from which he never 
^rose. He died December 15, 1764, and his remains were 
deposited, without ceremony, on the 1 9th, in the church- 
yard of St. Bride's parish. Ten years afterwards his poeti- 
cal works were published in two handsome volumes, by 
Dr. Kfsnrick, who prefixed some memoirs, written in ft 
negligent manner, and , without a single date of birth, 
death, events, or publications. His poems have been added^ 
to the works of the " English Poets," adtbough he cer-^ 
tainly merits no very distinguished rank. His chief ex- 
cellence was the facility with which he wrote a number of 
^smooth and pleasing lines, tinctured with gay humour, on 
any topic which presented- itself. But he has no where 
attempted, or aflPorded us much reason to think that by 
any diligence or effort he- could have attained, the higher 
species of his art. He has neither originality of thought, 
nor elegance of expression. It has been observed that 
those poets who have been degraded by the licentiousness 
of their lives, have rarely surpassed the excellence, of what- 
ever degree, which first brought them into notice. Lloyd, 
however, had not the excuse which has been advanced in 
some recent instances. He was neither spoiled by patro- 
nage, nor flattered into indolence by injudicious praise 
and extravagant hopes. The friends pf his youth were 
those of his mature years ; and of the few whom he lost, he- 
had only the melancholy recollection that some of them 
bad quitted hioi from shame, and some from ingratitude. 
. The " Actor"" was his most favoured piece, and which 
he never surpassed; but it sunk before the '^ Rosciad." 
The rest of his poems are effusions addressed to friends on 
subjects which relate principally to himself, and with a 
distinction which friends only would think valuable. 

LLOYD. 347 

Mr. Wilkes's character of Lloyd represents him as ** mil^ 
and affable in private life, of gentle manners, and very 
engaging in conversation. He was an excellent scholar, 
and an easy natural poet His peculiar excellence was the . 
dressing up an old thought in a new, neat, and trim man-' 
i>er. He was contented to scamper round the foot of 
Parnassus on his little Welsh poney, which seems never to 
have tired. He left the fury of the winged steed and the 
daring heights of the sacred mountain to the sublime ge- 
nius of his friend Churchill." Although Lloyd followed 
Churchill in some of his prejudices, and learned to rail at 
€oll/3ges, and at men of prudence, we find him generally 
good-tampered and playful. His satire is seldom bitter, 
and probably was not much felt. Having consented to 
yield the palm to Churchill, the world took him at his 
word, and his enemies, if he had any, must have been 
those who were very easily provoked. * 

LLOYD (William), a very learned English bishop, was^ 
originally of Welsh extraction, bein'g grandson of David 
Lloyd of Henblas, in the isle of Anglesey. He was bora 
at Xilehurst, in Berkshire, in 1627, of which place his 
father, Mr. Richard Lloyd, was then vicar, and also rector 
of Sunning, in the same county. Having been carefully 
instructed by his father in the rudiments of grammar and 
classical learning, he understood Greek and Latin, and 
something of Hebrew, at eleven years of age; and was 
entered, in 1638, a student of Oriel college, in Oxford^ 
whence,, the folloVving year, he was elected to a scholarship 
of Jesus college. In 1642 he proceeded B/ A. and left the 
university, then garrisoned for the use of the king; but, 
after the surrender of it to the parliament, he returned, 
was chosen Fellow of his college, and comnienced M. A. in 
1646. In 1649 he was ordained deacon by Dr. Skinner, 
bishop of Oxford, and afterwards became tutor to the chil- 
dren bf sir William Backhouse, of Swallowfield, in Berk- 
shire. In 1654, upon the ejection of Dr. Pordage by the 
Presbyterian committee, he was presented to the rectory 
ofBradfield, in the same county, by Elias Ashmole, esq.* 
patron of that living jm right of bis wife ; but this righ^ 
being disputed by Mr. Fowler and Mr. Ford, two ministers 
at Reading, who endeavoured to brine; in Dr. Tentple, 
pretending the advowson was in sir Humphrey Forster, he 

1 Jehnion and Chalmers'! j^oglish Poets, 1810.—- Bishop Newton's Life, p^ 
16, 17, &c. 

348 L L O Y D« 

chose to resign bis presentation to Mr. Asbogolef ratiher 
than involve himself in a contest. In 1656 he was ordained 
priest by Dr. Brownrig, bishop of Exeter^ and the same 
year went to Wadham coIlegCi in Oxford, as governor to 
John Backhouse, esq. a gentleman^commooer, with whom 
be coHtinued till 1659. In Sept. 1660, he was incor- 
porated M. A. at Cambridge ; aud^ about 'the same time^ 
made a prebendary of Rippon, in Yorkshire. Itt 1^66 he 
u^s appointed king's chaplain; and, in 1667, was ec^lated 
to a prebend of Salisbury, having proceeded D. D. at Ox- 
ford in the act preceding. In 1668 he was presented by 
the crown to the vicarage of St. Mary's in fi^eading ; and, 
the same year, was installed archdeacon of Merioneth, m 
the church of Bangor, of which he was made deati in 1^72* 
This year be obtained also a prebend in the church of St. 
Paul, London. In 1674 he became residentiaiy of Salis- 
bury ; and, in 1676, he succeeded Dr. Lamplugh, pronoioted 
to the see of Exeter, in the vicarage of St. Mf^rtin^s in the 
fields, Westminster; upon which occasion he resigned 
his prebend of St Paul's. 

Our author bad shown his zeal in several tracts a^^ainat 
popery ; and m the same spirit he published in 1677, *^ CoO'» 
^iderations touching the true way to suppress Popery iii 
this kingdom,** &c. with an historical account of the re** 
formation here in, England; hut having proposed toio{^-> 
rate such papists as denied the papers iniallibslity, and his 
power to depose kingSy excluding the rest, a method which 
had been put in practice both by queeii Elisabeth and king 
James with go6d success, he was suspected of jcomplj^ing 
with the court measures. Tfaiii {Suspicion increasing upon 
bis being promoted to the bishopric of St Asaph, in I6M9 
he thought it necessary to vindicate himself by shewiD|;9 
that at the very time he made th^ above proposal^ the pi* 
^ists tbemiBelves' were in great apprehension of the thtngt 
as being the most likely to blast their hopes, and to pre- 
serve the nation from that ruin which they were tfaM 
bringing upon it *• 

* Coleman at that time wrste to the , tfepM.tbat require it» on eonditioas 

Sopc^ iBUnnattoio tlmt t ««Tkere it |^udieieriotke«iillhe«<ity«f Avi^eM 

at one thing to be feared (irtieiiBof I aiMteotopeiteciilB tM i<iMof'lhcai«4li 

Save m greet apprebeution) that can more eppearanee of juttkse^ en4- mm 

IilndefUi«auceeMrof(HirdeffigM;«lrieh tiM one half of fhcm nierv eieity^tbiil 

U,edHrifioiiemotiffUieeatholi«i(iliem* ttieerbole. body et^noe.*^ AAd'esri 

selves ; by propositions to tlie paHia- dioat HowanI Helivered' it as tbeir 

idcni u> actoiditheif o^njiwctioa to j«dgm«»t at Ri^e. •' Divuiottof Okk<* 

LLOYD., 349 

All saspicion^ however, of bis princaptes vanished in 
'3fKme9 ll/s reignj when the nation saw him one of the siic 
prei^teii^ who, with archbishop Bancroft, were Qonunitted 
te the lV>wer in June 168S, for resisting bis majesty^s 
ordtr to 4iitribiite and publish in all their chnrches the 
royaUdeclaradOQ for liberty of conscienee ; and abont the 
jfmAiuf'the saane year, baring concurred heartily in the re-* 
▼ehitioii, he waa made lord almoner to king William III. In 
.|W3 he was Ifandlated to the see of Litchfjysid and Coven- 
tfy^f and thence to Worcester in 1699. He continued in 
the office of lord almoner till iVOiz, when^ together with 
'Ms aoiiy having too waitnly interested himself in the elec* 
^/tien for the coanty of Worcester, a complaint was made to 
the House of Commons, and a resolution passed of addf^sir^ 
leg' the queen ^^ to remove WillUm lord bishop of Wor-» 
eester ftora being lord almoner to her majcMty ; and tlpi 
JCr^ Attorney General do prosecntd Mr, Lloyd^ the .lord . 
Ushepof Worcester's, sooi for his said offence^ after bis 
{mVflege as a member of the lofirer bouse of convocatieii 
is eet.'^ In consequence of this fote, an address was pre<^ 
sented to the queen^ with which her majesty c<mipliedy 
at>d dismissed the bishi^ from his ofBce. 

Bishop Lloyd lived to the age ot ainety-oa^ ; hot in the 
latter part of his life seems to have falten i^^-some ial« 
blscility of mind; at appears from the aecomi given by 
Swift of the good old prelate's gmng to queen Anne, ^^ to 
prove toiler majesty, out of Daeieli and the Revelations^ 
that four years hence there would be a war of religion^ that 
the king o€ France would be a protestaot^ and that the pope-» 
dem should be destroyed.'* He died at.Bartlebury-castiet 
AoguH SO, 1717^ and was buried in the cheir^ of Flad-* 
hery, near JCvcsham, in Worcestershire, of whicb his son 
wl^ rector ; where a monument is er ect^ eo his memory 
wHh |i lon^ inscription, setting him forth ** as an excellent 
palternt ot virtue and learaingi of quick invention, firm 
memory, exquisite judgment, great candour, piety, and 
gravity ; a ftttthful historian, accurate chronologer, and 
skttlett iti the holy scriptures to a itrfra^le ; very dia- 
i^tabJ^^ and dlHig^ ik tn careful discblkrge of his episcopiti 

Uti^r.nyii^lie^: '^wiW b«#i#«MMtt «jss, in s |MM9 oalM " 

WSJP for protet^ntf to 4eitroQr tlic»>" pisyed;** uippo»ed to be writtfin bjr 

•J^*<^}lle<:tioa of tett«rs scjt oot by ^Mdtr t^ late W. Sbippeo^' eiq. taany yeer* 

(rf ^tas liiNier orCcMOMM* YliffiMtMa « rcnisf l^bk siMiMr of tb» Hoiiir«^ 

▼^nik»t«airtii|^ ImsttihUscc** Coavnona* 

350 LLOYD. 

office.** Bishop Baniet speaks of our author with th^ 
greatest. wstrtnth of (riencbhip, and in the highest style of 
panegyric. In reality bo was indebted to Dr. Lloyd for a 
great part of his own fame, having undertaken his <^ His- 
tory of the Reforibation"' by bis persuadon, and being 
furnished by him with a large share of the materials ; he 
likewise revised every sheet of the whole work during the 
printing. The world is likewise indebted to Lloyd for that 
stupendous Work, Pool's ^^ Synopsis/' which was under- 
taken by his advice, as appears by a letter of that prelate 
addressed to Mr. Henry Dodwell, and communicated to 
Mr. Granger by bis son, the late Dr. Dodwell, archdeacon., 
of Berks. Bishop Wilkins, in his preface to '* An £ssay to« 
waids a real character and a philosophical language/' ac« 
knowledges himself obliged to *^ the continual assistance of 
bis most learned and worthy friend Dr. William Lloyd," and 
t expresses %he highest opinion of bis *^ great industry^ and 
accurate judgment in philological and philosophical mat- 
ters." But no written authority seems to represent bishop 
Lloyd's temper and character in a more amiable light than 
the interesting account of bis conduct towards the dis- 
senters of his dio.cese, as given in the life of the Rev. 
Philip Henry, to which, from its length, we must refer. 
It occurs in p. 1 18 of the edition 1712. 
* Besides the *^ Considerations^" &c. mentiqned above, 
he wrote, 1." The late Apology in behalf of Papists, re-' 
printed and answered, in behalf of the Royalists," 1667, 
4to. 2. ^' A seasonable Discourse, shewing the necessity 
of maintaining the Established Religion in opposition to 
Popery,". 1672, 4to, which passed through five editions in 
the following year. 3. ^^ A reasonable Defence of the Sea- 
sonable Discourse," &c. 1673, 4to, in answer to the earl 
of Castlemain's observations on the preceding article. 4. 
^^ The difference between the Church and the Court of 
Rome considered," 1673, 4to. AH the preceding were 
published without the author's name, nor were they at first 
acknowledged by, though generally attributed to him. 
They were reprinted in 1689, 4to. 5. ** An Alarm for 
Sinners," 1679, 4to. This was published by our author 
when dean of Bangor, from an original copy containing 
the confession, prayers, letters, and last words of Robert 
-Foulks, vicar of Stan ton-Lucy, in Shropshire, who' was, 
executed at Tyburn, in 1678, for the murder of a natural- 
child; and whom Dr. Lloyd and Dr. Burnet attended'' 

LLOYD. 351 

daring his imprisbninent 6. Various occasional Sermons, 
])rinted separately. 7. ^* An historical account of Church 
Government/' 1684, 8vo. 8.*' A Letter tp Dr. William 
Sherlock, in vindication of that part of Josepjios^s History, 
which gives an accouat of Jaddua the high priest's sub-' 
mitting to Alexander the Great/' 1691, 4to. 9. << A Dis- 
course of God*s ways of disposing Kingdoms,'' 1691, 4to. 
10, "The Pretences of the French Invasion examined,'* 
&c. 1692, 4to. 11.^^ A Dissertation upon Daniel's 70 
.Weeks," the substance of which is inserted in the chrono- 
logy of sir Isaac Newton. 12. An exposition of the same 
subject, left pi'inted imperfect, and not published. 13. 
." A Letter upon the same subject, printed in the * Life of 
Dr. Humphrey Prideaux,' p. 288, edit. 1758," 8vo. 14. *< A . 
System of Chronology," left imperfect, but out of it his 
chaplain, Benjamin Marshall, composed his ^^ Chronologi- 
cal Tables," printed at Oxford, 1712, 1713. 15. « A Har- 
mony of the Gospels," partly printed in 4to, but left im- 
perfect. 16. " A Chronological account of the Life of 
Pythagoras," &c. 1699. 17. He. is supposed to have had 
a band in a book published by his son at Oxford, 1.700, jn 
folio, entitled " Series Chronologica Olympiadum," &c,^, 
^e wrote also some '^ Explications of some of the Prophe- 
cies in the Revelations," and added the chronological dates 
at the bead of the several columns, with an index tp the: 
Bible, and many of the references and parallel places, first 
printed in the fine edition of the Bible published in folio, 
under the direction of archbishop Tenison, in .1701. He 
left a Bible interlined with notes. in shorthand, which was' 
in the possession of Mr.. Marshall, his chaplain, who mar- 
ried a relation, and would have published these notes bad . 
he met with encouragement, as.Whiston inforowi us, who 
always/ even in bis indei, calls Dr. Lloyd ^^ the great 
bishop," and in speaking of Wasse says, <' one more 
learned than .any bishop in England since bishop Lloyd." \ 
!LOBB (Th£OPHILus), a physician of considerable repu- 
tatioD>was the son of Stephen Lobb, a dissenting minister,: 
and grandspn of Richard Lobb, esq.. M. P. for St. Michael 
in< Cornwall. He was born Aug. 17, 1678, and educated. 
for the ministry among the dissenters, which he exchanged 
for the study of medicine, and having obtained a diploma^ 

» Biog. Brit.— Ath. Ox. v©l. IT.— Burncl's Own Times— V^Thiston's Life,— 
CoAtes'» Hin. of Readins .«-AotboBy. Wood's Iif«, edit. n73; p. 136. 

«5^ L O B B. 

from Scotland, practised in London, and l^ft several vrork^ 
«n medical topics. He died May 1 9, 1 763, in the eighty- 
iif'th year of his age. The following are the titles of Ms 
pablications : ^* Treatise of the SmalUpox,** London, 1731, 
1748, 8yo, which was translated into French in 1749. 
** Rational method of curing Fevers, deduced from the 
structure of the human body,'* ibid, 1734, $vo, in thb 
work he adopted the doctrines of Boerhaave. ** Medical 
Practice in coring Fevers," ibid. 173S, 8vo; " A practical 
treatise on painful Distempers, with some effectual nre- 
tbods of curing them," ibid. 1739; " A Treatise on Sol- 
vents of the Stone, and on coring the Stone and the Gout 
by Aliments," ibid. 1739, which passed through several 
editions, sand ws^s translated into Latin and French. The 
author considered the matter of urinary calculi and of gout 
as^of an alkaline nature^ and vegetable ai^ldsas the remedy. 
^ '^ Letters concerning the Plague and other contagtoi»s Dis* 
tempers," ibid. 1745; "A Compendium of tbe Practice 
of Physic," ibid. 1747. Besides these works, he was tht 
author of several papers printed in the Gentleman's Ma- 
gazine ; of a sermon preached by him at the ordiWatioti of 
the Rev. John Greene ; and of some pious tracts. * 

LOBEIRA (Vasques), a native of Porto, in Portugal^ 
who lived towards the end of the thirteenth century, is tb^ 
supposed author of the celebrated romance of Amadis de 
Gaul. Very little is known of Ms life, and hk romance is 
fellen into deserved oblivion.* 

LOBEL, or L*OBEL (Matthias be), a botanist^ Waa 
bom in 1538, at Lisle, in Flanders, where bis father f>rac- 
tised in the law. He had an early taste for plants, aad 
had good opportunities of advanciiig his knowledge at 
Montpeliar, where he studied physie under the learned 
Kondeletius, as well as by making so0ie botanical exenr-^ 
siont over the south of France. At Narbenne he baeaine 
acquainted wiirfa Pena, afterwards his fet)ew*laboftrer hi 
tiie ^ Adversaria," the iiret edition of wbick was pubiiahedy 
at London, in 1570, small folio, and dedicated to qoeenr 
Elizabeth. The few cuts dtspersed thvougli t^is ▼«&]«» 
are mostly original, but inferior in style and aeevraicy, as 
well as in size, to those of Clusiua, with whom he was con« 
If^mporairj. Before the puUieation of the ^ Adversaria,^ 
cue authQrbad extended his trayels to Switzerland, tbe 

> Life, by Joha Greene, 1767, 18ma» I A^tonio^ Bibl. Histr-MarchaiM^^ 

L D B E L. ^2^3 

Tffoh Mtaie parts of Germ&njry ^ahd ItidV; had kitted ici'a 
. pbjrsiciad at Ant^eqst, afterwardb mt Delft ; and hdd be^n 
-lippoirtted physician to the illustriotis WiHiflHi pritide t>f 
Omngei ahd to the Stiltes of Holland. Dr. Pult^hey Hds 
liotl^een able to ascertain the time of Loberd 'recm^nt to 
Engtimd^ but justly fconcludes it to \mh been b^fbtd 1*570, 
or taost probably some yhars earlier. The stiih of tbe^ &A- 
thbrs of the ^^ AdT^rsaric*' was to investigate the bbtddy 
and materia medida of the ancients, arid especiaHy df Didb- 
corides. . It was reprinted at Antwetp ini5t6, ttee d^dl- 
. cation' b^tng^' of coarse^ there ^lipfittessecl, atid heiv^title- 
^ges were printed Whelp the sale of'the brl^iriftl Jtt H?l 
«'nd 157fi. '86me cbfiie^ of the Antwerp inipre^slioinr af>p^hr 
to havb 'been made up into a new edition ilt -Ldndb^iln 
1605, t^ith ah ample Pharinlicopeia^ d;ild ail ap|)endls. 
This volume is dedicated to £dward lord 2otich, whohi 
Ldbel hkd attended on bis embassy to DentMrk ii^ 15§&, 
itndhecails himself, in tlietftle^ botahist to king Ja/hes 1. 
Dr. Pulteney bbserves, after Hiller, that this #drk ei^fiibits 
soiftd traces of i natural distribution of platifi, btit Withoht 
any reitiarks, and t^ith littib pti^cisidn. His wbrk Is iiiuch 
ixlore valuable for the accbimti; of new plahts'dl&^bVer^d 
. by hitdself in Ehgland or eldewhei^^ although Italy accud^s 
hira of hWing made lievbral tnistalres^ fhoih ha^ifi^ tirustgd, 
tod tn'dch to bii ihemorf . ' # 

Th* '* Siirpium Historia'^ 6f this a\f«hbF, a vdltinie In 
small folio similar to his ** Adve^sai'la,^* Whibti wrfs pub- 
Ksfa'bd at Antwerp in 1 576, is inti'eh less cOpidu's in matter, 
the |)a^ej b^itig tnoidymcupted with tvbbden cuts, \ifhich 
are those of Clusius, bolrrdwed tor the pffeiilent occasion By 
the printer^ Plantrn. An imptci^sioh bf these cuts, bf \\\ 
^long %hapb, i^as struck off, with names bnly, in 158l, 
and another in 1591; Linn^u^ possessisd bdth. This pub- 
lication is in very gdneiial u^e, artd well known by the title 
of Lobel's " Icones.'* It is, When complete, dccottipanied 
by an irifdex in ieven languages; Lobeff seisms to have had 
a very large work in contiemplatibn, which he intended to 
call " Stirpium Illustrationes," A fragiheht of it was pub- 
lished in quarto, without plates, by Dr. W. How, in 1^55, 
fhakiug 170 pages, besides a caustic prfefacfe of the ahtho'r, 
aimed chiefly at Gerarde, as thte notes by Dh How are 
against Parkinson ; but Dr. Pulteney blames Lobel for this 
gross abuse of Gerarde after his death,^ though he had for- 
merly On every occasion extolled him. In other respects 

Vol. XX- A a 

354 L O B E L. 

the botanical contents of ibis fragment are very honourable 
to LobeK He laboured to an advanced age in the pursuit 
of big favourite study, and procured from his correspond-* 
enu jabroad many new plants for the gardens of his 
friends. He bad the superintendance of a garden at Hack- 
oey, cultivated at the expence of lord Zouch ; and appears 
to have resided, in the decline of life, at Highgate, where 
be bad a daughter, married to a Mrl James Coel. His 
wife is recorded as having assisted him in his botanical re- 
searches. He died in 1616, aged seventy-eight. ^ 

LOBINEAU (Guy Alexis), a Benedictine of the con- 
gregation de St Maur, was born 1666, at Rennes. He 
entered his order in 1683, devoted his whole life to the 
study of history, and died at an abbey near St. Malo, June 
3, 1727, aged sixty-one. His principal work is a ^^ History 
. of Bretany,** in 2 vols. fol. but the second only, which con- 
tains the titles, is valued. The abb^ Yertot, and the abb^ 
Claudius Moulioet, sieur des Thuilleries, have violently 
attacked that part of this history, . in which his partiality to 
his own country has led him to disregard the rights of Nor- 
mandy. LobineaU' also translated a ^^ History of the two 
Conquests of Spain by the Moors,** &c. from the Spanish 
of Miguel de Luna, a work of no authority. He was 
more usefully employed in completing and pul)lishing the 
" History of the City of Paris," 5 vols. fol. which Felibten 
. had begun and made a considerable progress' in before his 
. death. The last three volumes contain many curious and 
interesting pieces; and an excellent dissertation is prefixed 
to the first volume, on the origin of the H6tel de Ville, 
and the corps municipal, by M. le Roi, senior master and 
warden of the goldsmiths, and controller df the rents of the 
Hotel de Ville. A satirical work, entitled " Les Avantures 
dePomponius, chevalier Remain," 12 mo, has been attri- 
buted to Dom. Lobineau, but without sufficient autiioriu*** 
LOBO (Jerome), a Jesuit missionary, born at Lisbon in 
1 5*^3, entered among the Jesuits in his sixteenth year, and 
in 1622 he went out as one of their missionaries to the East 
Itidiesv He was at Goa when the reigning emperor of Abys- 
sinia bt^came a convert to the church of Home, and many of 
hrs subjects followed his example. The missionaries already 

1 Pultent^y's Sketches^— Rees's Cyclopadia. 
* -Moreru— Diet. Hist.— Saxii Ononast, 

L O B O. 355 

- ^ > 

in the country being desirous of coadjutors to extend their 
religion, Lobo was deputed to go to Abyssinia, where be 
resided some years, subject to much danger and many 
hardships and sufferings ; and on his return be was.jihip- 
wrecked, and narrowly escaped destruction. He, after* 
wards promoted the interest of the Abyssinian mission at 
Madrid and Rome ; and, notwithstanding his former daft'* 
gers and hardships, took a second voyage to the : Indies; 
He 'returned to Lisbon in 1653, and was made rector of 
the college of Coimbra, where b^ died in 1679, at.tha age 
of eighty-four. He was author of '^ An Historical Account 
of Abyssinia," containing much curious and valuable in- 
formation, which. was translated from the Portuguese lan- 
guage into the French, by the abb^ le Grand, with adjdUl<> 
tions. , An abridgment of this, in 1735, constituted the 
first publication of Dr. Samuel Johnson.' 

LOCK (Matth£w), an eminent £nglish musical com- 
poser iu the time of Charles II. was a native of £xeter, 
and became a chorister in the cathedral of that city. He 
bad afterwards instructions in music from Edward Gibbons; 
and had so much distinguished himself as a prafessor of 
abilities, that we are told be was appointed to compose 
the music for the public entry of the king at the resto- 

He seems 6rst to have appeared as an author in 1657, 
during the interregnum, by the publication of his ^< little 
consort of three parts for viols or violins, consisting of pa* 
vans, ayres, corants, sarabands, in two several varieties, the 
first twenty bf which are for two trebles and a base." Some 
of his compositions appear in the second part of John Play- 
ford's continuation of Hilton's " Catch that catch can,"' in 
1667; and among them the most pleasing of Lock^s com- 
positions, \r^ Never trouble thyself about times or their 
turnings," a glee for three voices. He was the first who 
attempted dramatic music for the English stage, if we ex^ 
cept the masques that were performed at court, and at the 
houses of the nobility, in the time of Charles L and during 
the reign of Charles IL When musical dramas were first 
attempted, which Dryden calls heroic plays and dramatic 
operas. Lock was employed to set most of them, partlcvi- 
larly the semi-operas, as they were called^ the Tempest, 
Macbeth^ and Psyche, translated from the French of 

' Morerl.— Dr. Johnson** Life by Sir Jylm Hawkins, ani^Boswell. 

AA 2 

356 LOCK; 

Moliei'e) by Shkdw^H* The Tempest irndPsy eke were print* 
ed in 1675, and dedteated to .James duke of Monmouth. 
Tlrere is a pmfiice of some length by Lock, which, like 
his musics is rough and nerrous, esacily Oorresponding 
widi the idea which^is geherated of his private char&cter^ 
by the perusal of tiis controversy wit& Salmon, and the 
sight of his ptctfire in the musicnschool at Oxford. It is 
wntten with tiiat natural petulance which probably gavje 
birch to most of the (juarreb in which he was involved. It 
includes, howdter^ a short history .of t^ese early attempts 
lit dramatic musid on ouristage^ in which, as in the inost 
soccessfuf representatioos of this kind in- later times^ the 
chief part of the dititogue was spoken, ahd recitative; or 
musical declamation, which seems to be the true criterion 
arid oharaotepisticof Italian operas, but seldom used, unleslk 
mere! v to introduce someparticular aii^ knd choruses. Upon 
examining this ctiusic, it appears to have been .very much 
composed on Lulli*^ model. The melody is neither reci- 
tative nbr air, bdt partaking of both, with a change of 
measure as frequent as in any old French opera which we 
ever saw. , 

Lock had genius and abilities in harmony sufficient to 
have surpassed his model, or to have cast bis movements 
In a mould of his own making ; but such was the passion 
of Gharlei II. and conseiqtfeotly of his cotirt^ at this tttne^ 
for every thing French, tha>t in all probability Lock wiis 
instructed to imita^te Canibert and Lulli. Hia music for 
the witches in Macbeth^ which, when produced in 1674, 
was as smoo^ and airy asT *any of the time, has now ob- 
tained by age, that wiLd^and savage caat which is admirably 
-fluited to the cbaractiers that are supposed to perform it. 

In the third introductory music to the Tempest, which 
is called a curtain tu-ne^ probably from the ctirtain beinff 
first drawn up during tbe performance of this species os 
overture, be has, fot the fmit time that is borne to our 
knowledge, iiitroduted the use of crescendo {\oiidet by de- 
grees), with difnitmendo isod lentundo^ under the wotitsofi 
and dim by degrees. No other instruments kr^ Mentioned 
in the score of bis opera of f^syche, than vioUhs for the 
ritornels ; and yet, so slow was the progresli of that in* 
strument dukiofi^ tbe last century, that in a general cata- 
logue of music ta 1 70 1 , scarce any compositions appear to 
have be<;n printed for its use. , 

LOCK, 557 

. This iQu^C^I^ wnjft of 89 ir^cible a disposition, that he 
seems never to ^ave beea with^out a quarrel or t^o on hU 
bHipcls. For bis furiou|s attack on Salmon, for proposing to 
reduciO all tbe clefs in music to one, be had a quarrel witU 
ibe geAll^mep of tbe chapel royal, early in Charles iVq 
reigj9. , 3^ng coippos^r in ordinary to the king, be pro* 
duc^ for this chapel rpyal a morning-service, in which be 
set iJiiA prayer jaft^jr ^^cb of the ten commandments to dif* 
{^e^ent oi^usic from that to which the singers had been long 
accustomed, which was deemed an unpardonable innova* 
tion, and on ^be fi^ st day of April, 1666, at tbe perfor- 
miaoce of it before the king, there was a disturbance anil 
an obstruction for so^ie time to the performance. To con- 
viope tbe public tbt^t it was not from the meanness or in- 
aocur^y pf the composition .i^at this impediment to its 
performance happeped, Lock thought it necessary to print 
the whole service ; and it caqae abroad in score on a single 
sheet) wjtb a long and laboured vindication, by way of 
preface, under the following title, ** Modern church mu-» 
Mck. pjre-accused, censured, and obstructed in its perform- 
ance before his majesty.^* Lock was long suspected /at- 
beiog a Roman catholic, and it is probable that this nev^ 
service, by leaning a little more towards the mass thap 
the service of tbe protestant cathedral, may have given of- 
fence to sopae zealpus members of the church of England. 

The public were indebted to Lock for the first rules 
that were ever published in ^i^gland, for a basso continito, 
or 4^tnvugh base; tbpse rules he gave the world, in a book 
entitled " Melotbesia,^' London, 1673, oblong f to. It is 
dedicated to Roger L'Estrange, esq. {^terwards sir Roger 
'L'£strange, himself a good musician, and an encourager of 
its professors. It contains, besides the thorough-bass 
rules, s^n^e lessons for the harpsichord and organ, by 
Locjc iiimself, and others. He was author likewise of se« 
veral songs printed in ** The Tr^easury ©f l^usip," " The 
Theatre of Music,'' aud other cqllections of songs. .In 
the fatter of these is a dialogae, '^ When death sh^U part 
us from, these kids," which, with Dr. JBlow.'s " Go, per- 
jured man," was ranked among the best vocal compo* 
sitions of the time. 

It is presumed that when he was appointed composer in 
ordinal^ to the king, be was professionally a member of 
tbe church of England; but it is certain that he went 
ovet to the Romish communion stfterwards, and became 

358 LOCKE. 


organist to queen Catherine of Portugal, the consort of 
Charles II. and died a papist in 1677.* 
' LOCKE (John), one of the greatest philosophers this 
country has produced, was the son of John Locke, of 
Pensford, a market-town in Somersetshire, five miles from 
Bristol, by Anne his wife, daughter of Edmund Keen, or 
Ken, of Wrhigton, tanner. His father, who was first a 
cJerk only to a neighbouring justice of the peace, Francis 
Baber, of Chew Magna, was advanced by col. Alexander 
Popham, whose seat was near Pensford, to be a captain 
in the parliament's service. After the restoration, he 
practised as an attorney, and was clerk of the sewers in 
Somersetshire *. Although our philosopher's age is not 
to be found in the registers of Wrington, which is the 
parish church of Pensford, it has been ascertained that be 
was born there Aug. 29, 1632. By the interest of col. 
Popham, he was admitted a scholar at Westminster, whence 
in 1652 he was elected to Christ church, Oxford. Here 
he took the degree of B. A. in 1655, and that of M. A. in 
1658; but although he made a considerable progress in 
the usual course of studies at that time, he often said that 
what he learned was of little use to enlighten and enlarge 
his mind. The first books which gave him a relish for the 
study of philosophy, were the writings of Des Cartes, 
whom he always found perspicuous, although he did not 
always approve of his sentiments. n 

After taking his degrees in arts, he applied for some 
time to the study of physic, hot so much, we are told, 
with a view to public practice, as for the benefit of his 
own constitution, which was but weak. But he must have 
made his skill more generally known than this amounts to, ' 
for we find that among the learned in his faculty who had 
a good opinion of his medical knowledge, the celebrated 
Dr. Sydenham, in his work on acute diseases, gives him 
the following high encomium : " You know,'* says be, 
•* how much my method has been approved of by a person 
who has examined it to the bottom, end who is our com* 
mon friend ; I mean Mr. John Locke, who, if we consider 

* But an inti'lligent writei;, who ap- minority, and the other our ce1ebrate4 

pears to have had access to the best metaphysician. See Gent. Mag. vol, 

authorities, asserts that Mr. Locke's LXII. See also a leUeron the same 

father was killed at Bristol in 1645, subject, in vol. LXIX. p. 121. 
leaving two sons, one who died in his . . ^ 

>^ Burney and Hawkins's Hist, of Music, and Burft^ ^^ ^^^ Cyclop^disi. 

LOCKE. 859 

his genius, and penetrating and exact judgment, or the 
purity of his morals, has scarce any superior, and few 
equals now living/* Hence he was often saluted by his 
acquaintance with tlie title, though he nerer took the 
degree, of doctor, which we think would have been the' 
case had he intended medicine as a profession, or had not 
been diirerted froin it by other studies and avocations f. 
. In 1664, sir William Swan being appointed envoy frorh 
the E^i^ish court to the dector of Brandenburgh, and 
some other German princes, Mr. Locke attended him Jis 
his secretary, but returned to England within the year, 
and applied himaelf again with great vigour to his studies, 
and particularly to that of natural philosophy. While at 
Oxford, in 1666, he became acquainted with lord Ashliey, 
afterwards earl of Shaftesbury, and that in the character 
df a medical practitioner. Lord Ashley by a fall had hurt ' 
hisi'breast in such a manner, that there was an abscess' 
formed in it, &nd being advised to drink the mineral waters 
at Astrop, wrote to Dr. Thomas, a physician at Oxford, Xb 
procure a quantity of those waters, which might be ready 
on his arrival. Dr. Thomas, being obliged to be absent 
from Oxford at that time, desired his friend Mr. Locke to 
exeeiite this commission. By some accident or neglect, 
the waters were not ready the day after lord Ashley's 
arrival, and Mr. Locke thought it his duty to wait on 
his lordship to make ah apology, which he received with 
his usual civility, and was so pleased with Locke's con« 
▼ersation as to detain him to supper, and engaged him to 
dine with him next day, that be might have the more of 
bis company. And when his lordship left Oxford to go to 
Sunning-hill, where he drank the waters, he made Mr. 
Locke promise to come thither, as he did in the sum- 
mei^ of 1667. Lord Ashley afterwards returned, and 
obiiged him to promise that he would con^e and lodge at 
his house. Mr. Locke accordingly went thither, and 
though not a regular practitioner, his lordship confided 
entirely in his advice, with regard to the operation, which 
was to be performed by opening tbe abscess in his breast^ 
and which saved his life, though it never closed. 

After this cure, his lordship, by frequent conversations, 
discoyered qualities in Locke, which made him regard his 

I . v." 

.* In lC74be took tb^^gree iif ba* io oider to prescffve \n$ st^tian in 
cbelor, of medicine, prubpil^* as binud ChrUt'cburch. 
at in bishop FeJPB letter life»eafter given, - / 

3.6Q L 9 Q K S. 

ipedicail skill ,as tl;i]e ^j^t qf bU mei^fjs; ^4 lof^msog 
bent pf his taletits, ^dyise^ him tS> ^pply Hl9)ftell( tQ ihe 
study pfpolitiqal and r,eIigious topics, on whlph his.Loar^r 
sjiip i^eeiQs often to h^ve consuU^d hini. By lii^^ 9£qtUM^« 
anca witti this nqhleui^ix, \\e^ w^^ mtrpflucfsjl to $oii(e f^-» 
sons of eminence, ^uch f^ Yilliers di|)(^ of B^ckittghaira, 
lord |Iqilifa^^ ^fid Pt;hpr nq|>le$neQ of wi( wd p«rts^ vriift 
were afl charmed lyitb ^hif jcqny^jcs^^oQjjEMid iX)Qre so,^ it 
Appears, thau he was soiQetii^es with i^fAt^- Q|ie daj^ 
three or four of tb^se. iprd^ h^yipg mfst at Iprd Aahtey^a 
when Mn L,ocke was il^ese, ^fter soi^e co^pliiiient^) caida 
were, brought in, befpi^ scarce any popv^pi^on bad passjed; 
between jbheoi. Mr. Locke Ipoked upon t;beai for spme 
titne while they w^re at play, and taking bi^ pockefc h^nk 
began to wjite wit^ gF^at att^ntipn. One K^ did lords, 
asked him what ^g yfs^ i^rit^pg : *^My lord,^' s^ ks^ ff I 
am endeavouring to profit jas far as I aip %blie, in yp«r oom* 
p^ny ; fpr having; waited with iimpatieocjS.fpr th^hodonr of 
b^njg in an asseml)|y of the greatest geniufies ol thiaage^ 
and ^ l^st haying obtained th^ good fprfune* I UiQUgbt I 
could apt do better than ;yrite dow^i your qony^satios; 
and indeed ^ have set down the si)b)|tancj9 of what has 
beep said for this hour or two." ' Tbi^ rebuke ^pptws to 
have been taken in good part; tbe cqpao^aiiy quittj^ their 
pl,ay, and passed the rest of their tiipe'in 4 m^inoer more 
suitable to ^he rational char^icter. 

In 1668^ he a^ttended the e;irl ^1^4 coi^nl^ of Nflrthiini- 
berl^nd into {i'rance; but the ^airl's d^tb did pot 9]A»m 
lum to ren^iniong in that country. On hi^ r^eturn, Mr. 
Locke livjed, as before, at lord Ashl^y^s^ who wa3 Atn 
cbanqellpr of the exchequer, but made fri^qq^M yiaiti t^ 
Oxford^ in the prosecution of his studies, 9S wpU 964[er 
change 01 air, jvhich appeared to be neices$ary to his h^lh* 
While he was at Iprd Ashley^s, he had the car^ pf ithe edu- 
cation of tj^at nobleman's eldest son, who was then about 
sixte^ ye^l^s of age. This province be exe^ujbed with 
great care, and to the fu^ satisfaction of hi^ &oble patroa. 
The ycmpg }ord beuig of a weakly constitution, bis ftither 
wished to Sjee him married, lest the family should be €ter 
tinct by his death ; ^da&he thought hiod top yfoupg to 
inaJIpef^ proper cboip^ for himself, he QQt poly consoltad 
Mr^ Lpd^e on the subject, but even requested he would 
make a suitable choice for the youth. This was an affifir 
of some delicacy, and no sjSDall risk^ for^ although lord 

X Q C K S* 9a 

A«bl#y did not X9gi»A forlpoi^^ y^ te ooirfiibiontt} for a 
W^y pf % good .Smil^f M agreeable tesiper^ land ji fine 
pt^fsQo ;.»f good fidttcaiddOy und «f go^ Iln<ler^^Itdi|lg^ 
I1I94 H^b<M^ €oiidit^ WQiiild ho di&rei^ fiwn #bat of .tl^ |^ 
n«V9jAly ^ «oiffftrIftdiQ9* lo all these reapecbi >^r. i^od^ 
h|i4 .^be ^^ppiiies» to. auBceed, andth^ auurriage/jvai icmfe^ 
ffi). Th^ eldest 0m, aften^rMrds the ^wthor ef ^he ff iCiit^ 
ijftcMrUtka/' ivas <coauiii| t}idfiai» p£JM|r. Looke in 
his ^duMktioAfy and this {^pil^ whealpnd Sbaftesburjr^ 
ah^ayp . spfiAe of J^. Ij^cjatmiihAhplif^mBkmtkpaj md 
iMin&sted em all oooaaious a jgrate&l Acote/Of his ^fiUiga*' 
tiQQs ^ himf but there, ane sgnoe p«B«ageain his works^ in 
y»h'\Qh be s|ieakf ic>f Mr. Locke'^ philosopk^ .with gfoeat ae-^ 
verity. It will not, however, be thought. a ^^JsgmoM 
Qki^<^^ ^ Mv. Loc|ce, that hia phikoqiriiy did jiol. give 
eatiire /s^HafooUi^a lo lonl Sha&esbury. * > 

Id A$7^^ and the .year ioUowiog, o^t author began Jto 
fofm Ike plan of his qiolebratisd 5^ Essay ott Human Under* 
^tl^Adiog," Mt ibe firmest re^piest of Mr. Tyrrell, Dr. Tho^ 
iQA^ and aoBie Oliver friends, who met frequently }n hiij 
chaiEabef to ^Qoxetsm iqg^er on philosophical jsul:^ts ^ 
but bi» emplo^mfints and a;rocatioaf prey^nted faioi froni 
fio^isb^ogit then; lo 16^^ he had been elected a feUpw 
of tke royal sociel^y^ and appears to faaise been now looked 
up .to as a jnan of superior talenti^, and an antl^prity in 
tb^se .pursuits to which he b^obc particularly addicted btoi^ 
s^lf. In 1672, bis patijcm Lord Ashl^, being created eaii 
of $baftesbory» and lord high chaoceUor of England, a{i« 
poinied Mr. Locke secretanjr of the presentations to bene- 
4q^^ (Whioh place he held until 16/73, wheii his lordship 
resigned tbe great seal. As he had been the confidant of 
this stflutesman in his juost secret affiurs, be now assisted 
1^ lordship in puUisbiag some treatises, which were de» 
sigoed to excite the peofde to watch the Roman cadiolics, 
and to iippose tbe arbitrary measures of 4ibe court. 

In 1 675, Mr. Locke travelled into France on account of 
his health, and at Moutpelter became first acquainted with 
Sir. Hediert, afiter^ards earl of Pembroke, to whom he 
dedicated his f^ Essay on Human Understanding.'' From 
Montpeli^r he went Jto Paris, where be was introduced^ to 
vjMdotis men of letters. In 1679 he Mras recalled to Lon-^ 
doq, pn the earl of Shaftesbury's hja?iog regaiiied his 

^ ^\ the Life of ^r. Locke ; but see I^rd Shaae^bury's l^ vpl, X.p« 220. 

362 LOCKE- 

favour at court and been made president of the council, but 
this was of sbort doiration. The earl lost his plac^ iu a few 
months, for refusing to comply >with the designs of |tbe 
court, which aimed at the establishment' of popery and 
ftrbitr&ry po^fet} and having incurred the implacable hatred 
of the duke of York, on account of his supporting the ex« 
clusion-bill, ^ he was, in 1681, committed to the Tower^ 
and although acquitted upon trial, thought it most' safe to 
retire to Holland, where he died in 1683^ Mr. Locke,also' 
thinking himself not quite secure in- England, followed his 
lordship to Holland, and was introduced to many of the 
learned men of Amsterdam, particularly Limbofcb, and 
Le Clerc,: whose intimacy and friendship he preserved 
throughout life. 

During < his residence in Holland, be was accused at 
court of having written certain tracts against the govern- 
ment of his country, which were i^fterwards discovered to'* 
be the production of another person ; and upon that sus- 
picion be was deprived of his studentship of Cbrist^cburoh. 
This part of Mr. Locke's history, requires some detaiL 
The writer of his life in thie Biograpbia Britannica (Nicoll) 
says that *^ being observed to join in company with several 
English malcontents at the Hague, this conduct was com* 
municated by our resident there to the earl of Sunderland, 
then secretary of state ; ^who acquainting the king there- 
with, his majesty ordered the proper methods to be taken 
£or expelling him from the college, and application to be 
made for that purpose to bishop Fell^ the dean ; in obe- 
dience to this command, the necessary information was given 
by his lordship, who at the same time wrote to our author, to 
appearand answer for himself on the first of January ensuing, 
but immediately receiving an express command to turn htm 
out, was obliged to comply therewith, and, accordingly, 
Mr. Locke was removed from his student's place on the 
15th of Nov. 1684." This account, however, ia not cor- 
rect. All that lord Sunderland did, was to impart bis ma- 
jesty's displeasure to the dean, and to request his opinion 
as to the proper method of removing Mr. Locke. The 
dean's answer, dated Nov. 8, contains the following par- 
ticulars of Mr« Locke, and of his own advice and proceed- 
ings against him. ^Mbave," says the dean, ^^ for divers 
^'f ars had an. eye upon him ; but so close has his guard 
been on himself, that after several strict inquiries, I may 
confidently afHrm there is not any man in the college, 

LOCKE. 363 

however familiar with him, who had[ hedrd him speak a 
word either dgainst or somuch as concerning the govern- 
ment ; and although very frequently, both in public an4 
private, discourses have been purposely introduced to the 
disparagement of his matter, the earl of Shaftesbury, his 
party and designs, he never co^ld be:prov(dced to take 
any notice, or discover in word or look the least concern. 
So that I believe there is not a man in the world so much 
master of taciturnity Itnd passion. He has here a physi- 
cian's place (he had taken the degree of B. M. in 1674^ 
which frees him from the exercise of the college, and the 
obligations which others have to residence in it; and he is 
now abroad for want of health.'" 

Thus far we might suppose the dean had advanced, 
enough in behalf of the innocence of Mr, Locke. What 
follows, however, will be read with regret, that so good a 
man as bishop Fell should have given such advice;—" Not* 
witfagtauding this, I have summoned. him to return home, 
which is done with this prospect, that if he comes not 
back, he will be liable to expulsion for contumacy ; and 
if he does, he will be answerable to the law for that which 
he shall be found to have done amiss. It being probable 
that, though be may have been thus cautious here, where 
he knew himself suspected, he has laid himself more open 
at London, where a general liberty of speaking was used, 
and where the execrable designs against his majesty and 
government were managed and pursued. If he don't re- 
turn by the first of January, which is the time limited to 
him, I shall be. enabled of course to proceed against him 
to expulsion. But if this method seems not effectual or 
speedy enough, and his majesty, our founder and visitor, 
shall please to command his immediate remove, upon the 
receipt thereof, directed to the dean and chapter, it shall 
accordingly be executed," In consequence of this, a war- 
rant came down to the dean and chapter, dated Nov. 12, 
in these words : " Whereas we have received information 
of the factious and disloyal behaviour of Locke, one of the 
students of that our college; we have thought fit hereby to 
signify our will and pleasure to you, that you forthwith 
remove him from his student's place, and deprive him of 
all rights and advantages thereunto belonging, for which 
this shall be your warrant," &c. And. thus, on the 16th 
following,- one of the greatest men of his time was ex-^ 
pelled the college at the f:ommand of Charles II. witbomt> 

SM t O C K E 

«i &r 1^ if ivioMii^ .any tfivm »i pn^X or; toqtti>;y. After liie 
death ai CJbaHcs II. .Willkuo Jtenn, tb/e eelel^mted qpaJ^er, 
vAlo had lafONtn,Mf« Locke j^i the. tmiveraitjry .ii>ed l^iain* 
terest iwiih king Jamfib lo |^M»i!e >a paitdpo /or iii^y and 
WQul4 havis ob^ned it, if Mo Locka Ju9.d ooit siaid, that he 
had no .odcasioiff ora pardon, . sime h^ i^ad ji;M)tt J3eea gj^lty 
of any czJnie. • ^ 

In 16jS55 ¥riiesihe duki^ of .Mpamoulh wa$ roakitig pre^- 
par^pns ia HDltaod for bis Jinibriunate .eaterprizey ibe 
En^ish envoy at the Hague had xurders to demaqd Mr, 
Locke .and. eigbty-tthree other .peraons to he delivered up 
hy ihe .Sta;tes-«Genecal. M. Le .Clerc observes, j^aJ^ Mr, 
Locke had no correspondence whiiihe duke of Maafiioiitb, 
having no great opinion of his ifn^erJtakivg. Besides, his 
natural temper was timorous, not resolute, aJOid he wjisiar 
£rom b^ing iond of commotions. It .was proper, however, 
BOW ^o conceal himself, ^hich <his friends af Aansierdaoi 
CAiabled bim .to do, at the house ot a. Mr. Vf^en. In the 
mean time Limboroh took efire that ^his letters should b« 
"delivered to him, and was entrusted with his iwili, tp be 
tent to certain relations whom he Jiaaied, io case of his 
death. Sp highly was lie respected, that one of the .ma* 
gistrates declared that although they could not protect hioiy 
if the king of Englahd ahoutd demand him, yeiiie should 
QOt l>e betrayed, and his landlord should' have fiioa^y aor 
tice. In .1^86 .he began -Io fippear again in -jiuhilc, wheft 
it ^as sufficiently known that iie b§d do share in jthe duki^ 
of Monmouth's invasieoi.; 

During this eonqedment Mr. Locke wrote fais<^f L^tt^er 
on Toleration,^' in Latin, which .was pjrinted 9l .Gouda, 
1689, under the title ^ Epistqia de TidberaAMa^ JMi eiaria* 
simum virum T.A. R.^p. T.o.L. a. (i. e. .Theologies apud re* 
monstrautes professorem, tyrarmidis osoceqa, Limburgtuoi 
Amstriodamensem) scripta a. P. a. p.d.x. l« a. t}. e. Piicia 
amico, persecutionis osore, Joanne Lookio Angb). This 
letter was 4:ranslated into Elnglish by Mr. Popple (who 
was nephew to Andrew Marvel, and author of the ^/Ra^ 
tk^nal Clatechism,") and printed twice in London, I6899 
4to, and 4 6r90, 12mo; It involved Mr. Ijocke in a contro- 
versy with the rev. Jonas Ffoast, M. A. of Queen's-college, 
Oxford ; and' some pamphlets passed between them, to the 
last of which, publi^ed by Mr. Proast, aahofttimehiefiQre 
Mr. Locke's death, the latter left a reply unfinishtsd, which 
wa^ published in his posthumous works. While at Am- 

E e fi E. 9^ 

cUrdaniji Qlr. Locke fdrnfed a' tfc^ekljr dfstiiA(l5^f toimistiiig 
of Limborehy Le CUrCf and others^ ferxritarersidMidpon 
impoftaiit subjeetfc^ and -had drawn u(i hi' Latin fates tb'b« 
ebflerved by tbeni ; hixx those cottil^eficeft were 'iini6lr'itr* 
terrupted by die frequent 'dvariges be'WB* oblfged tiriffikis 
^hts places of reridetice: :..•-' r 

After being emptdyedfor som^yeeir^orf bisgnnttrdit; 
tbe^'Es^y conciernin^ Himkn UHdenitatidingy'^ he ftnteh^d 
it in. Holland about the end of: 1 697. He rnndeiti abtidg*^ 
nieht of it himself, irhich bis frretrd Lei 6iero trandttted 
into .Fr«nch^ and itrserbsd in the f ^' Biblibtheqcre XJrivt^-^ 
selle'' for Jauiiiary, i 6^8; Thk abridgimisnt cf eai«dv« vefty 
general wish for tbb publrcation bfnbe ^hbleJ Abbat IM 
aauDe tichey Le Clerc trrfornii ds^ tie tuiieiseveril'^^hl^B 
of books, as tti&t of Boyle ort " S^anfic Mifedicinesj'* whij[$ii 
is. inserted id the second volume of thd'^Brb): Uititeta 
etdie>" and iome othei^s in the fol tewing vtdumvs. 

The .rerolotion of \68% at length testdred Mr, L^ek^t^ 
England, to which he returned in the fleet which eont^yed 
the prihc^ss of Orfanitge. He how endeairdumd to <^tain 
Iris studentship of Christ-t^horch,' not tbiit he hdd ivty de-^ 
«tgn td return to college, btit only that this wodld atndtttit 
tb a publib testtdtony of his baring been dnjifstty deprived 
of it. But when be foond thai the society could not b6 . 
prevailed on to dispoi^ess the person who had been elected 
in his room^ knd that tb^y Would only admit Uikfi a ^upi^f^ 
tiumerary s'tuddnt^ he desisted from his clainr. 

He was wow at full liberty to ptrr^e bb^ specdlattots^^ 
iand, accordingly; in 1:689; pabiish'ed his celebMed << £s^ 
say on Hamad Understanding/' and the sanie year hii 
*' Two Treatise^ on GoVerhmfent.'* in wht6h be fully vitt^ 
dieated the flrinci|)ies^ upon 'which the revoliadoif W^ 
founded. His writings had how prbcuted him duchhigh 
Irfeputatidn; itid he had m^erited do much of the tih^ gcr^ 
vernmentv that it would haYe beevi easy for hitn to have 
obUiiied a very considerable pl^ce ; but he contented him^ 
self with that of commissioner of a|)pea^ worth about 200/. 
f)er atiouhi; He wasi offered to go abrosid in a public cha- 
racter, and it was \»it to bis bhotcts whether he woold be 
eninoy at the cdurt of the emperor, the elector of Bfanden- 
' burgh, or any <^er; where he thought the air most suita- 
He to him^ but he decfliued it on account of his bad health. 

About tins time Mr. Locke's attention was directed to 
the state of the coin, which had been so much clipped^ 

366 LOCKE. 

as to want above a third of its real value ; aiid although hla * 
sentiments on the subject were at first disregarded, the 
parliament at length was obliged to take the matter into 
consideration, and to assist the members in forming a right 
opinion on the matter, and introduce a proper remedy. 
Mr. Locke, therefore, published '^ Some considerations of 
the consequence of the lowering of the interest, ^^nd rais- 
ing the value of money,*' and shortly followed it by two 
mdre on the same subject, in answer to 6bjections. These 
writings extended his acquaintance among men of rank in 
the political world, with some of whom he used to associate 
on the most familiar terms. He had weekly interviews ' 
with the earl' of Pembroke, then lord keeper of the privy 
seal; and when the air of London began to afiect his 
lungs, be went for some days to the earl of Peterborough's 
seat at Parsons' Green, near Fulham, where he always met 
with the most friendly reception: but was obliged after^ 
wards entirely to leave London, at least during the whole 
of the winter season. • 

Having paid frequent visits to sir Francis Masham, at 
tDates, in Essex, he found the air so good for his constitu- 
Iton, and the society so delightful, that he was easily pre^ 
Tailed upon to become one of the family, and to settle 
there during bis life. The air used to restore him in a 
few hours after his return at any time from the town^ 
although quite spent and unable to support himself. Be^ 
sides this advantage here, he found in lady Masham, the 
daughter of Dr. Cudwortb, a friend and companion exactly 
to his heart's wish ; a lady of contemplative and studious 
complexion, and particularly inured, from her infancy^ to 
speculations in theology, metaphysics, and morality. She 
was also so much devoted to Mr. Locke, that,v to engage 
his residence there, she provided an apartment for him, of 
which he was wholly master; and took care that be should 
live in the family with as much ease as if the whole house 
had been his own. He had too the additional satisfaction 
of seeing this lady breed up her only son exactly upon the 'j 
plan which he had laid down for the best inethod of edu- 
cation ; and, what pleased him still more, the success* of 
it-was such as seemed to give a sanction to his judgment iu 
the choice of that method, which he published iu 16S3, 
under the title of " Thoughts concerning the Education of 
Children," and afterwards improved considerably. 

In 1695 he published bis treatise of '*The reasonable* 

LOCKE. 367 

ness of Cbristianity, «s delirered in tbe Scriptures/' wrk- 
ten, it is said, in order to promote the scheme which king 
William IIL had much a): heart, of a comprehension with 
the dissenters. In this his argument is to prove, '^ that 
the Christian religion, as delivered in the Scriptures, free 
from all corrupt mixtures, is the most reasonable institu>- 
tion iti the world ;'V and we allow that it would certainly 
appear so if men were agreed as to what are ^^ corrupt 
mixtures,^' which, it is well known, some writers have ex- 
. tended ^to those articles of belief which others not only 
.find in tbe . Scriptures, but consider as fundamental. On 
tbe appearance of this work, Mr. Locke found an opponent 
in Dr. John Edwards (see John Edwards), who considered 
bis principles as verging towards Socinianism*: and a de- 
fender itk Mr. Samuel Bold. Mr. Locke also replied to 

Some time before this, Toland published his '' Chris- 
tianity not mysterious,'' in which he endeavoured to prove, 
that there is nothing in the Christian religion contrary to 
or above reason; and in explaining some of bis, notions, 
used several arguments drawn from Locke's ** Essay on 
Human Understanding." Some Socinians also about this 
time published several treatises, in which they affirmed, 
that there was nothing in- the Christian religion but .what 
was rational and intelligible ; and Mr. Locke having 
asserted in his writings that revelation delivers nothing 
contrary to reason ; all this induced Dr. StiIUngfIeet,< th^ 
learned bishop of .Worcester, to publish a treatise, in 
which he vindicated the doctrine of the Trinity against 
'Toland and the Socinians, and likewise opposed some of 
Mr. Locke's principles, as favourable to the above-men* 
tioned writings. This produced a controversy, in the 
course of which our author endeavoured to show the per- 
fect agreement of bis principles with the Christian religion, 
and that he had advanced nothing which had the least ten- 
dency to scepticism, which the bishop had charged him 
with. But.Stillingfleet dying some time after, the dispute 
ended, and ended as such disputes have frequently done, 
each party claiming the victory. On whichever side it 
lajV we may be permitted to add, that some of Mr. Locke's 
biographers have spoken, of Stillingfleet's writings with un- 
pardonable arrogance and contempt. 

Iti 1695,' Mr. Locke was appointed one of the commis- 
sioiiers of trade and plantations, a place worth 1000/. per 

jMI E H X« 

.adnuitf, Ihe dihieif of tbb pdit he dh dnargr^ iiH& giMt 
itibifit^ 8hd 4tltgieace QRtU I700,< wb^ the incpease of Us 
^itj^thniatiks dhoidor^ obligted btmf to resign it .0& this di* 
<ii^i6n he acqimnted no person With his intention, nfitit Ite 
lurilgiTen iif> fan comnktssion into the hinges band His 
jDAJnsir^i f<rfao knew'his worthy was revy oiiwiUing to paH 
fHl3i;hia], tod said h^ would be ^H pledged -wili: tns coii^ 
jttnuanc^ in office, althoogh he shoukl gite' little or no at- 
tendance arid certainly woaM not wirii hioi t6 remditi in 
town one day tb the ddhifai'fent of his health; BubMh 
Lbck6' told the Icing thdtr he cdnid not iii cdhfrel^nee hotd 
replace to which siioh a* saUry: was atlnexed; withmit dM- 
.changing thri datie& of it ; and therefore he begged Ifeave 
.td resign itf which wA accepted. 

. , Ffdm^tfais timef wifich i^aslthe y^ar ITtIO, he lived altd- 
gether at Oates, and applied himself, without interhipttoA,- 
.elitifl^iy td the stifdy 6f tfa§ holy licriplnt^s ; and in this 
,e«iployfiveBt he found i(6 ihticb pleltsore^ that he re^tettcd. 
.bis not having devoted moi'e of bis dmeto it iii the-fofm^r 
/part oi bis life. ^ On one occasion^ in answer to a ytfinfg 
gei^tleiifao, >f)rhb a6ked what w^s the shortest arid ^t^st 
tf^y for a person to attain a trtke knowledge of the 'CbrU- 
tian rJ§ltgioQf he rbplied, ^< Let him study' thb holy scrij)- 
tukre, et^ecic^I^ the New Testament. It has Otsd iot its 
author ^ iahritiod for its end ; arid truth, withbut atty miar- 
tuh6 of errors for its ihatter.'' In 1703 he rfuSbrM much 
from faifc ast^iindtic disorder^ but th\i pangs of bbdtly tmch- 
.plaint were alleviited by tbe kif^ attention^ of lady 
Mashtim : still he foresaw that his dlssotutton \^ tm fttr 
distant) and he dduld Anticipate it with^t dredd^ add 
speak of it with perfect Caithness arid cohipd$;t)rb. Afk^r 
r^iceiviag the sacrament atfaome, in bompany vrith sotffe 
friend^l he told ' the minister, ** that he ttdS' ih p€tf^tt 
chlurity wtdi alt ihen, irid in a sincere edmthudtol with tbb 
church of ChHst, by what name soever it mi^btte'Vliitifif- 
gUished.'' Hb Ii\'ed sdme months after this, which he 
spent in Acts of piety and devotion : whe^ fa^ Wfismeditat- 
^ing on tbe wisdom and goodness of the Creator,' he couM 
not forbear crying out, << Oh the depth of tbe riches of the 
go6dn^ss tihd knowledge of God :'' what he (eh bio^self Oh 
this subject he was anxious to infuse into the hearts of 
others. On the day previously by bts depistrture he s£dd, 
:^^he had liied long enough, and was thatiktul tb&c*he')iad 
enjoyed a hHj^y life; but that, aft^ Ul^ he looked mioti 

L O C K E. 369 

this life to be tiothing but vanity// or^ as he es:presses a 
similar sentiment, in a letter which be left behind him for 
Jus friend Mr. Anthony Collins, one that ** affords no solid 
satisfaction but in the consciousness of doing well^ and in 
the hopes ;of another life.^' He had no rest that night, 
and begged in the morning to be carried into his study, 
where, being placed in an easy, chair, be had a refreshing 
sleep for a ^considerable time. He then requested lady 
Masbam to read aloud some of the psalms, to which he 
appeared ex qeedingly attentive, till fueling, probably, the 
approach of the last messenger, .he begged her to desist, 
and in a few minutes expired, on the 28th of October 1704, 
in the 73d year of his age. ' 

To this account we may add an extract from an unpub* 
iishjed letter of lady Masham's to Mr. Laughton, obligingly 
communicated by Mr. Ellis of the British Museum. 

** You will not perhaps dislike to know that the last 
^ceneof Mr. Locke's life was no less admirable than any 
thing else in him. All the faculties of his mind were per- 
fect to the last ; but his weakness, of which only be died, 
niade such gradual and visible advances, that few people, 
I think, do so sensibly see death approach them as he did. 
During all which time, no one could t>bserve the least, 
alteration in his humour: always chearful, . civil, conversi- 
ble, to the last day ; thoughtful of all the concerns of his 
friends; and omitting no fit occa3ion of giving Christian 
advice to alt about him. , In short, his death was like his 
life, truly pious, yet natural, easy, and unaffected; nor 
can- time, I think, ever produce a more eminent example 
of reason and religion than he was, living and [dying. — 
Oates, Nov. 8, 1 704.*' 

Mr. Locke, says his latest biographer, had great know^ * 
ledge of the world, and was prudent without cunniiig, 
easy, affable, > and condescending without any mean com- 
plaisance. If there was any thing h^ could not bear, it . 
was ill manners, and a rude behaviour. This was ever un- 
grateful to him, unless, when he perceived that it pro-, 
ceeded from ignorance; but when it was^he effect of. 
pride, ill-nature, or brutality, he detested it. He looked 
on civility not only as a duty of humanity, but Christianity; 
and he thought that it ought to be more pressed and urged 
upon men than it commonly is. He recommended on this 
occasion a treatise in the moral essays written by the gen- 
tlemen of the Port Royal, " concerning the ipeans of 'pr<^» 

Vol. XX. B B 

370 L O C K E.^ 

serving peace among men,^' and was a great adTnirer 6f 
Dr. WhichcGfle's Sermons o« tb^ subject He was exact 
to his word, and religiously perforikied whatever he pro<- 
mised. He was very scrupulous of giving recommenik** 
tfons of per&ons whom he did not well know, and would 
by no means cbmmend those whom he thought net ta de* 
serve it. If he was told that his itaeommendatioa had not 
produced the effect expected, he would say, ^* the reason 
was b^ause he never deceived atiy person by saying laore 
than he knew ; that be never passed his word for any but 
such ad be believed would answer the character he gave of 
tbem 'f and that if he should do otherwise, his recommen-' 
dations would be worth nothing.*' 

- He was naturally vei^ active, and employed himself as 
n^uch as his health would permit. Sometimes he diverted 
himself by working in the garden, which he well und^r* 
stood. He loved walking, but not being able to walk 
much, through the disorder of his lungs, he used to ride 
out after dinner ; and when be could not bear a horse» he 
\vefit in a cbsFse. He always chose to have company with 
him, though it were but a child, for he took pleasure in 
talking with children of a good education. His bad health 
was a disturbance to none but himself; and any person 
might be with him without any other eoncera than that of 
seeing him suffer. He did not differ from othera in bis 
diet, esccept that he drank water only, which he> thought 
Was the means "of lengthening his life. To this he alsb at- 
tributed the preservation of his sight in a great measi!use, 
for he couid read by candle-light all sorts of books to ike 
last, *if they were not of a very small print, without the 
use of spectacles. He had no other distemper but his 
asthma, except a deafness for about six months, which be 
lamented in a letter to one of his friends, telling him " he 
thought it better to be blind than deaf, as h deprived him 
of all conversation." Many interesting particulars o*' Mr. 
Lodke*^ private life may be seen in Coste's cbaracier of 
htm, printed in the ninth volume of the last edition &£ his 
works. ' . i 

• This edition contains^ principally, the following t»ear 
tises, to which we have here appended the years of their 
first publication: 1. "Three Letters upon Toleration ;^' 
the firsts printed at London in 16S9, was in Lalif). 2, ^* A 
Register of the Changes of the Air observed vat Oxford," 
inserted in Mr. Boyle's «« General History of the Air^" 

372 . LOCKE. 

and the repiktation which it had fr6fti the beginning, and 
which it has gradually acquired abroad, is a sufficient testi- 
mony of its merit. There is perhaps no book of the meta- 
physical kind that has been so generally read by those who 
understand the language, or that is more adapted to teach 
men to think with precision, and to inspire them with that 
candour and love of truth, which is the genuine spirit of 
philosophy. He gave, Di*. Reid thinks, the first example 
in the English language of writing on such abstract sub- 
jects, with a remarkable degree of simplicity and perspi- 
cuity ; and in this he has been happily imitated by others 
that came after him. No author has more successfully 
pointed out the danger of ambiguous words, and the im- 
portance of having distinct and determinate notions in 
judging and reasoning. His observations on the various 
powers of the human understanding, on the use and abuse 
of words, and on the extent and limits of human know- 
ledge, are drawp from attentive reflection on the opera- 
tions of his own mind, the true source of all real know- 
ledge on those subjects ; and show an uncommon degree of 
penetration and judgment. Such is the opinion of the 
learned and candid Dr. Reid, who says, ** I mention these 
things that when I have occasion to differ from him, I 
may not be thought insensible of the merit of an author 
whom I highly respect, and to whom I owe my first lights 
in those studies, as well as my attachment to them." Dr. 
Reid has. ably pointed''out what he thought defective in 
Lockers system, which indeed has been more ,or less the 
subject of discussion in every work on inetaphysics during 
the last century. The late Mr. Home Tooke, in his "Di- 
versions of Purley,'* differs from all others in advancing 
one of those singular opinions which are peculiar to that 
gentleman. He calls Locke's Essay, "merely *' a gramma- 
tical treq^ise, or a treatise on words, or on language ;'* 
and says, that " it was a lucky mistake which Mr. Locke 
made when he called his book an Essay on the Huoian 
Understanding. For some part of the inestimable benefit 
of that book has, merely on account of its title, reached 
to thousands more than, I fear, it would have done, bad 
be called it a Grammatical J^s^ay. The human qiind, or 
the human understanding, appears to be a grand and noble 
theme, and all men, even the most insufficient^ conceive^ 
that to be a proper object for their contemplation, while 

LOCKER. 373 

inquiries into the nature of language are supposed to be 
beneath the concern of their exalted understanding.'' * 

LOCKCR {John, esq. F. S. A.) son of Stephen Loc- 
ker, esq. or Lockier (for that was the family, name in the 
reign of Charles IL as appears by , the signature of i^ne of 
their ancestors to a lease in that reign), was of a gentle- 
man's family in Middlesex, where they possessed- a consi- 
derable property, which, it is« said, they lost, as many 
others did, by their loyalty. He was bred at Merchant- 
Taylors' school, whence he went to Merton- col lege, Ox- 
ford ; after which he travelled abroad with his friend Mr. 
Twisleton, who was probably of the, same college. He was 
entered at Gray^s Inn, where he studied the law in the 
same chambers formerly occupied, by his admired lord 
Bacon ; and having been called to the bar, was afterwards 
clerk of the companies of leather-sellers and clock-makers, 
and a commissioner of bankrupts. He married (the fami- 
lies being before related) miss Elizabeth Stillingfleet, who 
was remarkable for her many excellent qualities as weU as 
personal charms. . She was grand-daughter to the eminent 
bishop of Worcester by his lordship's first wife, and sister 
to Benjamin Stillingfleet, esq. much distinguished by his 
ingenious writings and worthy character. By this lady, 
who died August 12, 1759, he had nine children. Mr. 
Locker is noticed by Dr. Johnson *, in his Life of Addison, 
as eminent for curiosity and literature ; as he is by Dr. 
Ward, in his Lives of the Gresham Professors, as a gen- 
tleman much esteemed for his knowledge of polite litera- 
ture. He was remarkable for his skill in the Greek lan- 
guage ; and attained the modern, which he could write very 
well, in a very extraordinary manner. Coming home late 
one evening, he was addressed in that language by a poor- 
Greek, from the Archipelago, who had lose his way in the 
streets of London. Mr. Locker took him home, where he 
was maintained, for some time, by the kindness of himself 
and Dr. Mead ; and, by this accidental circumstance, Mr. 
Locker acquired bis knowledge of modern Greek. He al- 
most adored lord Bacon ; and had collected from original 
manuscripts and other papers, many curious things of his 
lordship's not mentioned by others, which it was his inten- 

* To vhooi Mr. Locker commuDi> son, with an iD'eotion of making an 
cated a collection of examples selected English dictionary^ 
by Addison from the writings of Tillot- 

1 Principally from the 'Life prefixed to Locke's Works. 



tioti to publish, but his death prevented it j howeTer, this 
fell into SQch good hands, that the public are now in pos^ 
session of thetn, as is mentioned in the last edition of lord 
Bacon's works, by Dn Birch and Mr. Mallet, 1765. Mr. 
Locker also wrote the preface 4o Voltaire^s Life of Charles 
XIL of Sweden, &nd translated the two first books ; and 
Dr. Jebb the rest. He died, very muK^b regretted, in May 
V 1760, not quite a year after ^e loss of his amiable lady, 
which it was thought accelerated his own death. They both 
. were buried in Bt. Helen's church, Bishopsgate-street, 
London. Their son William, bred to the naval service, but 
a mati of some literary talents, died lieutenant-governor 
of Greenwich-hospital, on December 26, 1800, at the age 
of seventjr. Some particulars of him are to be fouitd i|i our 
liuthority. ^ 

tOCi^MAN (John), a man of much literary industry, 
and known for half a century as a translator, was bom in 
1693. Of his early history we iind no particulars recorded. 
He appears to have been acquainted with Pope, and to 
have been respected by that poet, doubtless, on account 
of his amiable and inoffensive chax^cter, which procured 
him, among the wits of that time, the name of the Lamb. 
The only time he ever deviated from the gentleness of this 
. animal was when Cooke, the translator of Hesiod, abused 
his poetry to his face. On this provocation Mr. Lockman 
pr6ved his relationship to the genus irriiabUe^ by retort- 
ing, with a quickness not usdal to him, *^ It may be so ; 
but thank Gpd ! my name is not at full length in the Dun« 
ciad,'* Mr. Lockmaii^s poetical talents were certainly not 
very extensive, as the greatest part of his effusions are 
only a few songs, odes, &c. written on temporary sub- 
jects, and set to music for Vauxball And other places of 
public entertainment. Mr. Jleed, however, found two 
pieces of the dramatic kind, both of them d^sigtied to be 
set to music ; but only the second of them, he thinks, was 
ever performed,, viz. L '^ Rosalinda, a musicftl drama, 
1740,'* 4 to. 2. '^David's Lamentations, an oratorio ;^^* 
which we believe were not successfoh 

In 1762, he issued proposals for a complete edition of 
his poems, to be printed, by subscription, in two volumei 
!4to. He frequently went to court to present his poems to 
the royal family ^ and after he became secretary p the Brir 

} Nichols's Bowyer. 

L O C K M A N. 375 

tiah berrifig^fiAeiy, tendered to the Mine iliustrious per- 
sonagas presents of pickled herrings^ &c* all wbicb, both 
poems and herrings, be took care to inform tbe public 
^' were most graciously received.'* . He was employed in 
compiling some of tbe lives in tbe ^' General Dictionary, 
including Bayle ;" and translated varions works from tb^ 
Frendi. In ail his employments be maintained an amiable 
and anblemisfaed character, and died nintb lamented ^t his 
bouse in BrownloW'Street, Long Acre, of a paralytic stroke', 
Feb. 2, 1771.* ^ 

LOCKYER (Nicholas), a non-conformist divine, the 
son of William Lockyer of Glastonbury in Somersetshire, 
was born in that county in 161^, and in 1629 studied in 
New-Inn hall, Osiford, where be took the degree of ba* 
chelor of arts. He afterwards went into holy orders, and 
had a cure, but siding with tbe presbyterian party, becamife 
a leading man in their committees, and other measures for 
reforming the church. He obtained, by the same interest, 
a fellowship of Eton* college, and in 1 658 was made provost, 
bnt was ejected at tbe Restoration. He passed the remain- 
der of his life at Woodford in Essex, where, as Wood 
says, he died '* a wealthy man," March 13, 1684-5; and 
was buried in St. Mary*s-churob, Whitechapel. His works, 
of which Wood has given a very copious list, consist of 
sermons, and tracts of practical piety. Calamy, who gives * 
but a slight account of him, says, that ^' bis writings shew 
him to have been very zealous and affectionate ; earnestly 
bent upon tbe conversion of souls. ' • . 

LODGE (Thomas, M. D.), a dramatic poet, descended 
from a family which had its residence in Lincolnshire ; but 
whether the doctor himself was born there, see